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Exposure to Violence and Clinical Outcome in Emerging Adults

This bibliography is based on how violent exposure clinically affects merging adolescents. This source evaluates 18-29-year-olds’ mental and physical health in relation community to intimate partner violence. ACEs, mental health, and social-emotional outcomes include focus, conclusion, limitations, methodology, and reliability annotations. It is summarized and offers an overview which scholars and practitioners can use to discuss interventions and policies that counter such adverse effects on this population.

Babad, S., Zwilling, A., Carson, K. W., Fairchild, V., & Nikulina, V. (2022). Childhood environmental instability and social-emotional outcomes in emerging adults. Journal of interpersonal violence37(7-8), NP3875-NP3904.

Considering adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), Babad et al. (2022) investigated the social-emotional landscape of low-risk emerging adults aged 18–25. The study focuses on environmental instability, self-esteem, loneliness, and intimate partner negotiation skills as ACEs’ effects. The authors conclude that environmental instability ACEs—emotional abuse, neglect, and familial substance use—decrease self-esteem. Surprisingly, the study finds that having a jailed family member improves negotiation abilities, demonstrating the complex consequences of ACEs.

Despite its strengths, this study is not without limitations. There are questions of generalizability on highly diverse or high-risk populations because a single area of focus is on people in low-risk zones. Moreover, with online self-reported survey data, respondents might also exhibit response bias and problems with remembering and putting into context childhood experiences. It has a high methodological reliability as it relies on a large online survey comprising 436 undergraduates. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression supports the findings and strengthens the study. Physical injury is substituted with environmental instability as the first ACE and offers an alternative perspective of how negative experience affects an adult’s social and emotional results. The article, being reliable and insightful, substantially adds to the literature on my topic, violence exposure and clinical outcomes in emerging adults. The study offers a nuanced perspective on ACEs, employs sound methodology, and is well argued, making important contributions to the current knowledge about the complex linkage between childhood experiences and social-emotional health in this vulnerable group for future researchers’ consideration.

Cohen, F., Seff, I., Ssewamala, F., Opobo, T., & Stark, L. (2022). Intimate partner violence and mental health: sex-disaggregated associations among adolescents and young adults in Uganda. Journal of interpersonal violence37(5-6), 2399-2415.

In light of this, Cohen et al., in their work, demonstrate how IPV impacts the mental health status of Ugandan adolescents and young adults. Sex-specific analysis has shown considerable gender differences in this nationally representative population. According to this study, males do this violence twice as often as females. Males were more likely to have suicidal thoughts and alcohol abuse compared to females. The article highlights the imbalance in understanding IPV dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa. It points out how much we need gender-oriented research to develop a sensitive treatment policy.

This source uses multivariate logistic regression with a nationally representative sample, thereby boosting the study. This study measures the rate of IPV among men and women and assesses its mental health consequences, providing gender-sensitive solutions. Credibility is enhanced in the study by the Journal of Interpersonal Violence. This paper will be useful in my study. It will help in designing appropriate interventions and programs for adolescents.

Haj-Yahia, M. M., Sokar, S., Hassan-Abbas, N., & Malka, M. (2019). The relationship between exposure to family violence in childhood and post-traumatic stress symptoms in young adulthood: The mediating role of social support. Child Abuse & Neglect92, 126-138.

Haj-Yahia et al. (2019) explore what happens when individuals who have experienced abuse in their childhood show PTSS in their adulthood. The authors specifically examine whether exposure to IPV and PV predicts higher levels of PTSS and whether these associations are mediated by social support. This paper attempts to fill the major void of existing knowledge on the effects of early childhood violence on psychological problems.

The authors contend that these two types of family violence, which involve physical and psychological aggression, are associated with higher rates of PTSS among younger adults. Additionally, this study provides evidence of how social support partially protects mental health against the consequences of family violence. Emphasis is placed on the importance of social support in handling the lasting results of a first-time encounter with violence. The results underscore the complex relations between family violence, social support, and mental health outcomes in young people’s lives, providing a deeper understanding of what determines psychological functioning among emerging adults.

However, the research also has some weaknesses. The cross-secured studies can cause recall bias because you cannot collect precise self-reporting information. Moreover, the study is largely based on an undergraduate sample, which could have implications for the external validity of the results. While generally acceptable for addressing specific research objectives, the strategy does not demonstrate any causal relationships. Interpretation of the results must consider these limitations.

Retrospective self-questionnaire was used in a sample of 516 university Jewish Israeli students. This method allows studying a wide range of family violence features despite using self-reported data and a convenience sample, which results in some biases. However, the use of the regression models and the Conservation of Resources Theory makes the research credible. Introducing interparental and parental abuse improves the methodological validity of this study. This article is vital for researching violence and clinical outcomes in emerging adults. My research on protective factors of violence exposure converges with this study’s emphasis on social support as a mediator. Social support and decreased post-traumatic stress symptoms in childhood family violence survivors highlight the importance of supportive surroundings. The Conservation of Resources Theory provides a better insight into the subtle connections between difficulties, social backing, and psychic effects on emerging youth.

Heinze, J. E., Hsieh, H. F., Thulin, E. J., Howe, K., Miller, A. L., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2021). Adolescent exposure to violence and intimate-partner violence is mediated by mental distress. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 72, 101215.

According to Heinze et al. (2021), mental distress and substance use interact with the association between ETV and IPV in adulthood. The Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology studied a longitudinal analysis of 850 Flint, Michigan, residents across 17 years. This study sought to address the gap in longitudinal evidence on how teen ETV relates to physical, sexual, and psychological IPV against the youth. Using parallel mediation models, researchers found that mental distress in emergent adulthood fully mediated the effects of adolescent ETV on later IPV outcomes. Substance usage is a predictor of IPV but does not act as a mediator. The role of adolescence onset ETV in adult IPV victimization is explored using a developmental psychopathology perspective.

Due to IPV’s high prevalence and severe health effects, longitudinal evidence is needed to understand its developmental trajectories and explanatory mechanisms. In the study, ETV is the cumulative effect of direct and indirect exposures to family and community violence during adolescence. Heinze et al. include a socioecological framework and stress-coping approach to explore the entire effects of violent exposure on community-level parameters. Under Social Learning Theory, youth exposed to violence may normalize aggressive speech, increasing the probability of IPV in later relationships. Though limited, the study advances the discipline. The 55.4% attrition rate raises sample representativeness problems. Still, the authors identify expected relationships to mitigate bias. Psychological distress and substance use, which enhance the likelihood of IPV in adulthood, are also discussed in the article. ETV triggers maladaptive coping techniques in emerging adults, which increases IPV risk and antisocial conduct, according to the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping. This source provides insight into the long-term effects of adolescent ETV on IPV outcomes and intervention options.

This source significantly advances my research on the effects of violence exposure and clinical outcomes among emerging adults. Its focus on mediating mechanisms, specifically mental distress, aligns with understanding how violent incidents influence clinical outcomes. Moreover, the incorporation of substance use as a determinant and its distinct role in mediation enriches my study of coping strategies and their impact on connections between violence exposure during youth and psychological well-being later in life.

Herbert, A., Heron, J., Barter, C., Szilassy, E., Barnes, M., Howe, L. D. & Fraser, A. (2020). Risk factors for intimate partner violence and abuse among adolescents and young adults: findings from a UK population-based cohort. Wellcome open research, 5.

Herbert et al. (2020) aim to determine the risk factors linked with intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) among adolescents and young adults in the UK through their article. The study drew data from 3,279 participants up to age 21 who responded to questionnaires within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Identifying groups likely to experience or initiate IPVA, conclusions on its prevalence, and implicated causes can be addressed as specified in the UK context in this source.

This study indicated that by age 21, one-third of UK youth had been exposed to IPVA. Demographic, mental health and behavioural predictors of IPVA victimization and perpetration are identified in the study. Most emotional IPVA and physical and sexual abuse are involved. Moreover, the study concludes that primary prevention strategies should consider complex causal pathways from those exposures to IPVA. Although the study has limitations, it provides valuable lessons. Recall bias and underreporting can arise from self-reported questionnaires, given that this matter is sensitive. Since data limits exist, trend comparisons between long-term partnerships and one-night stands are impossible. The article also highlighted the problems associated with the lack of data on sexual orientation, thus the need for qualitative research.

This research uses a strong population-based cohort study to support its findings. Statistical robustness is enhanced by using risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. I use this study to learn about IPVA in the UK, and it offers several predictors and prevalence rates among adolescents & young adults. Such information goes a long way in setting effective prevention measures for IPVA reduction.

Menon, S. V., Cohen, J. R., Shorey, R. C., & Temple, J. R. (2018). The impact of intimate partner violence exposure in adolescence and emerging adulthood: A developmental psychopathology approach. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 47(sup1), S497-S508.

This study focuses on the effect of parental IPV in late adolescence and early emerging adulthood. A study revealed that parental IPV may influence mental health outcomes such as depression, post-traumatic stress, and substance use over the period of six years. It also differentiates between parental IPV exposure and neglect as well as physical abuse.

The study found a complex relationship between parental IPV exposure and mental health during vulnerable development. Parental IPV exposure has a specific impact on internalizing symptoms during adolescence and increases drug use risk as individuals enter adulthood. The study emphasizes the need for appropriate intervention and prevention strategies for this vulnerable demographic and recognizes the unique impact of parental IPV exposure on well-being. The study has limitations despite its contributions. The research uses self-reported measurements, which may skew responses. While the study recognizes the unique impact of parental IPV exposure, it does not investigate the processes or pathways by which this influence occurs, leaving this to future research.

The study of mental health patterns over time is achieved through mixed-level modelling. With the big, diverse, multi-racial sample, the study is more truthful, giving us the whole picture of the effects of developmental consequences of parental IPV exposure. This study contributes to my research by highlighting the effects of parental IPV exposure on mental health outcomes and can facilitate focused intervention initiatives for this group.

Merrill, K. G., Campbell, J. C., Decker, M. R., McGready, J., Burke, V. M., Mwansa, J. K., … & Denison, J. A. (2020). Prevalence of physical and sexual violence and psychological abuse among adolescents and young adults living with HIV in Zambia. PLoS One, 15(6), e0235203.

Merrill et al. (2020) investigate the level of violent victimization experienced among AYA-HIV in Zambia. There have been limited studies on HIV-positive AYA in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Zambia. It aims to highlight those experiences, characters, and their perpetrators. The conclusions drawn from the study highlight the alarming prevalence of violence victimization among HIV-positive AYA in Zambia. This study estimates a lifetime prevalence of 78.2 % of victimization by violence and emphasizes the importance of specific policymaking. The majority of AYA participants reported polyvictimization with several instances of violence. Therefore, there is a need to understand the epidemiology of males and females aged 10-29 years who are living with HIV to prevent negative health and developmental outcomes of violence and HIV disease progression.

Despite its contributions, the source has its limits. However, cross-sectional studies do not allow for determining causality and exposure temporally. This will be influenced by self-reported data’s recall bias and underreporting due to the sensitive topic. Future studies should extend research into the long-term consequences of violence exposure during adulthood for HIV-related complications. This study applies cross-sectional analyses of baseline data collected from four HIV clinics in Ndola City, Zambia, in a randomized control trial. To increase the dependence of the study, violence victimization assessments are derived from well-known instruments like the ICAST-C and the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence. The post-stratification weights from the Zambian Demographic and Health Survey enhance the representativeness of HIV-positive male and female Zambians of 19 to 70 years.

The source sheds light on HIV-positive AYA violence in Zambia, which is pertinent to my research. Targeted solutions for this demographic require understanding their unique obstacles. For instance, the study’s focus on adapting preventative measures to the sex and perpetrator type of violence is significant to my research since nuanced approaches are needed to address unique violence experiences across communities.

Nikulina, V., Gelin, M., & Zwilling, A. (2021). Is there a cumulative association between adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner violence in emerging adulthood? Journal of interpersonal violence, 36(3-4), NP1205-1232NP.

The study by Nikulina, Gelin, and Zwilling (2021) examines the link between nine adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and intimate partner violence (IPV) in emerging adults. ACEs may cumulatively affect IPV, a link that has not been widely researched, especially in emerging adults. ACEs and IPV features, including physical and psychological violence, are assessed in a diverse college student population. Despite its merits, study results show no cumulative link between ACEs and IPV in emerging adulthood. The research shows that childhood traumas such as witnessing domestic violence, incarceration, and physical abuse are more significant IPV predictors. Observing domestic violence is linked to physical aggression and injury, as is household member incarceration and physical abuse. The results challenge the idea that ACEs cumulatively cause IPV and emphasize the importance of examining specific childhood events to understand and avoid IPV in emerging adulthood.

Despite these constraints, the study has offered important learnings. College student self-reports may not represent the overall population. Lastly, retrospective ACE and IPV reports would also be subject to recall bias. This study involves emergent adulthood only; therefore, it does not include other age groups. This study utilized the Adverse Childhood Experience Survey and The Revised Conflict Tactic Scale – 2 to measure ACEs and IPV among a diverse college student population. Bivariate and multivariate examinations of ACEs, cumulative ACEs, and IPV outcomes, accounting for demographic and socioeconomic controls. Despite using self-reported data that may limit the study’s validity, the research approach helps enhance the reliability of the study findings. Therefore, it is a valuable resource for my research as it offers refined perspectives on the linkage between ACE and IPV during young adulthood. This study challenges common beliefs about the effects of ACEs on IPV. It highlights the need to look at each child based on their experience rather than generalize everything together.

Rode, D., Rode, M., Marganski, A. J., & Januszek, M. (2019). The impact of physical abuse & exposure to parental IPV on young adolescents in Poland: A clinical assessment and comparison of psychological outcomes. Journal of family violence, 34, 435-447.

This source by Rode and colleagues (2019) examines the psychological outcomes of young adolescents in Poland who have experienced physical abuse by parents and those who have been exposed to parental intimate partner violence (IPV). The study also investigates the coping mechanisms and self-efficacy demonstrated by these adolescents in response to stress. The research aims to determine whether these two groups have distinct psychological outcomes and whether specific coping strategies or factors related to self-efficacy can be identified.

As such, their research was based on 90 participants aged 11 – 14 years who had suffered physical abuse at home, parental IPV and the control group. Adolescent physical abuse was associated with greater levels of trait anxiety, outwardly directed rage and lower self-efficacy compared to parental physical abuse. Trait anxiety was decreased, inwardly directed rage increased, and strength and perseverance also rose following parental IPV exposure. The study may have limitations, but it’s interesting to read. However, the conclusions of this study may be restricted due to the use of a 90-youth sample. Answer bias is possible with self-reported questionnaires, while cross-sectional studies are problematic when determining causality. Moreover, the narrow focus of this study on Polish adolescents could potentially impair the generalizability of this research to other age segments or different countries.

The study employed questionnaire-based clinical examinations and a comparison of psychological outcomes with parents’ consent. The study’s qualitative aspect is derived from clinical assessments, which provide depth of understanding. The study has clinical and practitioner implications that require recognition of different impacts of family violence. This is a study that details the intricate mental impacts that domestic violence causes upon Polish teenagers who assist in my study. This makes sense since the study looks at different forms of victimization, their impacts on family violence and their relation with the development of various mental diseases in children. These findings warrant specific intervention tactics for different teenage types of family violence.

Roehler, D. R., Heinze, J. E., Stoddard, S. A., Bauermeister, J. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). The association between early exposure to violence in emerging adulthood and substance use in early adulthood among inner-city individuals. Emerging adulthood, 6(4), 235-242.

Exposure to violence in emerging adulthood may enhance substance use in early adulthood. The stress-coping model and self-medication hypothesis were used to analyze a poor metropolitan community in Flint, MI, with 83% Black/African Americans. Early exposure to violence (ages 20-23) and subsequent substance use patterns (years 29-32) are examined longitudinally. Above-average violent exposure during emerging adulthood increases substance use in early adulthood, according to the authors. This implies a strong link between early aggression and subsequent substance use. In persons who have suffered early violence, screening for substance use is important to address possible difficulties before substance use becomes serious.

The limitation of the study is due to an urban community focus. There is also response bias in self-reported measures of violence and substance use. Determining causation is, however, difficult for a purely observational study. By using multilevel growth models, the researchers clarified the long-term interpretation of the connection between early aggression and drug abuse. The study outcomes put weight on the role of early life experiences in shaping substance use careers. Therefore, this source becomes significant for my investigation of the adverse childhood experiences that deal with violence and its implications on emerging adults, particularly in urban settings, and for explaining the progression of substance use.

Saadatmand, F., Dearfield, C., Bronson, J., & Harrison, R. (2022). Exposure to personal and community violence and associated drug use outcomes in African American young adults. Journal of ethnicity in substance abuse, 21(2), 708-729.

Saadatmand et al. (2022) look into ETV’s role in 18 to 25-year-old African-American youth substance use. This research differentiates between childhood and community ETV during adulthood and its consequences on drug abuse. The findings indicate that other life stressors, health, and social experiences moderate violence exposure. The authors wish to comprehend and clarify how violent exposure influences the alcohol and drugs of African-American youth. The study established that ETV alone elucidates distinct patterns of drug use at different points in life. The results suggest that low youth ETV helps discourage smoking and/or drug abuse. As predicted, Drug Use is predicted more by community violence exposure in adulthood than Childhood ETV. For example, gender differentiations are involved in risk factors such as exposure to gunfire or attacks, sexual assault, and carrying a weapon habitually that have been shown to lead to harmful drug habit development.

On its limitations, the violence and substance use exposure are self-reported and may give rise to bias. Also, this study involves only African-American young adults, limiting the study’s usefulness. Additionally, it is hard to make causal inferences in a cross-sectional study. It becomes more precise when ETV types are identified using factor analysis. As trustworthy, the research is funded by the National Institutes of Health and the District of Columbia Department of Health. This source can be beneficial in my studies into the connection between abuse, violence, and substance use among African-American youths.

Sami, H., & Hallaq, E. (2018). Nonsuicidal self-injury among adolescents and young adults with prolonged exposure to violence: the effect of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Psychiatry Research, 270, 510-516.

This paper examines 889 Palestinian adolescents and young adults living in periods of extended political violence and their rates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), PTSS, sadness, anxiety, and sleep issues. Prolonged trauma and violence, post-traumatic stress, and NSSI behaviors are examined in the study. Considering its link with PTSS, sleep problems, and depression, the authors recommend routine NSSI assessment and measures to prevent these domains. For Palestinian teenagers and young adults exposed to protracted violence, NSSI is a major public health issue. NSSI is used by 13.8% of the group; 43.1% have severe PTSD, and one-third have severe depression. In addition to depressive symptoms, certain PTSS clusters (avoidance/numbing and hyperarousal) were substantially related to NSSI, indicating that persistent trauma and violence commonly cause NSSI. Current political and domestic violence may affect PTSS symptoms and NSSI differently than past traumatic events.

The study highlights the paradoxical nature of NSSI and its relationship with violence and trauma. Additionally, self-report questionnaires may increase response bias, while the cross-sectional design prevents causation. Moreover, the focus of the study on Palestinian teenagers and young people could reduce its generalizability. Such a site will be of aid in my study of the sequelae associated with developmental adult violence exposure and clinical outcomes. It highlights the role of PTSS clusters on NSSI behavior among extended violence survivors.

Shoemaker, H. L., Howell, K. H., Jamison, L. E., Walker, H. E., & Wamser-Nanney, R. (2022). Relational factors associated with posttraumatic stress among emerging adults of color exposed to community violence. Violence and Victims, 37(2), 277-293.

In this article, Shoemaker et al. (2022) examine the role of ethnicity, community cohesion and social support in shaping PTSS. A study done on 243 university students of colour with an average age of 20 is informed by the PPI, or the person–environment interaction model. Investigate how relational relationships contribute to PTSS, specifically focusing on social support and community violence exposure. Less trauma and more social support lead to decreased PTSS. People exposed to community violence show a high risk of exposure to PTSS when compared to those with low social support. The findings show that an ethnic identity and a sense of community belongingness did not significantly predict PTSS in this group. As indicated by the study, social support is pivotal in PTSS therapy after community violence.

However, the study offers useful information regarding PTSS relationship factors among coloring emerging youth, with limitations. However, the study uses a cross-sectional approach, which makes it difficult to establish causal linkages. In contrast, the fact that the study is limited to university students could affect the generalizability of the findings among other growing adult populations. Self-reports are also susceptible to response bias. The aspect of violence and clinical outcomes in emerging adults makes the source very relevant because it provides information about how relational factors, including social support, influence PTS in ethnic-minority youths who are victims of community violence. This indicates that therapies should be tailored according to this group’s needs, while social support plays a role in mitigating the effects of trauma.

Steeg, S., Farooq, B., Taylor, P., Shafti, M., Mars, B., Kapur, N., & Webb, R. T. (2023). Childhood predictors of self-harm, externalized violence and transitioning to dual harm in a cohort of adolescents and young adults. Psychological medicine, 1-11.

The phenomenon of dual harm, where there is an overlap between self-injury and aggression against others, has been studied in this source. It investigates early life predictors of dual aggression, self-harm, and the ALSPAC cohort data. To obtain dual harm prevalence, explore childhood risk variables and adolescent risk factors associated with changing from mono harm to dual harm.

The scientists found that dual harm doubles from 16 to 22, stressing the necessity for early detection and management during this high-risk era. Depression, drug and alcohol use, peer and family self-harm, and being a victim of or witnessing violence are associated with an increased risk of transitioning from self-harm or violence at 16 to dual harm by 22. The findings emphasize the importance of understanding dual harm progression and imply that more risk variables in childhood are associated with a higher likelihood of dual harm than single damage.

The study has limitations despite its merits. Research using self-report measures may introduce bias, and the cross-sectional approach limits causal links. The findings provide insights into dual harm’s genesis, but their generalizability to larger populations must be considered. This site is useful for my research on developing adult violence and clinical outcomes. It illuminates the complex link between childhood risk factors, self-harm, violence, and dual harm. Specific psychosocial risk factors can inform treatments to avoid or mitigate dual harm in vulnerable adolescents and young adults.

Walker, D. T., Bills, K. L., & Motley Jr, R. O. (2023). Physical and mental health outcomes of Black emerging adults with community violence exposure: an integrative review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 15248380231194055.

The impact of CVE on Black emerging adults’ physical and mental health is explored in this paper. Integrated analysis of health impacts in black emerging adults exposed to CVE during a sensitive developmental phase (18–29 years). Black emerging adults are at risk of having negative health outcomes due to violent crimes that do not target black people exclusively. The majority of the 19 examined studies associate CVE with negative mental health outcomes among Black Emerging Adults, as well as seven adverse physical health consequences. The integrative review, therefore, advocates for more studies that will try to explain this complex connection as there is a sharp increase in violence in black neighbourhoods, and young black individuals generally get many health-related problems.

The integrated review sheds light on CVE’s health effects on Black emerging adults, but it has limits. The research is limited by 2012–2022 literature, and inclusion criteria may have excluded pertinent papers. The review also uses the selected studies’ procedures and conclusions, which may introduce biases due to research design and methodology. This source is important for my research on developing adult violence and clinical outcomes. It examines the health outcomes of Black emerging adults exposed to communal violence, revealing their unique problems and hazards. The integrative review supports my research on violence exposure and health effects and could feed Black developing adult intervention and support initiatives.


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