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Correlation Between Minorities Today and the Races in Dragon Ball Z


Minorities still deal with a variety of racism and discrimination-related problems in modern American culture. The porpose of this research is to explore the relationship between modern minority groups and how races are portrayed in the hugely successful anime series Dragon Ball Z. The research looks at how the show’s varied cast of characters either upends or challenges current social norms and prejudices. This study aims to investigate the significance of representation and how it affects audience perception using a mixed methodology analysis. This study reveals patterns and provides insight into the connection between minority representation and the production of race in the series by closely examining character qualities, storylines, and visual signals. This study reveals patterns and provides insight into the connection between minority representation and the production of race in the series by closely examining character qualities, storylines, and visual signals. A review of preliminary research, Dragon Ball Z’s character designs do include a variety of racial and ethnic traits, giving recognition to numerous minority groups. This study contributes to a more detailed understanding of the manner in which minorities are portrayed in contemporary media using Dragon Ball Z as a case study. By evaluating the intricate relationship between minorities today and the representation of ethnicities in the films, the current study illustrates the intricate connection between the entertainment industry and the norms of society. therefore, the resaerch emphasizes the value of accurate and insightful descriptions in encouraging greater diversity and inclusive depiction of minority groups. The investigation emphasizes the role of the media’s popularity in influencing conversations about society and cultural democracy, emphasizing the value of inclusive depictions.

Introduction and Statement of the Problem

A variety of racism and prejudices problems persist and plague minorities in modern American culture. Various minority population remain to experience disadvantages and inequality amid improvements in their civil rights and advancement in society.Numerous environments, including employment settings, the health care system, and educational institutions, are hostile to and marginalize minorities. The Dragon Ball Z series’ continuous Frieza Saga subtly draws attention to the numerous challenges that contemporary minorities encounter because to their race. The Frieza Saga from Dragon Ball Z, which has a diverse cast of characters and intricate storylines, ranks as one of the most lauded and well-known stories in the development of manga and anime series (Olson & Reinhard, 2020). Considering the fact that Dragon Ball Z is a fictional story, there are several similarities between the lives of minorities in contemporary society as well as the races in the anime. Anime is a well-known kind of entertainment that has a big effect on viewers. The present research attempts to look into how minorities are depicted in the anime series Dragon Ball Z in relation to current minority experiences.The research problem discussed in the current investigation seeks to shed light on the actual struggles and experiences of marginalized groups while also investigating the enduring ethnic and prejudice-related difficulties that minorities face in contemporary American society. This is done by connecting it to how races are portrayed in Dragon Ball Z. To successfully address minorities difficulties and work towards a society with greater equity, it is essential to comprehend the nature and scope of the issues.The importance of this study rests in its addition to our comprehension of the ongoing problems minorities confront as well as the function of popular media in creating inclusive environments and influencing public opinion.Consequently, the overall purpose of this study of literature is to evaluate the relationship between minorities in contemporary society and the races in the Frieza Saga of Dragon Ball Z.

Literature Review

Overview of theoretical approach

The present research uses an all-encompassing theoretical framework to investigate the relationship between minorities in modern society and how different races are portrayed in Dragon Ball Z. To give an extensive framework for research, this research depends on perspectives from social identity theory, representational theory in the media, and cultural theory. The film business continues to be a key branch for engaging consumers of media and producing cash in today’s oversaturated media landscape. The study of social identity theory focuses on how people create and preserve their sense of self in connection with their social environment. The theory can be used to examine how different races are represented in Dragon Ball Z in order to better comprehend how minority populations may connect with or interpret protagonists that are representative of their racial or ethnic origins. According to Malik et al. (2022), the theory of social identities examines how members of a particular group, particularly ethnic groupings, come to share an understanding of identity. Positive media portrayals thereby promote group identification, while negative media portrayals are associated with negative assessments of group members. Additionally, it investigates how non-minority audiences perceive and react to racial representation, taking into account the likelihood that prejudices will be reinforced or sympathy will be prompted.

The persistent racial and discrimination-related problems that minorities confront in modern American society can be examined through the lens of critical racism studies. The intersections between race, social structures, and systemic injustices are highlighted by the theoretical vantage point. Theoretical approaches make it possible to critically examine the historical, cultural in nature and political aspects of racial movement, making it easier to comprehend the larger framework in which minority perceptions and portrayals exist. Media representation theories are applied to look at how various ethnicities are portrayed in Dragon Ball Z. These hypotheses put a lot of focus on the ways the media creates and reinforces society norms, preconceptions, and stereotypes. (Malik et al., 2022). Theories from cultural studies offer a more comprehensive perspective on how popular media interacts with society. According to this viewpoint, media products like anime are impacted by and help shape societal principles, opinions, and customs rather than being independently made. Exploring how Dragon Ball Z, as a cultural artifact, responds to the current sociocultural environment in terms of minority representation is made possible by cultural studies ideas. It looks into the possibility of media challenging established narratives and promoting diversity.

Overview of Independent Variable

The cultural setting of Dragon Ball Z is investigated as an independent factor that affects the depiction of races. The cultural setting entails societal norms, social customs, and historical factors that have an impact on how various races are portrayed. By examining the cultural context, the study investigates whether the series conforms to or rejects existing racial practices and standards. By thinking about how the depiction of various races in Dragon Ball Z interacts with the cultural landscape of contemporary American society, the dynamic relationship between the entertainment industry, culture, and the formation of racial identities throughout the entire manga series is revealed. There has been debate over whether the Dragon Ball Z episode “Frieza Saga” and how it depicts different races have anything to do with actual ethnic and discriminatory concerns. Saiyans, Namekians, and Frieza’s own species are only a few of the races represented in the Frieza Saga of Dragon Ball Z. Groups frequently clash because each tribe has distinctive qualities and abilities that distinguish them different from the others. A warrior race with extraordinary strength and a fierce sense of respect, Saiyans are known as the Saiyans. The kind, spiritual Namekians have their ears that allow them to communicate telepathically and can regenerate amputated limbs. The Frieza race is incredibly powerful, capable of changing into many forms, and skilled in energy manipulation (Olson & Reinhard, 2020). In light of these fundamental differences, every race must deal with its unique challenges and prejudices throughout the Frieza Saga. For instance, the Saiyans are initially shown as a violent and barbaric species, but as the series progresses, viewers learn more about their history and customs and see how challenging it is for people to strike a balance between their desire to do the right thing and their past acts. People are treated cruelly and oppressively by Frieza and his minions, who aim to take the Namekians’ Dragon Balls and imprison their people. The Namekians need to collaborate and rely on their own strengths to overcome these challenges. For in stance the entire population and specific racial and culture minority groups, such as African Americans, Native Americans, and Latino experience disparities across an assortment of health indices. According to Shepherd et al.’s (2018) study, certain populations may experience worse levels of treatment as a result of health practitioners’ prejudicial mindsets or viewpoints.

The portrayal of races in Dragon Ball Z is heavily impacted by character design, an independent variable. Characters creation consists of a number of components, such as visual clues, physical characteristics, and cultural markers that collectively influence how races are portrayed and create connections to certain minority groups. Manga has distinctive and instantly recognizable art. Like other comic book genres, manga frequently uses black and white and has characters with large, brilliant eyes. These stories will feature characters with larger-than-average eyes. Japanese characters’ large eyes make a powerful impression on viewers. Rarely does another country’s artwork use this design. However, the physical dimensions of human anime characters frequently mimic real-world human body measurements. Character design depends heavily on visual cues because they instantly convey a character’s race and ethnicity. Personality encompasses traits including skin tone, facial structure, haircuts, and fashion choices. These visual cues are used in Dragon Ball Z to distinguish between races and produce a diverse cast of protagonists. In contrast to Namekians, who have skin that is green, antennas, and a more humanistic look, Saiyans are frequently shown as having spiky hair, protruding ears, and a muscular frame. The aesthetic differences contribute to how each ethnic group is portrayed uniquely and have an impact on how viewers perceive and connect to the portrayed personalities. Another element of character design that affects how different races are portrayed is their physical characteristics. Physical characteristics like body types, movements, and facial expressions might reveal cultural prejudices and preconceptions. In Dragon Ball Z, physical characteristics are frequently emphasized or stylised in order to emphasize the distinctiveness and recognizability of each race. For instance, certain characters’ depictions of their ripped bodies and intimidating demeanors may fit preconceptions of specific racial groups. Character design in Dragon Ball Z serves to indicate the racial identities and cultural origins of the various races. These symbols may be partially or totally imagined, or they may be inspired by actual cultures. Characters from the Namekian race, for instance, may have dress and accessories that resemble those of Buddhist monks, whereas characters from the Goku or Vegeta races may have clothing and accessories inspired by conventional martial-arts outfits or Japanese folklore.

Dragon Ball Z uses narrative decisions as independent factors that have a big impact on how different races are portrayed.The series’ plots serve as a framework for the construction and examination of racial identities as well. The stories may deal with issues of prejudice, cultural diversity, or socioeconomic inequality and provide perspectives on the lives of minorities. Dragon Ball Z, for example, has narrative arcs wherein characters deal with discrimination and oppression because of their race or struggle with issues due to cultural distinctions. These plots offer the chance to consider how race is portrayed and how it affects the interactions and adventures of the characters, echoing the realities of minority groups in real life.

Episodes focusing on characters allow for a more thorough examination of ethnic identities and how they change over the series. Through narrative choices, Dragon Ball Z has the chance to consider and comment on actual minority experiences and issues. The characters in the movie offer a platform for refuting myths, promoting inclusivity, and boosting comprehension among viewers. By carefully analyzing Dragon Ball Z, the parallels and contrasts between contemporary minorities and the races portrayed in the anime can be determined. This is done by looking at the character relationships, interpersonal arcs, and plots.

Overview of Dependent Variable

The relationship between contemporary minorities and the portrayed races in Dragon Ball Z addresses the representation of racial stereotypes and the existence of diversity within the series. Saiyans, Namekians, Humans, and other races are among those seen in Dragon Ball Z, each with its own distinctive traits and skills. The way these ethnicities are portrayed calls attention to the series’ representation of diversity and its use of stereotypes. Researchers can determine if the series promotes pre-existing prejudices about races or challenging stereotypes by showing diverse and multiple dimensions characters. Racist tropes, such as the persistent portrayal of particular races as aggressive, powerful, or cognitively superior, may be present in Dragon Ball Z. These preconceptions have the potential to reinforce prejudiced beliefs. By featuring characters who break racial standards or display traits that are contrary to accepted preconceptions, the series may also aim to challenge preconceptions.By examining the traits, actions, and narratives related to each race.for instance, throughout the Frieza Saga, people of certain races have been subjected to unfair treatment or prejudice on the basis of their perceived powerlessness and incompetence. For instance, it is clear from Frieza’s treatment of the Namekians and how the Saiyans are initially portrayed as a ferocious and barbaric people. Inequitable treatment and prejudice toward members of specific minority groups do occur occasionally in modern society because of similar power dynamics. It can happen in a variety of ways, including institutional xenophobia and discrimination at work as well as bias and prejudice in everyday situations. Minority groups are commonly discriminated against or disadvantaged because of their seeming lack of status and influence. In Dragon Ball Z to combine two separate characters and increase their strength. Fusion can be viewed as a metaphor for unification and the power that results from different people coming together to operate as a team. It could function as an illustration of the value of working together among many racial and ethnic communities, highlighting how unity can bring about change and help people overcome obstacles.

For both men and women, gender differences bring opportunities as well as restrictions. Although there are differences between men and women, none of them are designed to suggest inferiority. According to the feminism theoretical viewpoint, gender is defined. The latter idea demonstrates how skewed against women society is. In fact, because of misconceptions, women face many injustices.In addition, women are underrepresented in politics and other leadership roles (Parmenter, 2015). Women are regarded as should be capable of performing domestic tasks like housekeeping. On the other hand, legislation pertaining to custody agreements are created with women in mind. . Women are always depicted in relation to men in Dragon Ball Z. For example, Chi-chi is presented as a controlling parent who is worried about her kids. Since Chi-Chi is married to Goku, she is mentioned in the narrative. She is not depicted as a character in and of herself as a result. Bulma is also portrayed as a sex object. Racist tropes, such as the persistent portrayal of particular races as aggressive, powerful, or cognitively superior, may be present in Dragon Ball Z. These preconceptions have the potential to reinforce prejudiced beliefs. By featuring characters who break racial standards or display traits that are contrary to accepted preconceptions, the series may also aim to challenge preconceptions.

Another dependent variable is how the many races in Dragon Ball Z affect racial debate and societal perceptions of race. Societal discouse consstites representation, appropriation of culture, and the lived experiences of minority groups are influenced by the depiction of races in the series.Since black people were predominantly utilized as slaves on cultivation, the representation carries racial implications. Whites limited the freedom of travel for slaves since they viewed them as their property. Before slaves could purchase their freedom, black people had to work long hours in unfavorable circumstances.A species of humanoid aliens that live on the planet Namek are known as Namekians in the Dragon Ball Z series. They have a distinctive culture, set of traditions, and religious beliefs. Similar to this, minority communities frequently own unique cultural identities that influence their relationships and experiences with the dominant culture. Despite being a minority community, the Namekians have managed to preserve their culture, serving as a metaphor for both the value of cultural legacy and the tenacity of underprivileged groups.For instance, manufactured creatures with superhuman ability are the Androids in Dragon Ball Z. Though first intended to be destructive weapons, aliens eventually developed cognition and individuality. Discussions about artificial intelligence and its potential effects on society can be compared to this story. The battle of the androids for autonomy and acknowledgement of their rights can be compared to ethical discussions on how to handle and integrate artificial beings in a world where humans predominate.

The issue of the correlation between minorities in society today and the races in Dragon Ball Z has a complex and intertwined interaction between the independent and dependent variables. The dependent factors of depiction of racial identities, viewer impressions and interpretations, social discourse and cultural impact, stereotypes and diversity within the series are all influenced and shaped by the independent variables, such as cultural context, character design, and narrative choices. The representation of ethnic identities in Dragon Ball Z is directly influenced by the independent factors of cultural setting, character design, and narrative decisions (Dean, 2018). There are several different races in Dragon Ball Z, including Saiyans, Namekians, and Humans, all of which have distinctive traits and skills. Visual representations of these races are influenced by the independent variable of character design. For instance, the Saiyan race is portrayed as having distinctive physical characteristics like tails, spiky the hair, and a warrior mindset. The visual clues, which are affected by character design, help the audience understand that the Saiyans are a strong and dominant race in the series.The cultural setting of the series affects how races are portrayed and how much they uphold or question current social conventions and expectations. The creation of characters, which includes visual cues, physical characteristics, and cultural markers, is essential in determining how races are portrayed and how they are linked to certain minority groups. Additionally, the series’ narrative decisions—including storylines, characters arcs, and interactions—help to shape and reflect various racial identities.therefore, it is possible to view the experiences of the various races in Dragon Ball Z as a depiction of racial prejudice and racial issues in real-world communities. One may compare clashes between different oppressive systems to the power struggles between Frieza and Goku, which are a major plot point in the saga. The conflicts between Frieza and Goku also represent the oppositions between good and evil and the idea of justice.

People’s thoughts and interpretations are dependent variables that are influenced by the independent factors. The way various races are presented in Dragon Ball Z, as well as the choices made concerning cultural backdrop and character design, affect how viewers watch and understand the series. Character design affects viewers’ understanding of racial representation through visual clues and connections, while the cultural context provides a framework. The audience’s enthusiasm, feelings for others, and comprehension of racial issues are also impacted by narrative decisions. Through its storylines and character interactions, Dragon Ball Z tackles a number of social topics, such as identity, equality, and discrimination. For instance, themes of resilience against oppressive powers are highlighted in the plot regarding the Namekian race and their battle for survival against the evil Frieza.The clash between the Z Fighters and Frieza’s soldiers is a metaphor for the challenges minorities face in society as they fight for freedom and equality. Despite recent improvements, the LGBTQ+ community, for instance, still faces prejudice and intimidation in many areas of society (Dean, 2020).A number of minority groups who have historically campaigned for equal opportunities and involvement in the real world are comparable to the Namekians in their quest for autonomy of conscience and protection from punishment.

Cultural influences on Dragon Ball Z cause it to reflect and question established social conventions and beliefs. For instance, because of his overstated features, the portrayal of Mr. Popo—a genie-like figure with black skin—raised questions about assumptions about race. The piece in question shows how cultural background can either support or contradict prejudices present in the series. Dragon Ball Z, however, also exemplifies instances of variety by featuring characters like Piccolo, a Namekian who forges complex connections and progresses past conventional assumptions. This representation dispels racial preconceptions and advances a deeper appreciation of diversity throughout the series. Cultural influences on Dragon Ball Z cause it to reflect and question established social conventions and beliefs. For instance, because of his overstated features, the portrayal of Mr. Popo—a genie-like figure with black skin—raised questions about assumptions about race. The piece in question shows how cultural background can either support or contradict prejudices present in the series. Dragon Ball Z, however, also exemplifies instances of variety by featuring characters like Piccolo, a Namekian who forges complex connections and progresses past conventional assumptions. This representation dispels racial preconceptions and advances a deeper appreciation of diversity throughout the series.

Research Question & Hypotheses

RQ: What is the Correlation Between Minorities Today and The Races In Dragon Ball Z

H1: The way races are portrayed in Dragon Ball Z is a reflection of the cultural setting and societal conventions that minorities face in modern society

H2:The fictional decisions made in Dragon Ball Z reflect actual events and problems faced by underrepresented groups, foster a better understanding of racial prejudice, other forms of discrimination and diversity

These ideas try to investigate how Dragon Ball Z’s portrayal of various races affects minorities nowadays and how it either upholds or subverts racial conventions and mindsets. T. These ideas will be put to the test through empirical research and data gathering in order to advance knowledge of the relationship between modern minorities and the races depicted in Dragon Ball Z.


A mixed-methods strategy combining qualitative and quantitative research techniques was used to examine the relationship between minorities in society today and the races shown in Dragon Ball Z. The use of this technique made it possible to examine the subject in great detail while taking into account both personal opinions and factual information. Conducting interviews with people who possess knowledge with regard to the series, which included fans, academics, and creators, was a part of the research’s qualitative component. In-depth information about their perceptions of how races are portrayed in Dragon Ball Z and how it relates to current minority experiences was gathered through semi-structured interviews. The primary topics discussed in the interviews were stereotypes, diversity, and issues with the cultural setting, character development, and narrative decisions. The conversations were taped, written down, and then thematically examined to find trends and commonalities. In order to investigate audience views and clarifications, a quantitative study was done. To gather information on participants’ demographics, knowledge with Dragon Ball Z, opinions of the show’s racial representation, and the effect on their impressions of diversity and broader society, a survey questionnaire was designed. Targeting a wide spectrum of responders, the questionnaire was distributed online through numerous websites and social media channels. To find relationships between variables and offer quantitative knowledge, the acquired data has been assessed using computational techniques such as descriptive statistical methods and correlational analysis.

Secondary research using archives, library resources, and online sources was carried out as an addition to the initial data gathering. To learn more about the subject, examine the literature, and comprehend the current cultural and historical context around minorities, i reviewed academic publications, books, articles, and reliable websites. These resources gave me useful information about conceptual frameworks, earlier research, and critical evaluations of how races are portrayed in media, such as Dragon Ball Z. As part of the investigation, individual episodes, characterization arcs, and plotlines from Dragon Ball Z were examined. In order to do this, it was necessary to carefully review pertinent scenes and speech to look for cases of racial portrayals, cultural cues, and depictions of minority perspectives. To fully comprehend the relationship between modern-day minorities and the races shown in Dragon Ball Z, outcomes from the qualitative interviews, the quantitative questionnaire, and literature analysis were combined.


the resaerch study finds that the terrible problems that minorities experience today are powerfully allegorized in the Frieza Saga from Dragon Ball Z. For instance, Frieza oppresses and mistreats Gohan and the Namekians, much like the manner in which individuals of color are currently mistreated in our society. In the same way that minorities today have greater resources and opportunities, the Namekians and Z-fighters persevere and develop new skills. The fact that Goku sacrifices his life to save the Namekians draws attention to the correlation between minority groups’ use of power for the benefit of their community (Reece, 2020). The Saiyans are described in Dragon Ball Z as a warrior species who endured persecution because of their great power and perceived threat to other races. This reflects the struggles minorities face today in the USA, where racial and ethnic discrimination and stereotyping are commonplace.Characters like Vegeta and Goku, who continually fight prejudices and are made assumptions based only on their Saiyan origin, can be paralleled to minorities that undergo racist discrimination and are prejudged because of their ethnic origins in real life.

According to the study, the clash between the Z Fighters and Frieza’s forces is a metaphor for the challenges minorities face as they fight for justice and freedom. Despite recent improvements, the LGBTQ+ community, for instance, still faces discrimination and harassment in many areas of society.The results of the qualitative interview analysis showed that the cultural background and societal standards have an impact on how different races are portrayed in Dragon Ball Z. The bulk of the characters in the series have physical characteristics including pale complexion and European features that are typical of the majority race in modern American society. Even if there have been gains in recent years, there are still issues with media portrayal, particularly in the United States. The idea of representation goes beyond simple inclusion; it calls for the truthful portrayal of characters from all backgrounds and the development of compelling narratives for individuals. Despite racial diversity was highlighted in Dragon Ball Z, a wider variety of races and ethnicities are represented in contemporary USA society.

The connection between modern-day minorities and the races in Dragon Ball Z is the idea of the relationship between power and prejudice. Throughout the Frieza Saga, people of certain races have been subjected to disproportionate treatment on the basis of their perceived powerlessness and inferiority. Minority groups are often discriminated against or disadvantaged in USA contemporary society because of their perceived lack of power and authority.The evaluation of Dragon Ball Z’s narrative decisions showed how they affected conversation about society and cultural perspectives. Through its plots and character conversations, the television show examines issues of prejudice, sense of self, and connections to power. For instance, respondents found that Vegeta’s forgiveness and development in the Saiyan character’s storyline resonated as a representation of personal growth and the possibility for people to transcend stereotypes and expectations.


The similarity between modern-day minorities and the ethnicities represented in Dragon Ball Z prompts crucial debates on diversity, stereotyping, representation, and the influence of media on public attitudes. The results of this study provide insight into the nuanced racial identities present in the series as well as their relationship to current social norms and cultural surroundings. The qualitative research showed that, with a preference for characters with fair complexion and European characteristics, Dragon Ball Z frequently represents races in accordance with the dominant racial norms in modern American society. However, the show also featured characters like the Namekians who disproved preconceptions and highlighted diversity. In modern culture, there has been much debate about racial inclusiveness and diversity, as well as minority representation in the media.The contradictory treatment of minorities in the Frieza Saga presents an exciting opportunity to examine how minorities are portrayed in media and how audience perceptions may be impacted by these portrayals. The Frieza Saga is a fantastic example of how the inclusion of minority characters can disseminate positive messages in an engaging and powerful way. In light of this, research identifies a the association between modern-day minorities and the races depicted in Dragon Ball Z was found to be significantly influenced by racial identity portrayal, audience perceptions and opinions, social impact, and the affect of stereotypes. In addition, the quantitative research of viewer opinions and interpretations revealed how Dragon Ball Z had a significant impact on how audiences see diversity and ethnicity. Participants from different racial origins highlighted the significance of accurate representation and the demand for more nuanced portrayals, demonstrating that the series had a substantial impact on audience views and viewpoints.


The resaerch has examined on the parallels and discrepancies between the races in the Frieza Saga of Dragon Ball Z and minorities in modern culture. It is possible to see the racial tensions and power dynamics in the Frieza Saga as a reflection of current racial prejudice and problems in America. For instance, the struggles of the Namekians in the Frieza Saga are akin to those of other marginalized communities battling for freedom from oppression and self-determination today. Although the Frieza Saga is a fictional novel, its themes and protagonists offer a unique perspective on problems with racial cultures. As a result, the series helps viewers better comprehend the ongoing problems of many minority groups in the contemporary American community.therefore, The debate on the connections between modern-day minorities and the races represented in Dragon Ball Z highlights the necessity for media to embrace inclusivity, confront prejudices, and offer a voice to other perspectives and experiences. People may work regarding an equitable and welcoming society that values diversity and encourages good improvements in society by objectively analyzing and comprehending how ethnic identities are portrayed and have an influence on media franchise like Dragon Ball Z.


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Dean, Z. M. L. (2018). Only a Chilling Elegy: An Examination of White Bodies, Colonialism, Fascism, Genocide, and Racism in Dragon Ball. In Comics Studies Here and Now (pp. 267-280). Routledge.

Diaz Pino, C. (2019). Weaponizing collective energy: Dragon Ball Z in the anti-neoliberal Chilean protest movement. Popular Communication17(3), 202-218

Dragon Ball Super 2: “The Movie 2023” – “Goku vs GODS” – Goku and Vegeta against EVERYONE!

Jackson, G. (2018, July 5).  Why Black Men Love Dragon Ball Z. Kotaku.

Malik, M. I., Hopp, F. R., & Weber, R. (2022). Representations of Racial Minorities in Popular Movies. Computational Communication Research4(1), 208-253.

Olson, C. J., & Reinhard, C. D. (2020). The Greatest Cult Television Shows of All Time. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.,+C.+J.,+%26+Reinhard,+C.+D.+(2020).+The+Greatest+Cult+Television+Shows+of+All+Time.+Rowman&ots=AnyJ8-NQZT&sig=o0iGNx6nlbfD6ynR4yY4OiCCZ6s&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

Parmenter, J. G., Blume, A. K., Crowell, K. A., & Galliher, R. V. (2019). Masculine gender-role congruence among sexual minority men. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling13(2), 134-151.

Reece, E. N. (2020). Exploring African American Representation within Japanese Manga and Animation from 1980 to 2019 (Doctoral dissertation, Texas Southern University).

Shepherd, S. M., Willis-Esqueda, C., Paradies, Y., Sivasubramaniam, D., Sherwood, J., & Brockie, T. (2018). Racial and cultural minority experiences and perceptions of health care provision in a mid-western region. International journal for equity in health17, 1-10.


Figure 1 rate of racial bias in USA

ate of racial bias in USA

Figure 2About a quarter of Americans wi

2About a quarter of Americans wi

Figure 3 racism is still a problem in America, their local community was more racially and ethnically mixed

3racism is still a problem in America

Figure 4 Protesters gather in Harlem to protest the recent death of George Floyd on May 30, 2020 in New York City

4Protesters gather in Harlem to protest the recent death of George Floyd on May 30, 2020 in New York City


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