Domestic Violence Homicide is any murder that occurs between intimate partners. It is a gendered crime since it involves both men and women victims. Each person should receive support in handling domestic abuse (Kim and Merlo, 2021). Women are more vulnerable to experiencing violence emotional, physical, psychological, sexual, or violence, which: results in injury or death. Some areas should be considered in tackling domestic violence homicide. The areas include domestic violence homicide challenges, the prevalence and impact of the violence, the history of homicide data, the eight-stage homicide timelines, Femicide Census Analysis of men’s homicides and the risk assessment of domestic violence.
Domestic Violence Homicide Challenges
In some countries, the number of reported domestic violence homicides exceeds the number of stranger homicides. Many factors influence how frequently domestic violence homicide occurs. These include the social, economic and political state of that country, as well as the gender, age and race of the perpetrator and the victim. Most domestic violence homicides happen at night when victims are alone in their homes. In these cases, the victims were typically killed with lethal weapons or further injuries (Ertl et al., 2019).
In comparison to other forms of homicide, these incidents are often fatal due to both the weapon used and additional injuries. Weapons commonly used in domestic violence homicides include knives, guns, and clubs. In many cases, these are used to cause internal injuries or cause death from blood loss (Jones et al., 2022). Other common tactics include strangulation or burning the deceased body after death. Due to these tactics, it is difficult to determine whether a man or a woman committed a homicide. Some of these deaths are homicides, which are caused by intentional actions.
Homicides due to domestic violence happen most often at night. It makes it difficult to investigate these incidents. Some of the victims are usually asleep when the incident occurs. In addition, people may not report incidents since they do not want to lose a relationship or be embarrassed by their abuser. It means few incidents get reported and investigated. As a result, few perpetrators are caught and punished for abusing people. One major challenge in addressing domestic homicide violence is that it often goes unreported. Many victims are afraid to speak out or seek help due to fear of retribution from their abuser or because they may feel ashamed or embarrassed. It makes it difficult for law enforcement and other organisations to intervene and support victims. Another challenge is the lack of resources and support for victims of domestic homicide violence. Many victims do not have access to legal, financial, or emotional support, making it difficult for them to leave abusive relationships or seek help. It can also make it more difficult for them to rebuild their lives after experiencing abuse.
Prevalence and Impact Context
Domestic homicide violence, also known as intimate partner violence or domestic violence, is a severe public health issue that affects individuals of all genders, ages, sexual orientations, and socioeconomic backgrounds (Velopulos, 2019, p 331-336). It is characterised by using physical, sexual, or emotional abuse by one partner in an intimate relationship to gain power and control over the other partner. Domestic homicide violence is a widespread problem that affects millions of people around the world. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), one in three women and one in four men have experienced physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner at some point in their lives. The prevalence of domestic violence varies by country, with some countries reporting higher rates of domestic homicide violence than others.
Domestic homicide violence can have severe consequences for victims’ physical and mental health and overall well-being. It can lead to injuries, disability, and even death. It can also have long-term effects on mental health, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Domestic homicide violence can also negatively impact children who witness or experience it, as it can lead to developmental delays, behavioural problems, and other adverse outcomes (Chin and Cunningham, 2019). In addition to the impact on individuals, domestic homicide violence can also have societal consequences, such as increased healthcare costs, lost productivity, and negative economic impacts. Society needs to address domestic homicide violence and support victims to prevent and reduce its occurrence and adverse impacts on individuals and society.
History of Homicide Data
In the early 19th century, the murder rate in England and Wales was relatively high, with a peak of around four per 100,000 people in the 1810s (Rivero et al., 2022, pp.1-27). This was a time of significant social and economic upheaval, with many people living in poverty and facing difficult working conditions. High levels of drunkenness and the prevalence of knives as a weapon also contributed to the high murder rate. The murder rate began to decline in the mid-19th century, and by the turn of the 20th century it had dropped to around one per 100,000 people. This decline was likely due to a number of factors, including improvements in living conditions and a decrease in the number of people carrying knives. The murder rate remained relatively stable throughout the first half of the 20th century, but began to rise again in the 1960s and 1970s. This was a period of social and political turmoil in the UK, with high levels of crime and public disorder. The murder rate peaked at around 2.5 per 100,000 people in the early 1980s. Since then, the murder rate in the UK has decreased significantly, and currently sits around 1 per 100,000 people. This decline has been attributed to a number of factors, including improved policing, changes in sentencing, and improvements in the economy.
In the UK, a significant proportion of homicides are committed in the context of domestic violence. According to the Office for National Statistics (ONS), in the year ending March 2020, about 35 percent of female victims and nine percent of male victims of homicide were killed by a partner or ex-partner. Domestic violence is a serious issue in the UK and globally, and it is estimated that one in four women and one in six men will experience some form of domestic abuse in their lifetime. The National Domestic Abuse Helpline provides support to those who have experienced or are currently experiencing domestic abuse, and there are a number of other organisations that also offer help and support (Stripe, 2020). Gender-based crimes are also a concern in the UK. According to the ONS, in the year ending March 2020, a total of 77 percent of homicide victims were male, and 23 percent were female. The majority of male victims of homicide were killed by someone they knew either a friend, acquaintance, or family member, while female victims were more likely to be killed by a partner or ex-partner. The ONS is the main source for data and statistics on homicides in the UK. They release a yearly report on crime and criminal justice statistics which includes data on homicides. You can also find information on gender-based crimes, including domestic violence, through the Home Office and the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) which also releases data and statistics on these topics, and their policies towards them.
Eight-Stage Homicide Timelines
There has been a rise in domestic abuse homicides globally, which has contributed to observed timelines that lead to homicide timelines abuse. On the safe planning and risk assessment approach, there is eight steps timeline that consistently introduces domestic violence homicide Smith (2022, pp.239-252). The timeline stages are included as follows: One is the pre-relationship perpetrator and stalking history. This occurs when partners leave their abusive partners. It results in emotional and psychological abuse and fear of future relationships even after the relationship. The second one is the growth of the romance into a serious relationship. The similar influences of interests, routines, and hobbies cause this. The third one is the relationship compelled by violence and bullying. This is where the perpetrator dominates the relationship through controlling behaviours, making it hard for their partner to leave, which can lead to physical abuse. The fourth one is that the perpetrator’s control becomes endangered. This happens when the relationship terminates due to financial difficulty. The fifth one is the rise in the partner’s dominance tactics—the partner’s intensity of control increases such that they will stalk or threaten suicide. The sixth stage is the change in thoughts by the perpetrator. The partner starts to revenge or assassinates as their strategy of moving on. The seventh stage is when the partner gets to a planning period. This is where the partner plans to purchase weapons or even find ways to get hold of their partner. They are ready to go the extra mile to get the victim alone. The last stage is homicide. The perpetrator kills their partner and can even go to the extent of harming the victims’ families and children.
Femicide Census Analysis to Men Homicides
Femicide, also known as gender-based violence against women, is a specific type directed against women because of their gender. In the United Kingdom, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) collects and publishes data on homicides, including information on the victims and perpetrators of these crimes (Chantler et al., 2020, pp. 485-493). However, it does not specifically track or report on femicides. There are some organisations that has conducted research on the issue of femicide in the UK, such as the Femicide Census, an initiative by the charity Women’s Aid, which aims to document and analyse all cases of femicide in England and Wales in order to better understand and prevent this type of gender-based violence. They have published several reports which you can find on their website. Their analysis of the data shows that in the years between 2009-2019, two thirds of all female homicides in England and Wales were committed by a current or former partner, and one in four femicides were committed by a man who also killed other people, usually children, family members or other women.
It’s worth noting that while the research by the Femicide Census is informative, it is not official and the data is not an exhaustive study of femicide in the UK, rather it aims to serve as a source of information and evidence on the scale and nature of femicide in the country (Weil, 2020, pp.110-112). In addition, men are also victims of homicide, and like female victims, majority of the cases are committed by someone they know, and can be related to issues such as violence, crime and disputes. Overall, it is important for both femicide and male homicide to be thoroughly investigated and understood, so that effective measures can be taken to prevent these crimes from happening in the future.
In the context of domestic homicide violence, risk assessment involves identifying and evaluating factors that may increase the likelihood of violence occurring within a particular relationship. Several risk factors have been identified as being associated with an increased risk of domestic homicide violence. A history of violence or abuse in the relationship, that is, past violence or abuse, is a strong predictor of future violence (López-Ossorio et al. 2021, p47-55). Substance abuse and hefty alcohol use can increase the risk of homicide and violence. Economic stress can also increase the risk of violence, mainly if one partner is dependent on the other for financial support. Lack of social support means people who lack a supportive network of family and friends may be at greater risk of experiencing violence. Stalking or obsessive behaviours such as stalking or obsessive behaviour can be red flags for potential violence. Additionally, access to weapons, particularly firearms, can increase the risk of lethal violence (Graham et al. 2021, p18-40). It is important to note that risk assessment is not a perfect science and cannot predict with certainty whether violence will occur. However, understanding the risk factors associated with domestic homicide violence can help individuals and organisations take steps to prevent violence and protect those at risk.
Domestic Homicide refers to acts of violence, including murder, that occur within the home or domestic setting, often perpetrated by a current or former intimate partner. Domestic violence can take many forms, including physical, emotional, financial, and sexual abuse. It can have severe and long-lasting consequences for victims, their families, and their communities. Risk assessment in domestic homicide violence entails identifying and evaluating factors that may increase the likelihood of violence occurring within a particular relationship. There are timelines that may contribute to homicide timelines abuse. Social, economic and political state of that country can dictate the prevalence and challenges of domestic violence homicide. Domestic homicide violence is a widespread problem that affects millions of people around the world. The Office for National Statistics records significant proportion of homicides in the context of domestic violence.
Chin, Y.M. and Cunningham, S., 2019. Revisiting the effect of warrantless domestic violence arrest laws on intimate partner homicides. Journal of Public Economics, 179, p.104072.
Ertl, A., Sheats, K.J., Petrosky, E., Betz, C.J., Yuan, K. and Fowler, K.A., 2019. Surveillance for violent deaths—national violent death reporting system, 32 states, 2016. MMWR surveillance Summaries, 68(9), p.1.
Graham, L.M., Sahay, K.M., Rizo, C.F., Messing, J.T. and Macy, R.J., 2021. The validity and reliability of available intimate partner homicide and reassault risk assessment tools: A systematic review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 22(1), pp.18-40.
Jones, C., Bracewell, K., Clegg, A., Stanley, N. and Chantler, K., 2022. Domestic homicide review committees’ recommendations and impacts: a systematic review. Homicide Studies, p.10887679221081788.
Kim, B. and Merlo, A.V., 2021. Domestic homicide: a synthesis of systematic review evidence. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, p.15248380211043812.
López-Ossorio, J.J., González-Álvarez, J.L., Loinaz, I., Martínez-Martínez, A. and Pineda, D., 2021. Intimate partner homicide risk assessment by police in Spain: The Dual Protocol VPR5. 0-H. Psychosocial intervention, 30(1), pp.47-55.
Smith, J.M., 2022. A forensic approach to intimate partner homicide. Current Practice in Forensic Medicine, 3, pp.239-252.
Velopulos, C.G., Carmichael, H., Zakrison, T.L. and Crandall, M., 2019. Comparison of male and female victims of intimate partner homicide and bidirectionality—an analysis of the national violent death reporting system. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 87(2), pp.331-336
Chantler, K., Robbins, R., Baker, V. and Stanley, N., 2020. Learning from domestic homicide reviews in England and Wales. Health & Social Care in the Community, 28(2), pp.485-493.
Weil, S., 2020. Two global pandemics: femicide and COVID-19. Trauma and Memory, 8(2), pp.110-112.
Rivero-Cantillano, R., Llorca-Jana, M., Clarke, D., Rivas, J., Quezada, D. and Allende, M., 2022. Interpersonal Violence in Chile, c. 1880s–2010s: A Tale of Delayed but Successful Convergence. Social Science History, pp.1-27.
Stripe, N., 2020. Domestic abuse during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, England and Wales: November 2020. Office for National Statistics, 25.