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Gender-Based Violence in Egypt

Gender-based violence is an act that brings about harm to the vulnerable group either physically, psychologically or sexually. Over 7.8 million women in Egypt suffer from gender-based violence from the people very close in their circles. A report done in 2018 by human development report ranked Egypt 116 out of 189 in gender inequalities. This research seeks to establish the causes of gender-based violence and the possible solutions. Establishing an excellent economic empowerment strategy for women, providing health improvement, and good governance strategies can help combat the escalated gender disparities.

Causes of gender-based violence in Egypt

There are several cases of forced marriages in Egypt contributing to gender-based violence. Forced marriage is an act of subjecting women and young girls in a marriage without her consent. Unlike in the other form of marriage where both parties agree, forced marriage is accompanied by some implications like mental, physical and emotional challenges among the family members (Khalil, C. 2021). Forced marriage is deemed to be against the rights, freedom and attitude of individuals. In a marriage setup, both parties should make their own marriage choices without being forced.

Egypt continues to exercise Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). It is the circumcision of the female gender (Mohammed, et., al 2018). It’s generally done to young girls, widowed and current married women. Female genital mutilation is gender violence that affects more rural residents than urban residents. Similarly, FGM is more prevalent to people who have not attained secondary education and less to those who have acquired at least secondary education and above. Citizens should be enlightened about the health implications that would arise due to this cultural activity.

Sexual pestering is a critical problem in Egypt as it is classified to be position two after Afghanistan. A study conducted in UN women 2013 on methods and ways to eliminate sexual aggravation in Egypt revealed that about 99.3% of women are sexually harassed, 82.6% of females face challenges of sexual harassment in the streets, and approximately 86.5% of females are sexually harassed while on public transport (Elyamani, N. 2021). As sexual harassment cases continue to rise in Egypt, there is a need for all organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, to conduct some anti-harassment campaigns and fully enact and enforce laws that address sexual harassment.

Several factors associated with spousal violence ignites gender disparities. Among the factors is the women’s perception of male control, marital control exercised by husbands, financial control, and women’s attitude towards wife-beating. Women in Egypt believe that male has the control over everything in a marriage and even societal perspectives. Male dominates in their ideas, and women have no power to question or give their opinions (El-Gazzar, et.,al 2020) . The male gender has the authority over the female in that they can even beat their wives and control all the marital exercises and finances.

Early marriages to young girls in Egypt is a critical problem. Young girls of about 15-19 years are forced to engage in marriages. Early marriages cause a lot of health, psychological, emotional, financial and legal constraints. When these young girls are subjected to early marriages, many complications arise during pregnancy and childbirth, leading to high death rates during childbirth (Khalil, 2021). Women and girls should be allowed to marry at their preferred stage of life and to the partners of their choice. When those early marriage and pregnancy cases occur, it is recommendable for the government to ensure a sound health system to monitor the health of girls undergoing early pregnancy.

Solutions to gender-based violence in Egypt

The government should consider the establishment of economic empowerment strategies for women. Empowering women contributes immensely to raising the female labour force, putting them at the same level as males and ensuring that females get equal employment opportunities and contribute almost equally to men in the economy, boost the feeling of equality to women (Keo et.,al 2019) . the Egypt government should prioritize women’s skills development to give them employability skills and on-the-job training by establishing teacher training technical schools. In addition, women and youth should be given job promotions the same way men are given to manage sexual harassment in women effectively.

Similarly,Youth and women need to be equipped with education. Studies reveal that education is the most effective way to effectively empower the female gender politically, economically, socially and mentally. Girls who have at least attained secondary education were not significantly affected by early marriages and forced marriages. The provision of equal opportunities for training and development for all genders without any discrimination is essential (Samari, 2019). All genders should be at liberty to participate in all fields of study, for example, mathematics, engineering, science and technology.

Furthermore, the establishment of a sound health system centered on women and girls would help bridge the disparities that exist in gender violence. The activities should focus on maternal, neonatal, child health and nutrition to the young pregnant mothers and infants (Elsayed, 2020). A sound health system will ensure that healthy and safe genital mutilation is conducted free from the transmission of diseases. Also, proper sensitization and awareness are given to the people about the possible consequences of female genital mutilation.

The launching of anti-sexual harassment by the government is a possible solution to gender-based violence. The government should establish programs that defend the rights of women and the youths, boost women self-confidence, introduce network-building skills, and backing any plan supporting women’s power (Elyamani, 2021). The government should also help incapacitating national and international stakeholders in developing gender-based disparities.

Gender-based violence in Egypt is a critical issue brought about by sexual harassment, early marriages, forced marriages, spousal related violence, and female genital mutilation. Gender-based violence has brought about gender disparities which weaken the operation of Egypt as a country. A country needs to work tirelessly to solve gender-based violence if it has to realize some development. The priority in a country’s economy is the human capital, and therefore, it is essential to empower its citizens without gender discrimination.


El-Gazzar, A. F., Aziz, M. M., Mohammed, H. M., Elgibaly, O., & Darwish, M. M. (2020). Spousal violence and its determinants among married adolescent girls in Upper Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association95(1), 1-9.

Elsayed, R. (2020). The intersectionality of women’s access to sexual and reproductive health services and information in Ismailia, Egypt.

Elyamani, N. (2021). Combatting Street Sexual Harassment in Egypt: Policy Implementation Challenges and Way Forward.

Keo, C., Krafft, C., & Fedi, L. (2019, October). Rural Women in Egypt: Opportunities and Vulnerabilities. Economic Research Forum (ERF).

Khalil, C. (2021). Gender Impact on Travel Choice: A Case Study in Cairo, Egypt.

Mohammed, E. S., Seedhom, A. E., & Mahfouz, E. M. (2018). Female genital mutilation: current awareness, believes and future intention in rural Egypt. Reproductive health15(1), 1-10.

Samari, G. (2019). Education and fertility in Egypt: Mediation by women’s empowerment. SSM-population health9, 100488.


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