1) Major theories of cognition
Different researchers have presented different theories (Kaufman, 2018). One such theory states that people make decisions based on their experience with the situation and prior knowledge. While this theory could be one of the most important, it does not reflect all cognitive processes. Another theory states that different situations require people to adopt different methods for information processing, which leads to differences in their actions. One such example is the difference between accidents caused by objects falling against horizontal or vertical surfaces. Another theory states that people tend to use more reliable information while making decisions
2) Historical and contemporary context of cognition
The term cognition was first used in philosophy by philosophers like John Locke and David Hume. It was first used as an umbrella term to cover many different research traditions in psychology. The cognitive movement came in the 1950s, led by scientists like Miller, Marr and Chomsky. With computers being invented at this time, there was a development of computational theories of mind. This led to a different viewpoint that cognition is a system that processes information and works hand in hand with consciousness. The neural activity in the brain explain cognition. Cognition became the study of mental functions, including perception, language production and comprehension, learning and reasoning.
3) Biological basis of cognition
The biological basis of the mind refers to the biological mechanisms that connect physiological processes in the brain with the mental phenomenon. Although cognitive neuroscientists do not generally regard this field as a major discipline, it is very popular in public and academic circles. Cognitive processes are different in structure but also in function (Kristjánsson, & Egeth, 2020). The structure is how we can sense and perceive information and the function is the way our senses interact with each other to understand what is being perceived. The biological basis of cognition focuses on two important functions. First, it emphasizes more practical and theoretical ways biological factors influence cognitive processing. Second, it highlights how cognitive processes may be understood as adaptations to environmental pressures.
4) Attention, consciousness, and perception
Attention, consciousness, and perception are interrelated aspects of brain function that enable people to be aware of their surroundings and respond appropriately. The physiology of attention is not completely understood; however, a great deal is known about attention in cognitive psychology (Schmahmann, 2019). Regarding the relationship between attention, consciousness, and perception, the neglect syndrome can be an example. Attention focuses awareness on a subset of the available perceptual information. Consciousness is awareness of environmental and internal events. Perception is the transformation of sensory input into organized experience. They share subjectivity, intentionality, and selective adaptation or habituation to stimuli.
5) Differential impact of cognition on the individual factors
Cognitive skills are the pathways for acquiring, processing and storing information. These skills are developed through an individual’s life experience and training. There are various factors that influence the differential impact of cognition on an individual. These factors include environmental conditions, past experiences, cultural background and current demands. Environmental conditions such as parenting, poverty and maltreatment hold great promise on child cognitive development. Cultural practices affect how developing children perceive their surroundings. Children’s background establishes their viewpoint of life which they carry even through adulthood. Experiences influence our thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and consequently cognition development. Cognitive processes are associated with memory and decision making. Memories and experience can influence cognition and current environmental conditions like weather, noise, and distractions. Cognition can be affected by the culture in which we live and individual differences in perception and mental abilities, such as brain-wave patterns abilities in math or language (Reading, understanding & speaking).
Hibbs, P. T. (2017). Do you see how I see? The trinitarian roots of human perception. The Westminster Theological Journal, 79, 59-76. (Major theories of cognition)
The book offers a critical introduction to all major theories of cognition, from Aristotle and Aquinas forward, intending to understand the nature and purpose of perception. The author argues that the three fundamental questions about human perception – How do we see? What do we see?, and Why do we see? – remain unanswered by modern and postmodern philosophy. He grounds his study in the Trinitarian metaphysics of Thomas Aquinas, who saw human perception as natural participation in God’s omniscience. The author discusses interdisciplinary approaches to human perception and cognition based on the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. Eight major theories of cognition are considered, with the philosopher Charles S. Peirce singled out for special attention. Its importance is explained from both a historical and a contemporary perspective. The essential features of Peirce’s thought are then brought into dialogue with insights about the foundational nature of unity or plurality that emerge from classical Trinitarian theology. And this reflection opens up fresh interpretive possibilities for reflecting upon how we see ourselves, others, and our world, providing food for thought for all who seek human wisdom derived from Human Nature (Physics) and divine revelation.
Fantozzi, P., Sesso, G., Muratori, P., Milone, A., & Masi, G. (2021). Biological bases of empathy and social cognition in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a focus on treatment with psychostimulants. Brain sciences, 11(11), 1399. (Biological basis of cognition)
The study provided in article evaluate the biological bases of empathy and social cognition among people suffering from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Biological and neuropsychological underpinnings of responsiveness and social perception in people suffering from ADHD are still little known, partly due to the scarcity of studies. Children with ADHD represent an interesting case as they show an impairment of the theory of mind (ToM), which is usually associated with neurodevelopment disorders. They also present several impairments related to emotion regulation, empathy and socio-cognitive skills, including a higher ratio of reactive aggression and a lower social problem-solving proficiency that persist despite treatment with psychostimulants. Finally, ADHD children show reduced activation in brain areas implicated in social cognition during affective response processing tasks. The authors discusses how these deficits severely impact the daily lives of ADHD patients and their families, considering that these individuals are often misunderstood, especially by adults, for their impulsive, aggressive and disruptive behaviors. This article aims to provide clinicians with a comprehensive, clear view of the available evidence on neural mechanisms underlying empathy and social cognition in ADHD Patients are cognitively impaired at ToM tasks; they also have difficulty in emotion recognition (ER), including facial expressions (EFER) and prosody (EPRO), mainly due to a general low sensitivity to visual stimuli in patients with ADHD. And this reflects a greater difficulty in social attention
Pal, P., Mahour, P., Arya, A., & Agrawal, V. (2021). A study on theory of mind among adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health-ISSN 0973-1342, 17(4), 115-132. (Attention, consciousness, and perception)
The research provides an in-depth analysis of the cognition among teenagers with Oppositional Defiant Disorder. They integrate information from attention, consciousness and perception. The research examines the cognitive theory among teenagers diagnosed with the oppositional defiant disorder. They found that adolescents who exhibit this disorder have many challenges processing how their actions affect others. The ideas of the researchers builds on previous findings in attention, consciousness and perception- they conducted a research to find the relationship between attention, consciousness and perception, thereby focusing on the cognitive functioning of the mind. To perform this test, the students were divided into two groups. The first group comprised students with a normal mental setup, who scored> 1 SD in any one social index or communication index in the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). On the other hand, the control group consisted of students with a typical mental setup. Results showed that autistic children performed poorly on attention, consciousness, and perception compared to their normal counterparts.
Fantozzi, P., Sesso, G., Muratori, P., Milone, A., & Masi, G. (2021). Biological bases of empathy and social cognition in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a focus on treatment with psychostimulants. Brain sciences, 11(11), 1399.
Hibbs, P. T. (2017). Do you see how I see? The trinitarian roots of human perception. The Westminster Theological Journal, 79, 59-76.
Kaufman, A. S. (2018). Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues. Guilford Publications.
Kristjánsson, Á., & Egeth, H. (2020). How feature integration theory integrated cognitive psychology, neurophysiology, and psychophysics. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 82(1), 7-23.
Pal, P., Mahour, P., Arya, A., & Agrawal, V. (2021). A study on theory of mind among adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health-ISSN 0973-1342, 17(4), 115-132.
Santello, M., Toni, N., & Volterra, A. (2019). Astrocyte function from information processing to cognition and cognitive impairment. Nature neuroscience, 22(2), 154-166.
Schmahmann, J. D. (2019). The cerebellum and cognition. Neuroscience letters, 688, 62-75.