Need a perfect paper? Place your first order and save 5% with this code:   SAVE5NOW

Critically Analyze the Management of the Manchester Arena Bombing


Unprecedented events require the local authority, the community, and the government to implement interventions that reduce damage and loss. This is demanded by implementing high skills and resources to enforce mitigation strategies. For instance, the Manchester Arena Bombing that occurred on 22 May 2017 resulted in the death of 22 people; hundreds were injured, with children being the highest number of casualties and 239 people physically injured (John, 2022). Institutions such as the National Health Service (NHS) and Manchester City Council were required to respond by helping resolve the issues (Dark et al., 2021). Analysis of the process and practices utilized in managing major incidents often provides a framework for future preparation. Such efforts demand collaboration, communication, post-event analysis, and resource allocation as interventions to prevent the re-occurrence of the incident. Interventions from clinical teams to help survivors, ambulances to transfer people to the hospital, and police officers are needed in the management protocols (McGuirk and Schneider, 2018). This report will examine the management of incidents around the Manchester Arena Bombing to understand whether the right plan was executed and how the post-event process was managed.

Examination of the management of the Manchester Arena bombing


Stimulation of strategic planning in response to emergencies helps reduce the number of casualties, damages, and losses (Skryabina et al., 2020). This includes having a clear map and direction to counter a major incident by allocating the right resources and personnel. The plan should outline standardized practices, policy, and professional conduct guided by the nature and complexity of the incident. Yazdani et al. (2022) propose that evacuation plans should show evidence of strong leadership and transformative interventions to take control of the incident and its aftermath. As a result, uniformity and consistency are realized.

The use of an emergency plan in the Manchester Arena was evidenced by the structural design that allowed people to escape (Russell and de Orellana, 2020). According to McGuirk and Schneider (2018), any structure involving human interaction and movement should be harnessed with proper design that allows for exit in emergencies. This allows effective implementation of evacuation plans while explaining the preparedness level. Hind et al. (2021) noted that the Arena had various exits for evacuation, including three main exits and the exit to the car park.

Further, the exit should be reinforced by proper labelling and design that allows easy movement without increasing the risk and injuries. The process creates a sense of direction by mapping out clear routes to reduce confusion. The exit should be accessible and easily utilized without barriers to allow easy movement (Skryabina et al., 2020).


  1. The Civil Contingencies Act (2004)

According to Hind et al. (2021), the management of the Manchester Arena Bombing required evidence of strong leadership. This includes the utility of policies, protocols, and practices verified to provide a sustainable framework to realize post-recovery outcomes (Craigie et al., 2020). Such would include the capacity to inform the right persons of the incident to help them get prepared and equipped to handle the incident. Without competent leadership, the responders are also exposed to extreme threats and the risk of being victims of a major incident (Nickson, 2019). Sound leadership should be prioritized to enforce the maximum utility of resources.

The Civil Contingencies Act (2004) (CCA) defines duties and responsibilities within the provision of civil protection by articulating the roles of the first and second-category responders (Cormacain, 2020). Also, the CCA aids in establishing institution preparation and response to major incidents by defining the emergency, outlining the resources required, and recommending the standards of operations to be utilized in each step (John, 2022). The seizure of emergency services, local authorities, and health services, among other relevant institutions, should be considered in future interventions (Cormacain, 2020). Using the legislation promotes consistency and improved organization of the steps taken to realize the end outcomes.

The Kerslake Report (2018) highlights the use of leadership in managing Manchester Arena to reinforce safety. However, the need to regulate the conflicting interest is important to reconcile the demands by institutions to practice independently, thus compromising collaboration (John, 2022 & Pringle et al., 2021). A major incident often presents an outcome through which extraordinary resources are required to settle the adversities and the damages incurred. This explains why the deployment of fire, ambulance, and police services is an essential step to aid in the provision of adequate professional resources (NWAS, 2022). Further, tactical commanders should provide a plan to facilitate effective communication and resource utilization to maintain order and control within the scene (Nickson, 2019).

The 2022 report by North West Ambulance Service (NWAS) was critical in enforcing sound leadership. However, a post-event analysis by the department indicated that many officers should have been deployed to help triage and manage the evacuation process (NWAS, 2022). The deployment of a few personnel presented a case of limited resource capacity and constraints in actualizing the recovery plans (Nickson, 2019). Such is a crucial identity through which preparation for a major incident should encompass the evaluation of resource requirements. Consistent evaluation should be prioritized for continued improvement in the recovery process and practices to ease the tension of many casualties and provides guidelines on safe alternatives (Lowe, 2020). NWAS, 2022 further recommends increased multiagency cooperation to govern the intensity and complexity of the emergency. Otherwise, faults in realizing the end goal will be realized due to a lack of adequate resources (The Kerslake Report, 2018).

The response plan dictates improved training to harness collaboration while maintaining strong leadership. This includes the interventions from operational procedures and pre-hospital incident commanders (John, 2022). Further, Pringle et al. (2021) believe that training is an important intervention that aligns the professionals, in this case, the emergency responders, to act towards a common goal. This facilitates the communication of predetermined protocols, and operations standards should be communicated across the relevant personnel (Nickson, 2019). The personnel is updated on the recent development of policies, leadership, and protocols that will realize the best outcomes (JESIP, 2021). As a result, learning systems, tools, and best practices to use in subsequent incidents reinforce emergency planning and management.

Declaration of a major incident

Declining a major incident, observed at 2239 about the Manchester arena bombing, ensures public safety by creating awareness of the need to avoid the scene (Pringle et al., 2021). This further prompts the response by relevant government bodies to allocate resources to the scene to manage any crisis that may arise. For instance, the call by Operation Plato for the enforcement and deployment of only equipped firearms and trained officers was important in managing the incident (Craigie et al., 2020). This must be viewed as an opportunity for leadership and increased coordination. However, despite intervention to declare a major incident at the Manchester arena, Lowe’s (2020) report identified that failed communication and joint coordination created another series of concerns. The fact that many victims were children created tension among the family members and friends seeking to rescue them (Bartolucci and Magni, 2023). External other institutions should support a review of Plato protocols concerning declaring a major incident to minimize the risk of further injuries and casualties.


Incorporating JESIP (Joint Emergency Service Interoperability Programme) would have aided in the recovery intentions during the bombing (McGuirk and Schneider, 2018). The agency provides proper guidance on communication, coordination, co-location, a joint understanding of risk, and a shared value of providing a solution (JESIP, 2021). However, implementing the joint association into the incident failed because the Fire and Rescue services were unavailable until two hours after the incident (John, 2022). Poor communication was a major concern given that the North West Fire Control was contacted only three times by a public member, a representative from the fire service, and one from the ambulance service without proper follow-ups (Local Government Association, 2018). The area was zoned as a siege of terrorist attaches, but there lacked evidence of communication demanding the evacuation of people from the region (JESIP, 2021). Therefore, the JESIP should work to provide a clear direction to the relevant multi-agency department through training on the importance of transparent and clear communication regarding the type of responses that should be taken in case a major incident occurs (Mallinson, 20220).

Communication should be a foundation for strong evidence for effective mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery (Loosemore and Malouf, 2019). Mitigation should include interventions to create awareness of practices that reduce damage, loss, and casualties. Further, preparedness is achieved by communicating the protocols and procedures that should be deployed in case a major incident occurs by setting out a strategic plan for the required responses (Local Government Association, 2018). Finally, communication should be utilized to realize recovery by setting out evacuation and treatment plans.

Examination of the evidence for;

  1. Post-event staff welfare processes

According to the Manchester City Council report, establishing a civil contingencies and resilience unit (CCRU) has a crucial role in enhancing high levels of preparedness in terms of emergencies. This requires understanding the psychological implication of the incident on the welfare of the personnel deployed (Paton, 2019). Cases of post-stress traumatic disorder are common due to the experience of tragic incidences that revolves around evacuating and transferring the casualties to hospitals and morgues. Given the magnitude of the aftermath of the bombing incident, building resilience among the responder is important (Arvanitis, 2019). This includes establishing a counselling session that helps them come to terms with the events of the incidents.

Access to the right equipment and resources reduces the burden of struggling to manage the incident through increased pressure to maintain the quality and efficiency of the protocols established (McGuirk and Schneider, 2018). Deploying the right number of personnel in the incident helps reduce burnout and mental torture to save lives amidst limited resources (Arvanitis, 2019). Handling the intelligence of a post-event analysis is a crucial step toward enforcing the safety of the personnel (Paton, 2019). This includes articulating the possible fallout in the context of cause, risk factors, and solutions to use. Such efforts allow for collaboration by embracing effective training among the personnel to improve their skills and knowledge in dealing with emergencies. Further, integrating technology should be considered an important improvement through which safety is perceived as a development to realize the best interest and outcome for the personnel responding to a major incident (Paton, 2019).

  1. Debriefs and Resilience Strategies

According to the ‘Manchester Arena Inquiry” report, the evidence of “hot debriefs” is an instrumental tool for organizations involved to learn from the event. The use of the questionnaire captures the impression of the individual on the success and flaws within the resources deployed. The Chair of the Greater Manchester Resilience Forum (GMRF) was responsible for setting out principles and scope to govern the Operation Newtown debrief. This is an important step in managing future incidences whereby the gaps identified in the debriefing report would be a priority in subsequent interventions. The incidences of the arena bombing present a major dilemma over addressing the mental turmoil and torture related to the incident (Isba et al., 2018). This is guided by the need to observe critical measures that would promote the execution of proper counseling interventions to help the responders.

The deployment of Lea Vaughan, a paramedic, presented major evidence of the need to address the mental health of the victims, families, and personnel involved in the operation. Vaughan later retired from the profession, likely due to the fallout from the arena events (Dark et al., 2021). Future interventions should prioritize the importance of mental health following a traumatic experience (The Kerslake Report, 2018). This is important because it helps establish protocols that would allow the staff to learn the importance of self-compassion, self-awareness, reframing, and self-care to help them manage the aftermath of the incident. The use of debriefs after a difficult clinical incident creates a compulsion of the importance of reducing burnout and the mental turmoil that may be challenging for professionals yet to develop competent resilience to address the associated risks.


The response to the Manchester Arena Bombing represents a unique scenario for enhanced interventions to improve how agencies respond to emergencies. The effectiveness of joint coordination and collaboration is lacking despite established protocols such as the Civil Contingencies Act, the Declaration of Emergence provision, and agencies such as the NHS and JESIP. The associated professionals need to be trained on the relevant principles that should be used to reinforce multiagency coordination. This would include the demand for enhancing effective communication while each party understands its role and responsibilities. The need for timely responses and efforts to improve promptness in an emergency should be communicated. The intention to achieve a common goal should be made clear across all the multiagency institutions while encouraging a better understanding of what a multiagency corporation means and the efforts required to enforce positive outcomes.


Arvanitis, K., 2019. The ‘Manchester Together Archive’: researching and developing a museum practice of spontaneous memorials. museum and society17(3), pp.510-532.

Bartolucci, A. and Magni, M., 2023. Spontaneous hospitalization in the immediate aftermath of the Manchester Arena bombing. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management.

Cormacain, R., 2020. Keeping Covid-19 emergency legislation socially distant from ordinary legislation: principles for the structure of emergency legislation. The Theory and Practice of Legislation8(3), pp.245-265.

Craigie, R.J., Farrelly, P.J., Santos, R., Smith, S.R., Pollard, J.S. and Jones, D.J., 2020. Manchester Arena bombing: lessons learned from a mass casualty incident. BMJ Mil Health166(2), pp.72-75.

Dark, P., Smith, M., Ziman, H., Carley, S. and Lecky, F., 2021. Healthcare system impacts of the 2017 Manchester Arena bombing: evidence from a national trauma registry patient case series and hospital performance data. Emergency medicine journal38(10), pp.746-755.

Hind, D., Allsopp, K., Chitsabesan, P. and French, P., 2021. The psychosocial response to a terrorist attack at Manchester Arena, 2017: a process evaluation. BMC Psychology9(1), pp.1-20.

Isba, R., Roscoe, D. and Davis, N., 2018, November. Potential for schools-focussed long-term rehabilitation of children following complex trauma: learning opportunities following the May 2017 Manchester Arena bombing (APHA 2019 Annual meeting). (2018, accessed 3 June 2020). In APHA’s 2018 Annual Meeting & Expo (Nov. 10-Nov. 14). APHA.

JESIP (2021) JOINT DOCTRINE: The Interoperability Framework [online]. Available from: IL.pdf

Kerslake, R., Deeming, H. and Goodwin, A., 2018. The Kerslake Report: An independent review into the preparedness for, and emergency response to, the Manchester Arena attack on 22 May 2017. Kerslake Arena Review, p.8.

Local Government Association. 2018. The life cycle of an emergency learning from recent experience,

Loosemore, M. and Malouf, N., 2019. Safety training and positive safety attitude formation in the Australian construction industry. Safety Science113, pp.233-243.

Lowe, D., 2020. Manchester Arena Bombings: main lessons that have been learned. Counter IED Report.

Mallinson, T., 2022. The Saunders report into the Manchester arena attack. Journal of Paramedic Practice14(12), pp.490-494.

McGuirk, T. and Schneider, G., 2018. Lessons from the Manchester Arena Bombing–Perspective on the Lord Kerslake Review. RISK MANAGEMENT TODAY28(3), pp.28-31.

Nickson, C., 2019. Crisis Resource Management (CRM).

North West Ambulance Service (NWAS). 2022. Chief’s response to Manchester Arena Inquiry, NHS

Paton, N., 2019. From Grenfell to Manchester Arena: supporting the health of medics on the front line. Occupational Health & Wellbeing71(12), pp.16-19.

Pringle, C., Bailey, M., Bukhari, S., El-Sayed, A., Hughes, S., Josan, V., Ramirez, R. and Kamaly-Asl, I., 2021. Manchester Arena Attack: management of pediatric penetrating brain injuries. British Journal of Neurosurgery35(1), pp.103-111.

Russell, J.S. and de Orellana, P., 2020. Public Communications Leadership:# CrisisComms and the Manchester Arena Attack. The RUSI Journal165(5-6), pp.22-35.

Skryabina, E.A., Betts, N., Reedy, G., Riley, P. and Amlôt, R., 2020. The role of emergency preparedness exercises in response to a mass casualty terrorist incident: a mixed methods study. International journal of disaster risk reduction46, p.101503.

Skryabina, E.A., Betts, N., Reedy, G., Riley, P. and Amlôt, R., 2020. The role of emergency preparedness exercises in response to a mass casualty terrorist incident: a mixed methods study. International journal of disaster risk reduction46, p.101503.

Staton, A.R., 2020. Evolving Crisis Communication in social media Era: Analysis of Tweets and News Stories of the Manchester Arena Bombing.

Yazdani, M., Mojtahedi, M., Loosemore, M., & Sanderson, D. (2022). A modeling framework to design an evacuation support system for healthcare infrastructures in response to major flood events. Progress in disaster science13, 100218.


Don't have time to write this essay on your own?
Use our essay writing service and save your time. We guarantee high quality, on-time delivery and 100% confidentiality. All our papers are written from scratch according to your instructions and are plagiarism free.
Place an order

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Need a plagiarism free essay written by an educator?
Order it today

Popular Essay Topics