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Epidemiology of Ebola

Description of Ebola

Ebola is a very aggressive disease first detected in both Congo and Sudan around 1976 (Sun et al., 2022). Unlike other viruses, Ebola does not seek to survive in its host for long, as it is often fatal. Ebola viruses cause Ebola, only found in Africa and specifically within the Sub-Saharan region. Ebola has several symptoms, including tiredness, muscle and joint pains, constant headaches, loss of appetite, deteriorating vision over time, hearing and memory loss, and anxiety. Ebola virus can either be contracted from infected animals such as bats, monkeys, and gorillas or from one infected person to a healthy person. The mediums through which the virus is passed from one host to another include mucus, blood, vomit, and faeces (Ala’a et al., 2022). The symptoms of a person infected with the virus can last long after a successful treatment affects his day-to-day activities. Victims can also experience complications such as hypoxia, septic shock, and even failure of several critical organs, which might further compromise the patient’s Health.

Treatment of Ebola and the demographic of interest

Ebola, which is more prominent in Guinea, can be prevented by the use of a vaccine, and its symptoms can be treated by antibiotics and treatment methods, which include blood transfusion, oral fluids, and other antibiotics which treat other related diseases such as Malaria these treatments are mainly supportive as there is no particular Ebola antibiotic. The mortality of Ebola can go to as high as ninety percent of the infected as it mainly causes vital organ failure and much internal bleeding to the victim. The disease mainly affects people in Africa, specifically in areas that often experience these outbreaks, such as Guinea (Yerger et al., 2020). Most outbreaks have also been associated with rural areas with little or no access to medical care services.

Why Ebola is a reportable disease

The high transmission rate, very high mortality rate, and the ability of Ebola to disturb medical systems make it a reportable disease (Jacob et al., 2020). If left untracked or unreported, Ebola can have very high health disruptions and disturb the everyday lives of many people within and out of the borders of primary infection; therefore, it is crucial to report any case immediately. The reporting criteria include notification of any case to the local health center, which, upon confirmation, passes the case to the state and then the National Center for Disease Control. The World Health Organization is then notified to initiate a global action. The relevant organizations should then advise citizens about the symptoms to look out for and places to avoid visiting to counter and contain the spread.

Contribution of social determinants of Health to the Development of Ebola

Ebola has successfully thrived in the areas where it is most prevalent because of a lack of amenities such as health facilities (Ilungaet al al., 2019). Other determinants include lack of access to safe water and poor living conditions. Because of limited resources, the absence of proper health facilities and medical care services causes the virus to spread further before it is detected and contained. Unhygienic conditions, such as unsafe water sources, causes the disease to spread further due to the spread of contaminated liquids (Edoror et al., 2019). Another factor that causes an increase in new cases during an outbreak is the practice of traditional burials of victims, which risks spreading the virus as it can still infect other people even after the host’s demise.

Epidemiological triangle concerning Ebola and Special considerations or notifications

The epidemiological triangle includes the agent factor, which is the Ebola virus. The Ebola virus is very easy to spread and, at the same time, lacks an available medicine. The second component of the epidemiological triangle is the host factor includes the people infected by the virus and are in a position to transmit the virus to others, and lastly, the environmental factor, which includes social determinants of Health such as lack of access to health services, unhygienic conditions such as contaminated water sources and cultural practices that can propagate the spread of the disease, increase the chances of an outbreak or hinder the process of countering and mitigating the effects of an outbreak. Poverty is another aspect of the environmental faction of the epidemiological triangle of Ebola, as it is primarily found in regions with high poverty levels (Nwabuko et al., 2020).

The management and containment of Ebola spread should include harsh containment and quarantine measures because of its high infection rate. Healthcare providers should be prioritized when distributing personal protective equipment due to their high probability of infection. Education institutions and the general public should be given directions, such as what symptoms to look out for and whether or not normal operations should be halted until infections are successfully contained. Education and sensitization increase the chances of adherence to the laid-down measures (Webster et al., 2020).

Importance of demographic data to community health

By understanding the areas more affected by a disease, the age groups most vulnerable, and maybe the gender that is more affected, targeted interventions and resources can be put to areas with more need for them. Demographic data in the case of Ebola can help set up medical stations in areas lacking medical facilities and develop programs to improve hygiene in other areas to prevent future outbreaks. Understanding a place’s culture can help offer advice in a traditionally sensitive way to effectively pass information, such as the need to sideline traditional burial services during an outbreak without much resistance. Being culturally competent also helps the practitioner to bridge the disparity gap (Handtke et al., 2019).

Role of community health nurses and the Christian Worldview

Community health nurses assist in sensitization of the public to the importance of behavioral change to prevent infections during the primary stage (Yodsuban et al., 2023). During secondary prevention, community nurses help identify new infections, provide quarantine measures to stop the spread, and provide treatment for those infected. Tertiary prevention includes providing the victims with care to make them comfortable and prevent the disease from advancing to the critical stage that might cause a patient’s demise. Community nurses can apply the Christian Worldview by offering treatment with respect and handling the patients with dignity. The nurses can also offer emotional and spiritual support to family members whose loved ones died due to the outbreak.

Agency addressing the communicable disease and global implications of the disease

The Africa Center for Disease Control is in charge of developing measures to prevent and control the contraction of diseases such as Covid-19 and Ebola (Nnaji et al., 2021). Through various research, which is collaborated and coordinated with other international and local health organizations, the CDC can formulate guidelines that are backed by science to help manage the Ebola outbreak whenever it occurs. The CDC is also conducting continuous tests to find a working vaccine and better treatments for the disease.

The Ebola outbreak in countries has disrupted economic activities in areas affected by altering the movement of goods and services due to movement restrictions in and out of the affected areas. As an epidemic in the Sub-Saharan region, Ebola has disrupted health systems in the affected areas creating a need to modify health facilities to cater to a future outbreak. The different cultures and nations within the Sub-Saharan region have used quarantine and isolation as the primary techniques for managing Ebola outbreaks. There has been an intensive sensitization campaign to the public to promote self-defense against infection, supplemented with increased provision of appropriate equipment to medical practitioners to help them manage the infection while reducing the risks of accidental infection. These countries have also collaborated with international health corporations such as the World Health Organization, which provides extra material and academic support through donations from countries like China (Wang, 2019).


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