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Input and Output Design

Human-Computer interactions (HCI) emerged in the 1980s and are constantly evolving to suit many sectors in the modern world (Sosnin, 2017). (2021) describes HCI as a design field in artificial intelligence that deals with people and computer interactions. HCI involves various disciplines such as ergonomics, human factors, computer science, and psychology. For analysts to effectively create an intuitive and usable interface, they should learn and efficiently understand the HCI principles that will guide them to construct efficient interfaces. While designing the website for Westside Thrift Shop, the system analysis will observe how customers interact with the computers and design ways to use the computers efficiently.

For example, this shop sells second-hand clothes and other household goods. Therefore, while designing an HCI system, the analyst aims to minimize the physical and mental effort applied by customers as they obtain goods from the website. in addition, the analysts make the website more interactive (, 2021). For efficient human-computer interaction in the website, the analysts can incorporate visual UI, tactile UI, and auditory UI. The visual UI specializes in insight while tactile UI deals with touch features. In addition, the auditory UI specializes in sounds that allow efficient user-computer interaction. The Westside Thrift Shop website can therefore use visual UI which allows clothes and goods display for customers to effectively choose their preferences. Furthermore, the website design can utilize tactile UI and auditory UI for efficient website interaction for those customers with special needs.

On the other hand, Graphical User Interface (GUI) is a visual component in computer software that allows objects display which avails information and instruction to the user. This information directs the use of how to perform certain tasks on the computer. GUI interface examples include GNOME, KDE, Apple macOS, and Microsoft windows among others. According to (2021), GUI elements may also utilize sounds and visual effects such as drop shadows and transparency that allow the computer users to use the device without familiarizing themselves with commands. Some examples of GUI elements include; dialog box, icon, menu, menu bar, and a button. A user can use a pointing device like a mouse to effectively interact with all GUI aspects. In recent years, mobile devices have emerged with a touch screen as a way to interact with GUI which has increased efficiency and convenience for many users.

Both HCI and GUI are associated with output and input technological issues. In addition, the two designs are also associated with security issues. According to Stephanidis et al. (2019), the main challenges associated with HCI include human-environment interactions, human-technology symbiosis, privacy and security, ethics, and accessibility. To effectively solve these issues Stephanidis et al. (2019) propose that despite the rise in artificial intelligence, human beings should be kept in control to mitigate any defect found in the HCI systems. In addition, a correct procedure should be followed that ensures proper ethics and customer interests are upheld. On the other hand, the GUI interface faces challenges such as visual category (complexity in animations and display), constraints (certain areas may only accept limited content types), responsiveness (ability to update the user on GUI’s current state), and asynchrony (involved in user interactions such as signal handling and animation management). The complex nature of GUI interfaces increased security problems within the system. Both GUI and HCI are essential because they help improve customer interaction with the website hence increasing sales and profits for the firm.

References, (2021). Graphical User Interface (GUI). Available at Accessed 17th December 2021.

Sosnin, P. (Ed.). (2017). Experience-Based Human-Computer Interactions: Emerging Research and Opportunities: Emerging Research and Opportunities. IGI Global.

Stephanidis, C., Salvendy, G., Antona, M., Chen, J. Y., Dong, J., Duffy, V. G., … & Zhou, J. (2019). Seven HCI grand challenges. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction35(14), 1229-1269., (2021). Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Available at Accessed 17th December 2021.


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