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Individual Written Assessment


In the contemporary aggressive manufacturing industry, firms such as UK Manufacturing (UKM) constantly face pressure to improve profitability and market viability. This paper takes a deep dive examination of the internal and external challenges facing UKM to reveal intricacies and offer workable options. Internally, UKM faces cost control, manufacturing efficiency, and product diversification, which require a deep understanding of its functioning. At the same time, elements external to the firm include market pricing pressures and capacity constraints that require strategic foresight and flexibility. A detailed analysis of UKM’s cost structures, production processes and market dynamics would suggest ways to improve optimum efficiency and resilience. Furthermore, it explores the consequences of ABC’s introduction and reveals its revolutionary power. This paper seeks to provide tangible strategies for UKM through close analysis to create resilience and sustain progress in a constantly changing industry.

2. Understanding the Challenges Faced by UK Manufacturing UK LTD

Companies are constantly pressured to improve profitability since the manufacturing sector operates in a competitive international market. At the same time, differentiation is tied to manufactured products or utilised technologies and business process optimisation (Omar, Minoufekr and Plapper, 2019). An in-depth analysis of the UK Manufacturing UK LTD (UKM) ABC case indicates that this company faces challenges that require a clear understanding of cost behaviour, manufacturing processes and capacity utilisation, and an action plan regarding market pricing pressures. The credibility of Smith’s evaluations and conclusions is the most significant factor in solving these diverse problems.

Internal Challenges

Internally, UKM finds itself at a juncture dealing with complicated issues primarily rooted in cost control and utilisation of manufacturing capability. The pro forma revenue sheet in Table 20 shows a full cost structure from raw materials and manufacturing to miscellaneous—critical activities like fabrication, probe assembly, and test accounting for most of the empire. Smith must understand all aspects of each process and discover inefficiencies and remedies, notably manufacturing and assembly cost-inefficiencies. In addition, the product specifications detailed in Table 21 highlight complexity stemming from a broad range of products, each reflecting unique selling prices, périodicities and technologies. This variety brings an element of complexity into production planning, which requires careful consideration of whether the current product mix matches best with prevailing market demands, as described by (Oluyisola, Sgarbossa and Strandhagen, 2020); market instability is making production management difficult for many organisations. Given this product diversity, Smith’s recommendations should consider the internal restructuring options necessary to simplify production processes and boost overall profitability.

External Challenges

Externally, UKM has to contend with sophisticated challenges in the form of market pricing pressure and capacity restrictions. Table 21 below shows the proposed rates for selling products in 2023 and 2024, indicating the dynamic pricing environment. UKM must implement a market analysis framework to consider current trends and competitor prices to align its pricing strategy with customers’ expectations and ensure profitability. Additionally, sophisticated knowledge of the market demand for every product becomes necessary in shaping capacity planning(Zakaria, Lim and Aamir, 2024). The information in Table 22 regarding the capacity data visualises how resources can be accessed and utilised. As a linchpin in response to market demands, capacity planning means Smith has to closely review if there is unity between current capacity and the variety of production needs for every product.

Leveraging Strengths and Mitigating Challenges

The strategic decisions that competitors, such as Top Telecommunicating Plc and TT256, with 33% more die/water than the SPx256, suggest indicating their value and competing with competitors requires the ability to estimate their strengths and advantages in terms of prices, production efficiency, and technological developments. Therefore, UKM should seek a strategic focus to face these challenges and maximise its inherent strengths; Smith’s suggestions should include a comprehensive approach that addresses internal challenges related to cost management, process efficiency and product mix optimisations and incorporates external factors such as market pricing changes and demand volatility price variations.

3. Implications of ABC Review and New Costing Approach

In 2023, an ABC review of the SPx512  product cost decreased by £ £486 after a new approach was adopted regarding value. However, would spending have been reduced or transferred?

Cost of raw materials

The costing review played a role, not directly but through a nuanced reassessment of many different elements in some costs (Zhao, Zhang and Cheng, 2022). Therefore, renegotiating procurement contracts or higher efficiency in the supply chain is one critical aspect that has led to a significant decrease in raw material costs. For instance, the renegotiation or increased efficiency is evident from reducing wafer costs by 21% between £359,595 and £285. Likewise, the situation with the package, in this case, has led to reduced cost per unit from £50 down to £40, causing total reductions to go down.

Production Costs

Supply chain coordination is significantly impacted by production cost, which is sometimes unknown (Zhao, Zhang and Cheng, 2022). A more detailed analysis of the production costs indicates intricate degree reductions through different stages. For instance, the cost per fabrication unit can significantly drop from £1866, leading to an overall decrease from £12. The same tendency can be seen in the cost of probes, as it can decrease from £500 to£434.78 since, resulting in a reduction summing up to 12% – thus going down. The cost per unit in assembly is further lowered from £8 to £7, resulting in a total reduction of the initial amount of 695,000. For the testing phase, this cost per unit has decreased from £40 to £38.29, with a total saving of 1 pound.

Underutilised Costs

The reassessment has decreased underutilised costs, especially those associated with processing and assembling. The underutilised costs were reduced to £8,148,125 for fabrication due to the betterment of use resources. In assembly, a significant decrease of £38,873,971in underutilised costs shows the practical improvements achieved over resource allocation and scheduling. The lack of underused costs in the probe and tests phase signifies a highly optimised manufacturing process for these stages.

Technological Advancements and Process Innovations

Technological developments and process improvements constantly transform industries, economies, and communities (Khan, 2020). The past ten years have been highly progressive in encouraging technology developments and shifts. Specific numerical values concerning technological innovations or process improvements are not stated. Nevertheless, capital investments and operational enhancements would lower costs over succeeding production stages. Efficiency, a natural result of technological advancements, is aimed at reducing waste and increasing productivity. The competitiveness and flexibility of a company are influenced by knowledge of market dynamics and the power position in supplier relationships (La Rocca et al., 2019). Being proactive in working with suppliers and navigating the changing environment of markets can lead to economies that improve overall financial performance.

Shift vs.Decrease in Spending

A total amount saving of £27 implies that the company does not just shift the costs but reduces its expenditure. The agreed-upon savings and operational efficiencies in the various cost categories reflect a determined effort to secure optimum spending on product quality or integrity. These include decisions made during the renegotiation of contracts, process improvements, and efficient resource utilisation that contributed to this reduction in spending. As such, several angles must be done in 2023 SPx512  by different methods. The figures provided also reinforce the width and scale of these adjustments by tangibly demonstrating factors that facilitated product cost reduction.

4. The Drivers of Manufacturing and Product Costs

The operational and strategic characteristics of UK Manufacturing LTD (UKM) can be described as responding to the factors that influence manufacturing costs and product costs in general. This requires sophisticated analysis of these drivers for effective management decisions from a position of market competitiveness.

Drivers of Manufacturing Cost

Raw material cost is one of the main contributors to manufacturing costs (Moheb-Alizadeh and Handfield, 2018). For the case of UKM, wafers and package costs are very important. What influence manufacturing costs are the raw wafer prices and production costs that form part of the pricing wafers. Similarly, packaging costs comprise a significant portion of manufacturing costs, according to the type and quantity of packages used. In addition, the production costs for work and stages like fabrication, probe assembly, and testing also differ.

Drivers of Product Cost

Product cost is driven by both the selling price and market dynamics. In the case study that modelled this impact, selling prices for SPX512  and spending 256 harmonised one quarter to another. It is essential to comprehend market dynamics, competition and customer demand in ascertaining the selling price that affects product cost. Production efficiency and yield rates are integral factors of product cost (De Backer et al., 2018). Product cost is also highly influenced by the technical specifications of technology, such as CMOS. In the case of UKM, the determinants are very varied and include material cost commodity price, production cost prices, inefficiency expense sales allowances, market characteristics, and efficiency or performance yield loss technological inputs. Such a subtle awareness of such factors is essential for creating satisfactory cost management policies and viable market presence in semiconductor devices.

5. The Feasibility and Implications of Reducing Direct Wafer

The proposition to save £23 million in costs of direct wafer fabrication by 34% in UK Manufacturing LTD (UKM) deserves close analysis concerning its feasibility and implications for the semiconductor market.

Evaluating the Decision-Making Process

One of the exciting decisions, which can be analysed in terms of UKM Inc.’s operations, is a proposal to decrease direct wafer fabrication costs by up to 34%, which equals £25 million. In a critical assessment of the case study, it becomes evident that such cost reduction is feasible and plausible by several factors requiring further analysis. The decision to reduce direct wafer fabrication as one of such critical steps in semiconductor manufacturing seriously needs analysis around that point for seizing and understanding the surrounding environment (De Backer et al., 2018). Technological advances characterise the semiconductor sector, as do superior quality standards and a hugely competitive global market. This, in effect, calls for rigorous analysis of decisions that affect the core manufacturing process, such as wafer fabrication and others.

Implications for Manufacturing Efficiency

Direct wafer fabrication cost only decreases to appear reasonable, but a complete view of semiconductor production dynamics is needed. Understanding the cost structure, cost distribution, and wafer fabrication’s impact on the economy requires a comprehensive approach. Looking further into wafer production costs shows their importance to product prices. The SPx256 Original Product costs £3000 per wafer. Reducing this cost to £1,866 per wafer will boost production efficiency. However, such a decrease raises questions about wafer production productivity and performance. Checking if the projected cost reduction meets industry standards is important since modifications may affect end-product performance and competition.

The cost per die cut down of £62.50 to £51 reduces counterpart by related parties 02, respectively. Thus, decreasing wafer fabrication costs increases manufacturing profitability and process cost efficiency. However, the absence of solid data regarding specific methods or approaches that reduce costs makes it difficult to judge its sustainability and impacts on product quality and performance. A strategic rational action would be a cost drop that matches a long-term vision, competitive position, and industry tendencies. Redundancy is questionable if it does not suit the strategy objective or undermines UKM’s semiconductor market repute.

Sustainability and Competitive Advantage

If the downsizing direct wafer fabrication decision is practical, then what should be considered are possible countermeasures. They also may involve activities such as process efficiency innovation, non-conventional cost-saving strategies, or strategic teaming to at least offset the effects of decreased yield capacity and quality (Yoon et al., 2017). However, mitigation strategies are required to maintain UKM’s competitive and sustainable advantages in the semiconductor industry. Generally, a wide-range analysis of the feasibility and potential to spare 34 per cent or £23 million from direct wafer fabrication in the UKM case study is required that utilises different perspectives. In conclusion, although direct wafer fabrication cost reduction opens the door for cost savings and efficiency improvement measures, assessing its feasibility is a prerequisite if UK Manufacturing LTD wants to succeed as an influential semiconductor player.

6. Locations for Cost Reduction Beyond Wafer Fabrication

The idea to minimise direct wafer fabrication costs leads us to consider if Smith should have searched outside the wafer fabrication field for further cost reductions.

The Scope of Cost Reduction Strategies

The case study mainly addresses the reduction of direct wafer fabrication costs proposed by 34% for SPx256. However, it stimulates us to look at a broader picture and company cost structure with possible improvement opportunities. Although wafer fabrication costs contribute to a large portion of overall manufacturing prices, an all-around cost analysis should encapsulate the entire value chain. Smith might have assessed the costs arising from other stages of production, including probe manufacturing, assembly and testing. Each stage adds to the cumulative cost per die, and defining an efficiency gain or any realisable savings here would significantly impact totality costs. Producing the probe analysis might show optimisation opportunities regarding efficiency and effectiveness. In the same way, assembly and testing costs add £4.00 and £5. 0 per die, respectively. If Smith had examined wafer fabrication, he could have located the areas that would benefit from specific cost cuts without compromising product quality.

Opportunities for Improvement

In addition, an overall approach to cost savings considers overhead and operational costs. Smith may have investigated strategies that would enable him to save on administrative and marketing costs, enhancing overall operational efficiency. Cost savings could be achieved by evaluating the distribution of resources among different departments and finding scope for further optimisation. This aligns with a broader plan for continuous improvement and cost-conscious management. This also relates to the under-absorbed costs described in the pro forma income statements. £33,073, § 50 is a substantial portion of the manufacturing budget, and with this, Smith should have studied the causes of underutilised costs and found ways to curtail them.

Beyond Wafer Fabrication

Furthermore, Smith could have considered product development and innovation as an approach to cost reduction. Investing in research and development to enhance manufacturing methods, materials prices, or product design should save money over time (Javaid et al., 2022). This proactive approach saves money immediately and prepares the organisation for industry success and competitiveness. Cost savings in wafer production may affect quality and performance. Smith should have weighed cost reduction vs product quality. However, if cost reduction initiatives affect product dependability or durability, the corporation may face increased warranty claims, customer unhappiness, and long-term reputation harm. The projected reduction in direct wafer manufacture costs is significant, but Smith could have explored other cost-cutting measures. Evaluating manufacturing, rub, assembly, testing heading costs, underutilised expenses, or product development investment might have improved operational efficacy and financial performance.

7. Underutilised Manufacturing Capacity and Pricing Models in SPx256

UK Manufacturing LTD’s underused manufacturing capacity during SPx256 production leads to a study of the pricing model’s efficacy and the causes.

The Factors Behind Underutilized Manufacturing Capacity

The spare manufacturing capacity during the production of SPx256 raises questions about how effective or efficient this pricing model has been relative to market dynamics. Consider the causes of underutilisation and if UK Manufacturing UK Ltd (UKM) has an extremely competitive pricing strategy. A critical case study shows various linked factors leading to this event. Many intricate procedures go into semiconductor production (Chowdhury, 2023). The case study covers wafer production, assembly, testing, and packaging. These processes are interrelated and must be synchronised, making production capacity optimisation difficult. Underutilisation is caused by inefficiencies in coordinating various operations, which bottleneck production.

Manufacturing capacity and actual production may differ due to demand forecasts and production planning issues. Overestimating SPx256 demand might cause overvoltage. An idle would arise from underestimating demand. The marketability of UKM’s pricing plan is also questioned. Aggressive pricing boosts demand. However, they risk overestimating market acceptability or profitability. Smith should have assessed if SPx256’s pricing mode matches its perceived worth. UKM must also consider the competitive landscape and rivals’ pricing tactics to ensure its plan is strategic and sustainable.

Technology advances quickly in the semiconductor sector. The pace at which some technologies develop and require product or technology updates can also affect underutilised production capacity. Smith should have assessed the product lifespan and considered SPx256 demand-driven technical advancements. Failure to adapt to technological changes may reduce utilisation. Underutilisation is widespread when the manufacturing system cannot adapt to demand changes or technology. Smith’s assessment should have analysed the openness of the UKM manufacturing processes and opportunities for adapting to demand changes and innovation.

Addressing Underutilization Through Strategic Adjustments

To address overcapacity, there is a need for a strategic adjustment that includes pricing models and manufacturing outputs. Smith should have assessed whether there was any demand for revisions in the pricing, demand prediction, and production schedule. Moreover, in market dynamics, the overall strategy is evaluated to ensure that UKM’s approach is competitive, stable, and responsive to the changing landscape of semiconductors. A detailed study of demand forecasting, production planning sensitivity to changes with price models, and technological development, including a strategic focus on UKM, is required. The areas in which Smith’s analysis should have investigated these items to uncover improvement avenues and match the proactive pricing strategy with market realities are essential.

8. Pricing Advantages of Top Telecommunicating Plc’s TT256

The analysis of pricing advantages between Top Telecommunicating Plc TT256, which offers 33% more die/wafer than SPx256, requires a detailed review and appraisal considering factors such as economies of scale, manufacturing efficiency, market perception aspect, product differentiation parameters and strategic price strategies.

Economies of Scale and Cost Efficiency

Theories of cost structures, market dynamics and competitive positioning should be used when analysing UKM’s competitor Top Telecommunicating Plcs Corporate pricing advantages for the TT256 product, which includes three times more die/wafer than the SPx256. This analysis does not involve merely superficial comparison but centres specifically on what makes Top Telecom competitive regarding pricing. In the same way, Top Telecom’s TT256 process creates economies of scale, understanding that it has more die/wafer by 33% compared to SPx256. Cost efficiency is mainly achieved by having more extensive production, which helps reduce costs. Smith’s analysis should have treated the issue of whether TopTelecom can spread out their fixed costs due to a larger die/ wafer that allows them to cost leadership. At the same time, it is crucial to understand their pricing structure when comprehending Top Telecom’s manufacturing efficiency.

Yield Rates and Quality Metrics

Assembly and test costs yield to that of SP×256. A higher die/wafter ratio must be tested to see if yields improve or if quality is maintained. This competitive edge may benefit pricing if Top Telecom’s production processes achieve high yields or improved control systems. Smith should have examined yield rates and quality measures to assess Top Telecom’s competitiveness. Functional costs and efficiency are not the sole competitive pricing benefits (De Toni et al., 2017). A thorough Smith study would have examined market perception and value quality for TT256 against SPx 256. Top Telecom’s ability to communicate performance, features, and reliability benefits from 30% more die/wafer strengthens its pricing strategy. Compared to SPx 256, TT256 may have unique features, innovative technology solutions, or strategically susceptible market positioning that may drive higher prices. Smith should have investigated if Top Telecom’s marketing and product initiatives justify the increased price.

Supply-Demand Dynamics and Pricing Strategies

Additionally, Price policies are also determined by supply and demand. Smith should have examined whether Top Telecom may charge high pricing for goods like TT256 since it operates in a high-demand market. Understanding supply chain dynamics and possible restrictions can help Top Telecom adjust its price in response to market conditions. Smith may have examined Top Telecom’s wider pricing policy. Competitiveness entails matching strategy with market circumstances and cost structures. Top Telecom’s competitive strategy is shown by its penetration price, skimming, and other techniques. The comparative price advantage of Top Telecom’s TT256, which has 33% more die/wafer than SPx256, is likely multidimensional, including economies of scale affecting yield, market perception and intentions, supply-demand dynamics, and pricing strategies. Smith should have extensively examined these aspects to determine the delicate competitive environment.

9. Conclusion

The detailed analysis of UK Manufacturing UK Ltd (UKM) shows peculiar multilateral inner and outer conflicts within the fast-paced manufacturing industry. Examining cost structures, manufacturing processes, and market dynamics has contributed to understanding potential opportunities for improving performance for UKM. Internally, improvements in fabrication, probe assembly, testing processes, and simplifying the diffuse product mix are vital for cost optimisation. As for the outside, price strategies should go hand-in-hand with market trends; demand dynamics must be understood to find a proper balance and manufacturing capacities need to be on point. An analysis of Top Telecommunicating Plc’s pricing benefits accentuates the role of economies of scale, technological differentiation, and positioning in the market. UKM must be forward-thinking to navigate these challenges, utilising strengths and robust strategies. Accepting these realisations can help UKM towards resilience and success in the global manufacturing market.

10. Reference List

Chowdhury, H. (2023) ‘Semiconductor manufacturing process improvement using data-driven methodologies’, Preprints. Doi: 10.20944/preprints202310.0056.v2.

De Backer, K. et al. (2018) Taking the next leap forward in semiconductor yield McKinsey & Company. Available at: (Accessed: 28 January 2024).

De Toni, D. et al. (2017) ‘Pricing strategies and levels and their impact on corporate profitability’, Revista de Administração, 52(2), pp. 120–133. doi: 10.1016/j.rausp.2016.12.004.

Javaid, M. et al. (2022) ‘Sustainability 4.0 and its applications in the field of manufacturing’, Internet of Things and Cyber-Physical Systems, 2, pp. 82–90. doi 10.1016/j.iotcps.2022.06.001.

Khan, M. K. (2020) ‘Technological advancements and 2020’, Telecommunication systems, 73(1), pp. 1–2. doi: 10.1007/s11235-019-00647-8.

La Rocca, A. et al. (2019) ‘The role of supplier relationships in developing new business ventures’, Industrial marketing management, 80, pp. 149–159. doi 10.1016/j.indmarman.2017.12.008.

Moheb-Alizadeh, H. and Handfield, R. (2018) ‘The impact of raw materials price volatility on the cost of goods sold (COGS) for product manufacturing’, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 65(3), pp. 460–473. doi: 10.1109/tem.2018.2796447.

Oluyisola, O. E., Sgarbossa, F. and Strandhagen, J. O. (2020) ‘Smart production planning and control: Concept, use-cases and sustainability implications’, Sustainability, 12(9), p. 3791. doi: 10.3390/su12093791.

Omar, Y. M., Minoufekr, M. and Plapper, P. (2019) ‘Business analytics in manufacturing: Current trends, challenges and pathway to market leadership’, Operations research perspectives, 6(100127), p. 100127. doi: 10.1016/j.orp.2019.100127.

Yoon, S., Kim, J. and Jeong, S. (2017) ‘The optimal decision combination in semiconductor manufacturing’, Sustainability, 9(10), p. 1788. doi: 10.3390/su9101788.

Zakaria, A. F., Lim, S. C. J. and Aamir, M. (2024) ‘A pricing optimisation modelling for assisted decision making in telecommunication product-service bundling’, International Journal of Information Management Data Insights, 4(1), p. 100212. doi: 10.1016/j.jjimei.2024.100212.

Zhao, S., Zhang, J. and Cheng, T. C. E. (2022) ‘Coordinating supply chains with uncertain production cost by incomplete contracts’, International Journal of Production Research, 60(4), pp. 1386–1410. doi: 10.1080/00207543.2020.1856957.

11. Appendices

Table 20: UKM, Inc. – FY22 pro forma income statement worksheet.

SPX512 SPX256 FY23
Q1-Q3: (56,250 @ 425) £23,906,250
Q4: (18,750 @ 318.75) £5,976,562
Q1-Q2: (107,500) @ £187.50) £20,156,250
Q3-Q4: (107,500 @ £125) £13,437,500
£29,882,812 £33,593,750 £63,476,562
Raw material costs:
Wafers: (7,991 @£45) £359,595
(2,448 @£45) £110,160
Packages: (86,875 @ £50) £4,343,750
(231,250 @ £15) £3,468,750
£4,703,345 £3,578,910 £8,282,255
Production costs:
Fabrication: (6,950 @ £1,866) £12,968,700
(2,203 @ £1,866) £4,110,798
Probe: (6,950 @ 500) £3,475,000
(2,203 @ 625) £1,376,875
Assembly: (86,875 @ £8) £695,000
(231,250 @ £4) £925,000
Test: (78,187 @ £40) £3,127,480
(222,000 @ £5) £1,110,000
£20,266,180 £7,522,673 £27,788,853
Underutilised costs:
Fabrication: (£41,917,824 – (12,968,700 + £24,838,326
£4,110,798) £8,148,125
Probe: (13,000,000 – (£3,475,000 + £0
£1,376,875) £5,887,520
Assembly: (£1,620,000 – (£695,000 + £38,873,971
Test: (£8,100,000 – £3,127,480) + (£2,025,000 –

Table 21: UKM, Inc. – product specification.

SPX512 SPx256 N50 SPX512 SPx256 N50
Function: CPU/CISC CPU/CISC Raw wafer costs: £45 £45 £45
Technology: CPU/CISC
Frequency: CMOS .75U CMOS .75U CMOS .75U Wafer production cost: £3,000 £3,000
Actual:          2022 Q1: 100mhj 100mhj 100mhj Probe cost/wafer: £500 £625
Selling Price
2022 Q2:
2022 Q3: Gross die/wafer: 50 150 200
2022 Q4: £850.00 Good die thru test (EQS) 10.8 98.8 141.0
Probe yield 25% 70% 75%
Proposed:         2023 Q1: £250.00 £500.00
2023 Q2: Package type: 339PGA 168PGA 168PGA
2023 Q3: £637.50 Package cost: £50 £15 £15
2023 Q4:
2024 Q1: £187.50 £375.00
2024 Q2: Assembly cost: £8 £4
2024 Q3: £425.00 Assembly yield: 90% 96%
2024 Q4:
£125.00 £250.00 Test cost: £40 £5
£318.75 Test yield: 96% 98%

 Table 22: UKM, Inc. – FY23 AND FY24 capacity available.

(w) wafer

(d) die

Total capacity available SPX512 capacity used FY23                           FY24

(150,000)       (75,000)

Available capacity for SPx256

FY23                  FY24

Maximum used by SPx256

FY23                  FY24

Available capacity FY23                       FY24
FAB starts Engineering Starts Production Completes


SPX512 probe starts SPX256 probe starts 339 PGA assembly Starts

339 PGA assembly


168 PGA assembly


168 PGA assembly



SPX512 test starts SPX512 test completes SPX256 test starts






















16,595            7,991

1,040               1,040


15,555             7,723

14,000             6,950



14,000            6,950


175,000          68,875


157,500          78,187






157,500          78,187

151,200           75,060



9,405                 17,237

8,464                  15,514



12,000                19,050

9,600                   15,240

27,500               115,625



55,000               231,250


52,800               222,000




405,000           405,000



582                    2,447

524                    2,202



524                    2,202




55,000           231,250


52,800           222,000




52,800           222,000



8,823               14,790

7,940                13,312



9,076               13,038




0                      0

0                     0



45,000           124,313

43,200            119,430

352,200          183,000



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