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Effects of Media on Culture


Social media has a significant impact on cultural practices, both positively and negatively, and has a significant impact on the future of culture. In today’s society and culture, the media has a significant influence on public opinion. Our media organizations perform a wide range of functions in our society. The laws that govern different societies have an impact on their media systems. Society is shaped and structured by messages broadcast by the media. The media can also help to disseminate cultural knowledge and artistic creations throughout the world. When it comes to media consumption, cultural preferences are important; however, when it comes to expensive forms of media such as movies and video games, corporations often decide which stories to tell and which to promote (Berger, 2017). More than any other medium, mass media is responsible for the spread of culture. It also assists institutional society in gaining a better understanding of themselves and their structures.

The media effects theory is the most appropriate for my artifact. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the media and technological advances have harmed our culture. Because of the proliferation of media, people are able to communicate and share their memories more effectively these days. By interacting with others and exchanging ideas, social media has assisted our society in becoming more creative and socially conscious. It can have a negative impact on culture by promoting violence, eroding cultural beliefs, and demoralizing children, among other things.


Early media studies were primarily concerned with propaganda and persuasion through mass media. Journalists and academics initiated the study of behavioral sciences in order to gain a better understanding of how mass media and communications affect society. Scholars have developed a plethora of theories and approaches to address this problem. Make use of these theories to investigate and analyze the cultural impact of media. This model was developed in response to widespread concern that media messages could outweigh other cultural influences that serve to stabilize people’s lives, such as those provided by family and community. This model presupposed that people were passive recipients of media messages and responded in predictable ways to those messages. For example, the radio broadcast of the War of the Worlds caused panic among some listeners who believed the story at the time (Valkenburg & Oliver, 2020).

The findings of the People’s Choice Study cast doubt on this model. A study conducted in 1940 looked into the influence of political campaigns on voter decisions. The majority of media consumers already know whom they will vote for, while those who are still undecided seek advice from family and friends. Many other media theories were disproved because of this investigation. These theories shed light on various aspects of mass media influence and manipulation.

The agenda-setting theory of media, in contrast to the extreme views of the direct effects model, asserts that mass media determine issues rather than public views on a given issue. If this theory is correct, the public will pay attention to and demand action on issues that receive a great deal of attention. In other words, the media has an impact on how the public perceives current events and stories. When the media refuses to cover a particular issue, the public’s attention is diverted.

According to critics, this is the argument used to assert that a media outlet has a predetermined agenda (Singer, 2018). Agendas include things like media bias in favor of liberal values, to name a couple of examples. The agenda-setting theory, for example, helps to explain why anti-smoking attitudes are shifting over time. Prior to the anti-smoking campaign in the media, smoking was considered a personal health issue. When the media through advertisements and public relations campaigns promoted anti-smoking messages, smoking was elevated to the status of a public health concern. Natural disasters have dominated the news coverage in recent months. However, the public’s interest in news is waning.

Researchers who are interested in setting the agenda are particularly interested in the factors that make a topic relevant. To put it another way, public opinion has an impact on government policy. In order to track public policy from conception to finalization as a law or policy, agenda-setting research must be conducted. The uses and gratifications theory is concerned with how people interact with various forms of media. According to this theory, people turn to the media in order to meet their requirements. You can, for example, watch Dancing with the Stars while simultaneously tweeting about it in real time. People use the Internet to find entertainment, information, and to connect with other people, among other things. A desire can be satisfied in a variety of ways using media, and the desire determines how the desire is satisfied. People’s media preferences can aid researchers in their efforts to understand why they use various forms of media.

Many studies have been conducted to determine the reasons why people use specific media and how it affects their lives (Valkenburg & Oliver, 2020). You use the internet to have fun and keep up with friends on social media sites such as Twitter and Dancing with the Stars. According to the researchers, a variety of factors influences media consumption. Other interpersonal and social requirements must be met as well. Researchers can gain a better understanding of a medium’s popularity and role in society by investigating the motivations that drive people to consume it. Understanding the motivations of individual Facebook users can help us better understand Facebook’s impact on society and its widespread popularity. The theories of media use and pleasure are frequently employed in the study of contemporary media issues. This is evident in the discussion of media and violence that has taken place in the previous sections. In accordance with the theory of uses and gratifications, researchers discovered a complex set of circumstances that surround the consumption of violent media content.

According to the cultivation analysis theory, constant exposure to a particular medium can distort people’s perceptions of reality to a significant degree. Because of the unique pervasiveness of television, this theory is most frequently applied to television studies. According to this theory, people who spend a lot of time in front of the television may have a distorted view of reality. The number of violent acts that are depicted on television, whether in news reports or dramas, dwarfs the number of violent acts that occur on a person’s daily basis. People who spend too much time in front of the television may develop an exaggerated perception of the world’s violence and peril, which may result in overreaction.

Studies on cultivation analysis have looked into how people perceive different things when they use heavy and light media, respectively. When putting this theory into practice, it is necessary to look at the media that one normally consumes for different messages. Researchers must take into account the cultural background of their subjects in order to accurately determine the other factors that influence how they perceive reality. In the case of television, viewing and media message processing, for example, family and peer groups have an impact on children’s behavior (Singer, 2018). If a person’s family and friends are important in his or her life, messages from television may be in conflict with those from family and friends.


The media is a powerful communicator with the ability to influence people’s opinions. A result of this is that the intended message is not delivered. “The medium is the message,” Marshall McLuhan once said, and he was correct. According to this definition, the media can be considered both a tool for disseminating information and a distinct industry. This article discusses the three primary functions of modern mass media, which are to inform, entertain, and advertise the public. Advertising has been credited with transforming the media into a commercial platform for businesses to operate on. The intense media coverage that has been given to this story could have unintended consequences. We make daily decisions based on the information provided by the media. Even when we are not aware of it, the media has an impact on our food preferences.

People rely on images from the media to learn about cultural groups with which they do not regularly interact. A cumulative and individual effect of media exposure on how you perceive and communicate with other people can be observed. In a society, there are small groups, larger communities, and massive institutions that all work together. Sociology provides a more comprehensive definition of the term. Long-term social cohesion necessitates the establishment of formalized relationships between individuals and organizations. The legal frameworks in the United States and the United Kingdom, for example, are in place. Societies are comprised of institutions such as governments and economic organizations, among others. Culture, on the other hand, is the sum of all of a person’s knowledge, beliefs, and practices combined into one entity. Culture is characterized by a lack of formalized rules, which is essential for appreciating and comprehending the human experience.

We have become more and more reliant on social media platforms. Having an impact on our society in both positive and negative ways Social media has enriched our society in a plethora of different ways. Social media has made it easier to connect with others and share information such as thoughts, photos, and videos. By interacting with others and exchanging ideas, social media has assisted our society in becoming more creative and socially conscious. If you run a business, you will need to be active on social media platforms. Global business and marketing have benefited from the use of social media (Berger, 2017). The popularity of online shopping is increasing. You have met people from all over the world because of your social media activities. Because of its openness and adaptability, social media makes it easier to keep up with the latest news.

Young Muslims are becoming more radicalized because of their exposure to social media. Several studies have found evidence that young Muslims who visit jihadist websites on the internet have become more extremist. As a result, they are looking for a forum where they can express themselves and connect with others who share their viewpoints. When people visit these places, their feelings about them are only confirmed, deepened, or hardened further. Even though young Muslims may be swayed by extremist content on the internet, their attitudes already predispose them to doing so.

Radicalization and social media are in a constant state of flux with one another. Preexisting sentiments can be expressed more precisely, expressively, and meaningfully with social media platforms. A place where new ideas, symbols, rituals, and identities can be explored. Thus, it has contributed to the development of a Western jihadist youth subculture, and it is possible that it has had an impact on its offline trajectory.

Internet supporters who are technophiles are enamored with the Internet. The public is repeatedly told that the Internet is a source of enlightenment and inspiration for human existence. We are constantly hearing about how Big Data and the Internet of Things will change our lives. Many people believe that digital technology will have a greater cultural impact than writing and reading because it has the potential to transform education, work, play, and interpersonal interactions (Brenn, 2017).

Digital and social media have already had an impact on cultural transformation. In the late nineteenth century, artists attempted to capture their subjects through portraits of readers, who served as their models (Martin, 2018). One of the most iconic images of what it means to be modern in the twenty-first century is still people squinting at their smartphones in a crowded space.

Social media, on the other hand, has had a negative impact on our society. You have absolutely no repercussions for posting offensive images on social media. People’s attitudes toward one another’s points of view have changed. People began arguing about political, religious, social, and cultural issues. It was a heated debate. As a result, people reduced their physical activity. People prefer to communicate via the internet. In addition, social media has had a negative impact on youth. Children may be harmed by the inappropriate content on some websites. Increased instances of online bullying and harassment are one of the most detrimental aspects of social media. Comments that are vicious and hurtful can be directed at anyone or anything. There are both positive and negative societal consequences to using social media platforms.

Friends communicate with one another nowadays through text messages or online social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter. These kinds of encounters have had a significant impact on society. The development of language has been influenced by online and text-based communication. Young people’s sense of self has been profoundly affected as a result of their actions. People’s social status and identity are shaped and reinforced through mediated exchanges. Therefore, what happens online has an impact on the way people perceive themselves in the real world.

The media have cultivated “Bedroom culture”. It is not the same thing for a family to watch television in the living room as they do in the bedroom. Media consumption has become more private, and children are actively involved in shaping the new media environment in their homes. Many children now have computers and Internet access in their rooms, allowing them to be immersed in a wealth of media (Brenn, 2017). People under the age of thirty want to establish an independent, self-governing environment in which they can explore and develop as individuals. As bedroom culture has grown in popularity, it has encouraged young people to distance themselves from their parents’ worldview by restricting their media exposure. As part of the self-socialization project, young people are attempting to personalize their media consumption experiences. This is usually done in the privacy of one’s home, away from the rest of the family.

It is possible that negative media psychological effects are causing a changed outlook on life. The media has had a profound impact on the cultural and moral values of society. The majority of viewers have faith in the media’s portrayal of the situation. Children and teenagers frequently make the mistake of confusing the real world with the fictional world. The media has an impact on people’s health as well. TV viewing and Internet use for extended periods raises the risk of developing eye and weight problems. Excessive exposure to the media contributes to sedentary behavior.

When it comes to children’s mental and physical health, the negative effects of media can be seen in their declining way of life (Martin, 2018). The television has replaced reading books, studying, playing outside, and socializing as the preferred mode of entertainment for today’s children. Certain music and film genres become more popular because of media coverage. Teenagers are drawn to violent and abusive rap songs because of the media attention that has been lavished upon them. Violence, drugs, sex, and other unhealthy habits are at the root of a large number of unfortunate incidents in which children become violent and lose control of their actions.

Some rock bands and music videos on the internet promote the idea that alcohol, drugs, and sex are normal and should be celebrated. Despite the fact that these media-created ideals may not be appropriate in certain situations, an increasing number of people are accepting them as part of today’s culture, according to recent research.


The research question for this paper was about how media has affected the culture. The literature review part outlines clearly different theories that relate to the media effects. The theories are further applied in the analysis part and discussed in relevance to the research question. Therefore, the objectives of this paper have been met appropriately.


Berger, A. A. (2017). Manufacturing desire: Media, popular culture, and everyday life. Routledge.

Brenn Taskin, M. (2017). The Effects of Media on Societal Culture. International Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(3).

Brennen, B. S. (2021). Qualitative research methods for media studies. Routledge.

Martin, G. (2018). Crime, media and culture. Routledge.

Singer, J. B. (2018). Transmission creep: Media effects theories and journalism studies in a digital era. Journalism Studies, 19(2), 209-226.

Valkenburg, P. M., & Oliver, M. B. (2020). Media effects theories: An overview. Media effects: Advances in theory and research, 16-35.

Valkenburg, P. M., Peter, J., & Walther, J. B. (2016). Media effects: Theory and research. Annual review of psychology, 67, 315-338.


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