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Human Growth and Development Through the Lifespan

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The Pal family can be characterized as a multifaceted entity consisting of individuals spanning several age cohorts, each undergoing distinct life phases and confronting specific situations. The presence of diversity, their multicultural heritage, and diverse social determinants of health impact their overall well-being and developmental trajectory.

Raj (43 years old) and Sharon (38 years old)

The lifespan stage is young/middle adulthood, and the individuals have lately undergone a relocation to Canada, so departing from their nation of origin. Both individuals are engaged in full-time employment, which has the potential to generate stress. Additionally, they are adapting to a novel cultural environment and navigating the challenges of linguistic differences. Parents are responsible for ensuring the welfare and nurturing of their three offspring, thus augmenting their array of obligations.

Kristina (3 years old)

Kristina is in the early childhood stage, and there are specific circumstances that are important to consider. Kristina has a high level of physical and cognitive activity, displaying a persistent need for continuous engagement and interaction. The individual is currently in a crucial phase of early childhood, which is distinguished by swift advancements in both physical and cognitive domains (Denise et al., 2019). The parents, specifically Sharon, face the task of effectively regulating their child’s energy levels and inquisitiveness, which includes addressing her thumb-sucking behavior and selective eating tendencies.

Krish (10 years old)

During the middle childhood stage, certain circumstances may significantly impact Krish’s development. Krish’s middle childhood stage is characterized by school-aged children undergoing developmental changes. The individual derives pleasure from engaging in outdoor pursuits and has introverted tendencies, particularly within an educational setting (Denise et al., 2019). Raj and Sharon express concern for his overall welfare, encompassing both academic and social aspects, particularly in light of his challenges in reading and writing. The inclusion of his grandparents’ aspiration for him to acquire their native languages introduces an additional stratum of intricacy to his overall growth and maturation.

Karan (16 years old)

Karan’s lifespan stage is adolescence, characterized by notable transformations in physical, cognitive, and psychological domains. The individual in question has a higher body weight and frequently engages in dining at restaurants in the company of companions. Despite his academic excellence, Sharon, his mother, is concerned about his lethargy (Denise et al., 2019). Karan exhibits a strong desire to achieve autonomy by acquiring a driver’s license and engaging in part-time employment. The diminished concern exhibited by his parents may impact his self-perception.

The environmental and social determinants of health within the family exhibit significant diversity and exert substantial influence. The individuals in question originate from diverse cultural origins, including Indian and Spanish, which contributes to the complexity of their familial interactions. However, this amalgamation of cultures may also provide distinctive obstacles. Language obstacles and adapting to a new nation might give rise to pressures that affect the well-being of the entire family unit (Denise et al., 2019). The inclusion of grandparents within the familial unit, a subset of whom may be experiencing health-related challenges, necessitates the provision of assistance, transportation, and language interpretation by the family. Various factors can potentially influence the general health and development of families, encompassing aspects such as their access to healthcare services and availability of social support.

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Karan, aged 16 years, is chosen as the center of focus. At 16 years old, Karan is undergoing a problematic adolescent time where there are dramatic body changes and brain reorganization, in addition to emotional ups and downs. They influence his health and well-being and shape the future of his life. He is physically challenged because he is overweight, like Karan. He overeats junk food when he goes out with other kids, which can imply poor nutrition and inactivity on his part. During adolescence, which marks a stage of pubertal growth and maturity in adolescents, issues of body image may arise. Such concerns regarding weight may affect his self-esteem and general health. According to Piaget’s theory, cognitively, Karan is on his way out of cognitive development (Malik & Marwaha, 2023). He is moving from concrete operational thinking into formal thinking, allowing him to think in terms of abstraction and hypothetically. However, increased cognitive maturity is, in most cases, at odds with the immaturity of impulse control. Impulsivity can also prove problematic for teens in social settings, particularly when interacting with peers. It is worth noting that this stage is paramount in academic work and decision-making among young people (Malik & Marwaha, 2023). His ability to think abstractly and to examine consequences may dramatically influence the decisions he will make about different aspects of his life.

Karan psychosocially might be experiencing Erik Erikson’s theories about psychosocial development, where he experiences the stage of identity versus role confusion. In this phase, teens try different personalities, beliefs, roles, and behaviors. This is a stage where they seek independence, which forms the basis of their personality (Orenstein & Lewis, 2022). Sometimes, it leads to problems between parents and their children because parents consider them obstinate or rebellious. The need for independence characterizes the psychosocial tasks among adolescents; as a case in point, Karan has requested a driving license and part-time job, which clearly shows he wants to be independent (Orenstein & Lewis, 2022). A further screening tool for assessing Karan’s health and development could be the “Adolescent Health Questionnaire” (AHQ). This instrument provides an avenue for physical, mental, and social problems that affect the development of teenagers. Using the AHQ, medical specialists get an opportunity to find out what kind of products Karan eats, whether he exerts regularly, how his mental state is, and who his friends are (Arije et al., 2023). Knowing these parts of his life will enable health professionals and the family to plan wisely and offer him what he needs. AHQ is crucial in the assessment, leading to the understanding of how best to tailor intervention and support.

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There are some issues about the environment in which Karan grows during childhood and adolescence that may impact his health, growth, and development considerably. They are also affected by stress such as that arising from parent’s workload, language barrier, and the cultural adaptation process that they are going through (Denise et al. et al., 2019). These difficulties may reverberate on the whole household setting and, in particular, on the capability that the family has of taking proper care of Karan during such a crucial teenage period. For the successful promotion of Karan’s healthy development, there is a need for customization of specific approaches for him as an adolescent. The training of Karan in the area of healthy eating is equally vital in informing him about various aspects, such as a balanced diet, portions, and adverse outcomes from unhealthy nutritional choices. It is also important to promote physical activity as it equally helps in weight reduction and reduction of other health complications like obesity and heart disease (Arije et al., 2023). It is also essential to arm Karan with stress management skills such as relaxation, time management, and problem-solving so that he can better cope with the pressures of school, love, and responsibilities inherent in the stage of adolescence.

An example of a relevant health promotion strategy for adolescents like Karan is school-based programs involving informed lifestyle decisions, including nutrition and physical exercise. Organizations like the Heart and Stroke Foundation often give resources and initiatives to improve teenage well-being. By promoting Karan’s involvement in these programs, he might build healthy habits and better respond to the challenges an adolescent faces (Boyd et al., 2019). There are school-based programs that offer a suitable setting for adolescents to gain knowledge as well as practice healthy behaviors. In summary, knowing how each family member develops is necessary, as well as catering to individual requirements to better the health, welfare, or life. The Pal family may be helped immensely if healthcare professionals focus on the particular requirements of a teenager such as Karan and relate appropriate screening tools and health promotion strategies.


Boyd, D., Johnson, P. A., & Bee, H. L. (2019). Lifespan development (7th ed.). Pearson Canada Inc.

Malik, F., & Marwaha, R. (2023, April 23). Cognitive Development. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing.

Arije, O. Madan, J., & Tintswalo Hlungwani. (2023). Validation of the Adolescent Health Quality of Care (AHQOC) index for mystery client studies. PLOS ONE18(6), e0285888–e0285888.

Orenstein, G. A., & Lewis, L. (2022). Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing.


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