Several researchers have identified the positive impacts of mindfulness-based stress reduction practices on patients’ quality of life, especially by reducing mental health challenges. Mindfulness training has been proven to reduce the effects of various issues, such as physical health problems, substance abuse, depression, disordered eating, and anxiety (Castellanos et al., 2019). After reading the assigned articles, engaging in the MBSR Program, and reflecting on my encounter with Hispanics experiencing significant challenges related to their cultural background, I wanted to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness training on the Hispanic population. After researching the topic and reviewing the five academic journals, reflecting on my encounter with MBSR, and reviewing our class discussions, I concluded that the MBSR program is an effective intervention in assisting the Hispanic population in managing significant mental challenges associated with their identity and culture.
Part 1: Breaking it Down
Article 1: (Castellanos et al.,2020)
Castellanos et al. (2020) evaluated the recent empirical studies regarding cultural adaptations and the effectiveness of mindful-oriented treatments for Hispanic Spanish speakers. Although mindful-based interventions (MBIs) are extensively used among Hispanic speakers as psychological therapies, the authors hypothesized that limited information is known regarding their efficacy in addressing their mental challenges. The authors used meta-analysis and systematic review methodologies to recognize and reexamine twenty-two types of research in Latin America, the USA, and Spain, where eight sources were used for meta-analysis. The results demonstrated that culturally-based MBIs are significantly related to managing chronic illness, managing stress, reducing stress, and improving depression. Concurrently, the outcomes from the meta-analysis recommend a medium to enormous impact of the treatment methodology on mental challenges, which outperforms the scores in the comparison cohort (Castellanos et al.,2020). The mechanisms used to produce these outcomes include establishing cultural adaptation and methodological rigor ratings. Besides, the meta-analysis outcome was achieved after coding the eight types of research. The study concluded that cultural adaptations significantly enhance the implementation of evidence-oriented intervention among Hispanic speakers.
Article 2:(Elimimian et al., 2020)
Elimimian et al. (2020) assessed the sustainability and effectiveness of the MBSR training program for eight weeks on the well-being and wellness of Hispanic cancer survivors. The authors hypothesized that the MBSR program could significantly impact Hispanic speakers’ quality of life (QoL) in terms of stress management and mental health. The study used the experimental design where Hispanic cancer survivors underwent a rigorous eight-week MBSR program to determine its impact. The researchers recruited Hispanic cancer survivors from stage I to III BC stages diagnosed with the disease within the initial five years. After enrolling the participants in the MBSR training program, the researchers instructed them to execute the mindful practices at home while recording the outcomes in books and audio. Out of the 94 BC cancer survivors, only 33 completed the research for 24 months (Elimimian et al., 2020). The results indicated that the generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) measure and patient health questionnaire (PHQ) were significantly reduced compared to the baseline. While the mean change for GAD was -2.39, P=0.04, the mean for PHQ was -2.27, P=0.04:(Elimimian et al., 2020). Besides, the Short-Form 36 health-oriented QoL mental health recorded a significant improvement of 4.07.
The mechanism of producing these outcomes involves rigorous evaluation of patients at three and twenty-four months to determine the impact of the MBSR program on the QoL of Hispanic cancer survivors. While the Hispanic BC survivors recorded consistent positive results such as improved mental health and reduced depression and anxiety, the study concludes that an MBSR-oriented program for the population effectively improves their quality of life (Elimimian et al., 2020). Therefore, stress reduction interventions are crucial and can be extensively implemented to improve the quality of life of cancer patients.
Article 3: (Lopez-Maya et al., 2019)
Lopez-Maya et al. (2019) conducted a comparative study to explore the impact of mindful meditation in improving depressive symptoms among the English and Spanish-speaking cohorts. The researchers hypothesized that while mindful meditation is crucial in boosting depressive signs, limited research focused on the Hispanic-speaking population. The study used a randomized clinical research design for two treatment cohorts, with adult participants having medium stress levels. The sample population for the English speakers was n=40, while n=36 was for the Hispanic speakers, thus n=76. The participants were mainly recruited from the Los Angeles Community. The participants underwent rigorous health education (HE) for six weeks and regulated mindful awareness practices (MAPs). The results indicated a significant improvement in HE and MAPs in both English (0.30) and Spanish (0.29) speakers (Lopez-Maya et al., 2019). The research used Beck Depression Inventory as the mechanism for achieving this result. The community-oriented interventions are crucial in reducing depression risks among English and Spanish speakers since they reduce depressive symptoms.
Article 4: (Rojas-Torres et al.,2021)
Rojas-Torres et al. (2021) established a clinical experiment to ascertain the effectiveness of self-compassion (SC) and the MBSR program on individual-reported aspects of stress, depression, and anxiety in parents of learners suffering from autism condition in the elementary learning level. The researchers hypothesized that SC and MBSR programs are crucial in reducing depressors factors among the parents of learners with autism. The study implemented an experimental research design where the researchers implemented two brief training programs (SC and MBSR) for eight weeks. Out of twelve Hispanic speakers from Valencia who started the program, only ten completed the program (Rojas-Torres et al.,2021). The outcomes indicated that SC and MBSR training approaches lower anxiety and stress and catalyze mindful attention awareness. Besides, the research did not establish any changes when measuring the satisfaction element. The mechanism for producing the outcomes include applying similar intervention to the two groups to get valid results (Rojas-Torres et al.,2021). The study concluded that due to the small sample population, the researchers could not generalize that MBSR and SC intervention methods effectively address depressive factors.
Article 5: (Williams et al., 2022)
Williams et al. (2022) conducted an empirical study to determine the role of mindfulness-oriented stress mitigation approaches such as MBSR as a culturally suitable intervention for minority and racial communities in the USA, such as Hispanic and others. The researchers hypothesize that MBSRs are collaborative and sensitive to the cultural, social, and historical ideologies that correlate with the requirements of Racial or ethnic minorities (REM) such as Hispanic speakers in the USA. The study used the systematic review methodology to collect empirical evidence regarding the suitability of MBSR on the REM population (Williams et al., 2022). The study mainly included all the REM populations, including Hispanics, blacks, Asians, and Latinos. The empirical studies manifest that mindfulness-oriented stress mitigation approaches such as MBSR are ideal for the REM population in the US, such as Hispanic speakers (Williams et al., 2022). MBSR integrates with their history, social and cultural thinking, and practices. The study mainly focused on the REM population to establish the outcomes since a significant disparity exists between REM and whites regarding access to mental facilities, stress encounters, and management. Therefore, the researchers concluded that due to its efficacy in boosting physical, neurological, and psychological healing, MBSR is crucial in providing holistic coping.
Part 2: Evaluating the Article
It is crucial to evaluate the articles above to determine the validity and reliability of the evidence presented and their implications for future research. Firstly, Castellanos et al. (2020) asserted that cultural adaptations significantly enhance the implementation of evidence-oriented intervention among Hispanic speakers. While this evidence is based on the meta-analysis and systematic review of articles covering Hispanic speakers, the authors may be biased in achieving their objectives. However, the APA task force was crucial in selecting strong empirical studies to justify its assertions. Future research should include comprehensive methodological procedures such as treatment group comparisons and sample randomization to produce more realistic results (Castellanos et al.,2020). Concurrently, this article raises questions regarding the best intervention for ideal for a particular population to enhance mindfulness, necessitating further research. Besides, the research raises questions on the need to conduct rigorous studies to establish empirical studies on the impact of cultural adaptations on implementing MBSR interventions.
Secondly, Elimimian et al. (2020) concluded that stress reduction interventions such as MBSRs are crucial and can be extensively implemented to improve the quality of life of cancer patients. The methodology experienced limitations, such as low sample size, unresponsive respondents, and logistical challenges. However, the thirty-three respondents who completed the research validated the research since they underwent the full procedures, justifying the quality of the evidence. Further research, including MBSR sessions, should be based on REM BC survivors to determine their efficacy on quality of life (Elimimian et al.,2020). This article raises a question regarding practicing mindfulness to include controlled trials for more reliable results. Lastly, the article raises questions regarding the need for survivorship and minority-oriented cancer research to lower the increasing health gaps among the REM population in the US.
Also, Lopez-Maya et al. (2019) concluded that community-oriented interventions reduce depression risks among English and Spanish speakers since they reduce depressive symptoms. There were biases when selecting the respondents because others declined to participate in the research. However, the randomized control research led to quality outcomes and strong evidence. The study recommends further research to determine the accessibility of mindfulness programs to address depressive factors among the REM population (Lopez-Maya et al.,2019). The article raises questions on how minority communities in the US access MBSR programs to improve their mental health. Regarding academic research, the article raises questions on the need to incorporate aspects such as religion when recruiting participants.
Moreover, Rojas-Torres et al. (2021) concluded that due to the small sample population, the researchers could not generalize that MBSR and SC intervention methods effectively address depressive factors. The research had a limited sample size. However, this would not affect the evidence since the selected participants fully met the criteria and completed the study. Future research should use a larger sample size to achieve desirable results. The research raises questions about the need to include additional mindfulness aspects, such as mindfulness, in the parenting questionnaire (MPQ) to achieve desired results (Rojas-Torres et al.,2021). Lastly, the study raises questions on the need to improve the sample size in future research to improve the reliability and validity of the evidence.
Lastly, Williams et al. (2022) concluded that due to their efficacy in boosting physical, neurological, and psychological healing, MBSRs are crucial in providing holistic coping. While the article uses meta-analysis to present evidence regarding the suitability of MBSRs on the REM community since it addresses their social and historical needs, the authors might have been biased when selecting the articles. However, this does not affect the outcomes since the empirical studies followed a rigorous process, including the inclusion and exclusion criteria that address the research question. Therefore, the evidence presented in this research is justifiable. Further research should focus on determining the efficacy of MBSRs on the larger minority communities in the US. The research raises personal curiosity about experimenting in my locality to determine if MBSRs significantly impact Hispanics. Lastly, future research raises questions on the best mindfulness interventions for the REM population based on their social and historical needs.
As manifested in the above evidence, the research paper asserts that the MBSR program is an effective intervention in assisting the Hispanic population in managing significant mental challenges associated with their identity and culture. The five articles demonstrate that the MBSR program reduces stress, depression, and anxiety among Hispanic speakers. The methodologies used in the five types of research presented strong evidence, leading to reliable and valid research outcomes. The federal government should partner with local authorities to implement mindfulness interventions such as MBSR interventions to improve the quality of life among Hispanic speakers.
Castellanos, R., Yildiz Spinel, M., Phan, V., Orengo-Aguayo, R., Humphreys, K. L., & Flory, K. (2019). A systematic review and meta-analysis of cultural adaptations of mindfulness-based interventions for Hispanic populations. Mindfulness, 11(2), 317-332. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-019-01210-x
Elimimian, E., Elson, L., Bilani, N., Farrag, S. E., Dwivedi, A. K., Pasillas, R., & Nahleh, Z. A. (2020). Long-term effect of a Nonrandomized psychosocial mindfulness-based intervention in Hispanic/Latina breast cancer survivors. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 19, 153473541989068. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534735419890682
Lopez-Maya, E., Olmstead, R., & Irwin, M. R. (2019). Mindfulness meditation and improvement in depressive symptoms among Spanish- and English-speaking adults: A randomized, controlled, comparative efficacy trial. PLOS ONE, 14(7), e0219425. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0219425
Rojas-Torres, L. P., Alonso-Esteban, Y., López-Ramón, M. F., & Alcantud-Marín, F. (2021). Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and self compassion (SC) training for parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: A pilot trial in community services in Spain. Children, 8(5), 316. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8050316
Williams, T., Lynch, E., Jones, P., Bass, J., & Harrison, R. (2022). Mindfulness-based stress reduction as a culturally relevant treatment for racial or ethnic minorities. Counseling and Therapy – Recent Developments in Theories and Practices. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.103911