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Critique of Parental Presence in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Article


The following critique examines a quantitative research article titled “Predictors of Parental Presence within the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit” by Lauren Head Zauche et al. (2020). The impacts of parental presence on preterm toddler development and the factors that affect parental attendance in the NICU are explored. It is crucial to gain a deeper understanding of these variables to facilitate the development of interventions and establish NICUs that promote parental presence. This critique ambitions to assess the research trouble, studies questions, methods, results, and implications provided inside the article, evaluate the look at’s usual first-rate, and adherence to benchmark criteria.

Purpose Statement:

The cause of this critique is to assess the pleasantness of the quantitative studies article by Zauche et al. (2020) and decide how nicely it meets the benchmark standards installed via Polit and Beck. By evaluating the research trouble, research questions, and ethical factors, taking a look at the layout, sampling, facts series, statistical analysis, effects presentation, dialogue of findings, and implications for scientific exercise, this critique pursuits to offer a complete evaluation of the take a look at’s strengths and weaknesses.

Research Question:

What factors predict parental presence inside the neonatal in-depth care unit?


Ethical Aspects of the Study:

Informed consent implies these moral values: The observer wanted informed consent from toddler parents in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The researchers gave focused information on its objective, methods, and potential hazards to parents (Leo et al., 2022). Informed consent allows participants to choose to participate or not.

Privacy and anonymity: They protect participants’ privacy without naming the parents or toddlers. Participants’ privacy and statistics can only be reconnected by protecting their data.

The information provided may only cover some ethical considerations and protections in the observation. With IRB permission, informed consent processes, player confidentiality protections, and other ethical issues, the review must include all moral aspects.

Research Design:

The go-sectional analysis measured NICU parent attendance. Move-sectional designs examine variable relationships using time-specific data.

Scientific record screening and parental consent. 48-hour neonatal critical care unit acoustic surveillance included inquiry. Assessed parents.

NICU A visitation logs and NICU B clinical report abstraction determined parent arrival. Neonatal intensive care scientific document abstraction A. Observed group members will check newborn critical care unit B visiting logs and clinical data with nurses. “Parental Presence,” the percentage of time a parent was present, was computed by dividing the total time a child got a gift from at least one parent by the audio recording duration.

Demographics and two NIU stress and self-efficacy questions started the intelligence series for moms. Maternal and infant clinical data were evaluated. Comorbidities, sedation, lines/drains, NICU days, and newborn acuity were significant. 2020 et al. Bed, room, and contact safety. PSS: NICU and Considered Maternal Parenting Independence Tool studied.

NICU PSS. Three subscales—Infant Behavior and Look, Connection and Parental Function, and Things and Sounds—measure neonatal critical care unit mother stress. Caring, behavior elicitation, observation, and situational views are assessed using the 20-item Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy Tool. Manages itself.

Parental NICU recruitment is studied cross-sectionally. Clinical file screening, parental consent, and 48-hour audio recording collected data. Parental stress and self-efficacy were assessed. Outline data collecting and sizing equipment instead of the study’s questions, hypotheses, and ability boundaries.


The study examines 32–40-week preterm babies. Level III newborn critical care units in a Southeastern US pediatric healthcare system recruited participants from December 2016 to June 2017 (Dol et al., 2023). Due to comorbidities, these children were transported from the maternity wards to the newborn critical care unit for surgery. Infants of crown wards or non-English speakers were not monitored.

Four people could visit the NICU with the dad and general mom. Due to flu/RSV season, children under 12 were not allowed during the look-at length (Brødsgaard et al., 2019). Parents required the NICU secretary’s name to enter and leave. NICU B no longer requires sign-in/out. Parents with single- or double-room babies can stay overnight.

Convenience sampling recruited level III neonatal critical care facility infants in a pediatric medical device. The exclusion rules covered toddlers in state wards or whose mothers had linguistic problems, while the inclusion standards were based on gestational age and corrected gestational age. Comfort sampling may restrict the study’s generalizability.


Statistical Analysis

The cross-sectional study assessed NICU parental presence and variables. A southeastern US children’s hospital’s two-level III NICUs recruited 32–40-week gestational age-adjusted babies. December 2016–June 2017 developments are studied. The 48-hour survey included 66 newborns (Brødsgaard et al., 2019). Pediatric surgery requires neonatal intensive care. State-cared and non-English-speaking youngsters were exempt.

NICU A had open-bay, single, and double-occupancy beds. NICU B had headwall-separated open-bay beds and unmarried family quarters. Four parents could visit the NICUs. No 11-year-olds. Parents entered and left NICU A by calling the unit secretary. NICU B no longer needs this.

Only parents with children in private or shared rooms might stay overnight in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Visit logs and NICU B medical file abstraction showed parental presence. The toddler’s gift duration was estimated by dividing the audio recording time by the fraction of time a parent was present. Maternal age, education, infant gender and race, gestational age, comorbidities, surgical history, and environmental factors—including room type—were collected.


Statistics predicted NICU parental presence. A popular GLM was utilized to assess capacity connections between unbiased factors and parental presence. F-information tested the healthy version without fitness. Recommendation, standard deviation, and possibility are descriptive statistics for all variables. NICU parental presence ranged from 0% to 100%, with a median of 27% and an interquartile range of 10% to 45%.

The 48-hour data collection period averaged 1.92 visits, and parental presence did not differ between weekdays and weekends. NICU room type, surgical history, neurological comorbidity, family size, and PSS: NICU rating predicted parental presence in a GLM analysis (Chowdhury et al., 2021).

Parental presence affects surgery and room type. NICU room type, operation records, neurological comorbidity, family size, and maternal pressure affect parental attendance. NICU parental presence is visible.



The authors studied several speech difficulties. First, audio-recording data and parental presence records were collected over 48 hours. This short timeframe may not adequately represent parental attendance throughout the hospitalization, which could last weeks or months. Second, information about maternal self-efficacy and NICU stress was collected throughout the stay, which varied among kids.

Hospitalization variability altered findings. Scientific statistics about parental presence at NICU B may be less dependable than visitor records. Since postpartum depression affects parent-child interactions, the lack of mother depression data may have caused the repercussions.

One issue is the look’s cross-sectional layout. This design does not allow causality analysis or parental presence changes over time (Dayton et al., 2020). Self-reported metrics like maternal self-efficacy and NICU stress may lead to bias or social desirability effects.

The authors’ findings immediately correspond to the observations. Neurological comorbidity, surgical history, room type, perceived NICU stress, and family diversity are significant predictors of parental attendance in the NICU. Impact sizes are provided for each predictor, demonstrating their impact on parental presence.

Clinical Practice:

Researchers suggest several medical practice recommendations. They stress the need for family involvement in the NICU and 24-hour visitation rules. They also suggest interviewing parents about the difficulties of traveling with their babies and providing additional social support to families at risk for low parental presence and social isolation.

The researchers are recognized for wanting more studies on factors affecting parental presence, the effect of NICU layout on parental satisfaction and involvement, and the association between neurological comorbidities, perceived stressfulness, surgical operation, and parental presence. The findings and previous research on parental presence and involvement in the NICU and its effects on child outcomes inform scientific practice and future research.


Zauche et al.’s quantitative analysis sheds light on parental NICU attendance and preterm toddler development. The observer’s study problem and questions are outlined, and data gathering and analysis are thoughtful. Recognizing pattern biases and weaknesses. The authors discuss their findings for medical practice and stress the need for future research. It meets numerous standards and enhances field expertise.


Brødsgaard, A., Pedersen, J. T., Larsen, P., & Weis, J. (2019). Parents’ and nurses’ experiences of partnership in neonatal intensive care units: A qualitative review and meta‐synthesis. Journal of clinical nursing, 28(17-18), 3117-3139.

Chowdhury, D., Johnson, J. N., Baker‐Smith, C. M., Jaquiss, R. D., Mahendran, A. K., Curren, V., … & Shaffer, K. (2021). Health care policy and congenital heart disease: 2020 focus on our 2030 future. Journal of the American Heart Association, 10(20), e020605.

Dayton, C. J., Malone, J. C., & Brown, S. (2020). Pathways to Parenting: the emotional journeys of Fathers as they prepare to Parent, a new infant. Handbook of Fathers and Child Development: Prenatal to Preschool, pp. 173–194.

Dol, J., Hughes, B., Bonet, M., Dorey, R., Dorling, J., Grant, A., … & Curran, J. (2023). Timing of neonatal mortality and severe morbidity during the postnatal period: a systematic review. JBI Evidence Synthesis, 21(1), 98–199.

Leo, M., Bernava, G. M., Carcagnì, P., & Distante, C. (2022). Video-based automatic baby motion analysis for early neurological disorder diagnosis: state of the art and future directions. Sensors, 22(3), 866.

Miller, S. M., Hui-Lio, C., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2020). Health benefits of tai chi exercise: a guide for nurses. Nursing Clinics, 55(4), 581-600.

Zauche, L. H., Zauche, M. S., Dunlop, A. L., & Williams, B. L. (2020). Predictors of parental presence in the neonatal intensive care unit. Advances in Neonatal Care20(3), 251-259.


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