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Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II

The beck depression inventory is a 21 item self-report inventory that measures symptoms of depression and characteristics attitude. The 21 items corresponding to signs and symptoms of depression are considered to give a single score of the BDI II (García-Batista, et al, 2018). Beck’s inventory report has been used for 35 years to assess and identify depressive symptoms. The inventory has been considered to be highly reliable regardless of the population. This assessment covers a critical analysis of psychological assessment tools used in a specified area of acquired psychology. This report focuses on personality testing as a psychological assessment in developmental psychology.

An advantage of BDI II is that it is highly valid and with it you can be able to differentiate between people who are depressed and those who are suffering from different diseases that can be confused to depression. A number of tests are carried out and a report is made based on the 21 report which determines what a patient is suffering from. As BDI is highly reliable, it lacks representative norms that will help govern and limit the extent a patient should be questioned. The patient does not have a choice other than answer the questions included in questioner provided to them.

Literature review

A personality test is a tool used to assess human personality. The technique measures the characteristic pattern of people’s traits in different situations (Ma, et al, 2021). Developmental psychology is the study or analysis of how and why human beings change over time (Stern, 2018). It is mainly concerned with infants and children but the field has expanded to adolescence, adult development, aging and the entire lifespan of a human being.

In a review carried out by Roxana Holic to identify characteristics in personality development of adolescents with high intellectual abilities, Children have different talents to determine their IQ and intellectual capabilities (Holic, 2018). Most children have been defined according to their ability to perform specific tasks. McAlpine conducted research and made three classifications to describe personality development. In the first category, he referred to the freedom of inclusion criteria where the subjects are considered to have high capabilities. The definition is restricted to persons with increased capabilities. This group makes up 3-5% of the total population. This classification of persons with high capabilities identifies the methods used in the criteria mentioned.

The second criteria he used are dimensions invoked in terms that demonstrate only talents, including academics. This calls for performance evaluation of a person’s capability by demonstrations among other people (Zhu, et al, 2021). For example, performance determines someone’s intellectual ability in academics. From the definition, Freeman adds in the term potential in demonstrations. In this case, he says a person can discover a potential without realizing it (Freeman, et al, 2021). There are different characteristics that people with high intellectual abilities have that define their traits. Some of these characteristics include cognition. People with high academic knowledge have a high level of intelligence, but they can solve problems and have complex judgments. According to alexander and other researchers, people with high intellectual abilities have a high level of awareness compared to other people with high skills are considered to have rich imagination aspect, and they can express overflowing creativity in their actions.

Another characteristic of people with high intelligence is that they are self-motivated. They have shown incredible energy to achieve various interests and focus on the main subjects. These people are self-driven and they do not wait for any calls to make a decision that they think will be beneficial to them. They are determined to achieve their goals and they will not let any downfall make them look weak instead, they dust themselves out to ensure they achieve their objectives and satisfy their desires (Siregar, et al, 2018). People with high intellectual abilities are influenced by asynchronous development, making them experience different challenges compared to other adults. During a review carried out by a researcher named Francis and his collaborators, they looked at the difference between adolescents with high intellectual capabilities and people with standard intellectual ability in terms of social-emotions adaptation and behavioral difficulties, research has proven people with increased intellectual capabilities have high social-emotions adaptability and fewer behavioral difficulties.

Interpretation of the evidence

Personality testing is crucial and determining the reaction of different people under different circumstances can be difficult. Based on the literature review and evidence, there has been a lot of proof that people with high intellectual ability are likely to have better psychological development than people with average intellectual ability. These people can identify things that are so difficult to locate. From the evidence provided, people with high intellectual capability have better psychological development than those with standard intellectual capacity. Their minds are first and they react to every situation fast and positively (O’Connor, 2019). They have a high capability to differentiate between good and bad this includes a position in their lives where they need to make an immediate decision.

People with normal intellectual capability are likely to have slow socio-emotion and emotional difficulties, unlike people with high intellectual capacity. A person with normal intelligence has the probability of failing to control their emotions during various situations. For example, during an argument, a person with a normal intellectual ability is likely to take longer to solve a problem compared to a person with high intellectual ability. They have good problem-solving skills and consistently fast and efficient decisions. Based on the research, it is easy to identify a person with high intellectual capability. Their character defines them a lot. They will lead themselves and succeed without anyone by their side. They have a unique way of doing things and in most cases, they succeed in what they do.

These are types of people from their childhood they respond to every change they see in their lives and they adapt very quickly without any difficulties compared to any other person with average intellectual ability. Their ability to adapt to different changes is slow and gradual. Also, the morale of people with a normal intellectual ability, most of them are not self-motivated. There has to be a person pushing them to achieve what they want to succeed in various circumstances. These two people can be compared to the two types of Y and Z. in an organization, employees are classified into two categories. These employees are considered self-motivated, work to meet the purpose, and are innovative while Z type of employees must have someone to push them and are less creative.

Critical analysis

As mentioned above, personality development is the behavior of human beings in different situations. Intelligence is defined as an individual ability to acquire knowledge and skills. People with high intellectual ability and normal intellectual ability differentiate their reactions to different situations. Personality is from the roots of Greeks with a suggestion that individuals were relatively very stable forms of deposition. The personality philosophical understanding has continued to the 18th century, where the personality study was conducted scientifically. Franz Gall, a researcher, believed that the size of a skull determined a person’s inner thoughts and emotions. Johann Lavater who introduced science physiognomy, suggests that facial expressions and characteristics represent different personality types in a person. Personality has long been studied and over the years, it has been proven from different research on identifying different characters.

Intelligence has been considered a great concept over the years, and it has played a significant role in society. Intelligence varies from society to society since every society has its way of defining intelligence. Intelligence is mainly tested practically for example, by academic performance and tests. A test was conducted to test intelligence among the young and adult people and a good percentage of intelligent people come from high school and campus schools. A lot has been done to try and prove intelligence but there is no specific theory to prove intelligence but there are various tests that have been used to determine the intelligence of the people.

Various psychological tests have been carried out to try and prove intelligence. Intelligence tests are classified as reliable when the tests yield comparative results after a repeat over several times. For these personality tests to be valid, they should predict individual certain personality traits respond to situations where there is doubt, discomfort and stress. Validity is usually easier on intelligence tests as intelligence predicts performance, such as job performance and academic performance, which are generally tangible situations. Some of these tests include

FFM personality test– during this test, personality is measured using an online version of the FFM test. In the test, sixty questions involve completing a sentence. The results from this test are given in percentage according to the FFM test of personality.

Multiple intelligence tests – in this case, intelligence will be measured using an online test of multiple intelligence. In the test, fifty-six questions allow the participant to select a statement that best describes the results (Sanchez-Gomez & Breso, 2019). The results of the tests will be given scores against the eight factors of multiple intelligence.

There are no specific tests that can be classified as 100% competent in defining the development of people psychologically. These are just assumptions and ways brought about to prove some facts about people’s personalities. There is need to come up with various test with different traits that can ensure intelligence test is well diagnosed and the results are valid.


Personality testing can describe psychological improvement based on the literature review, critical analysis, and interpretation of the evidence. From the literature review, it is believed that people with high intellectual ability are more successful and self-motivated compared to people with normal intellectual ability. For example, in today’s world, more successful people have the high intellectual ability. They can develop a unique project that will help them even in feature. They do not see only today they always think about the feature and they expect what they are doing to sustain them for the longest time.

These people also have a good interaction with other people who give them the confidence to fit in. people with normal intellectual capability have a high chance of arguing since they do not have enough ability to solve a problem as the people with high intelligence would handle. High-intelligent people have positive thoughts that sustain them until the end. Intelligence tests are not always positive, and they can sometimes portray a person’s character that is not right. Sometimes, it can be challenging to test a person’s intelligence by using an effortless task in which people can give false answers (Birinci, et al., 2018). In some situations, a person can be considered intelligent from the solutions they provide but when compared to the actions the person’s probability of having an average intellectual ability. On the other hand, someone can be considered to have a normal intellectual capability but when imposed to a practical test, the results state otherwise. These tests cannot be heavily relied on to prove a person’s personality. Researchers have continued to look for ways that will help them to continuously test personality traits based on intelligence but to date they have not been able to find a way that fully embraced as an intelligent test.

On the other hand, taking up these tests has helped develop various and different theories to help come up with a better scientific method to help rate intelligence on different people. It has enhanced research in other parts of the world to ensure that people can test their level of brightness without any doubt. In conclusion, intelligence testing will continue until the best test plan is generated. Testing how intelligent a person is is a difficult task but there are chances that some situations exhibit positive results. People react to different situations in different ways and their level of intelligence is determined during those situations. High-intelligent people respond differently compared to people with average intelligence. Both their actions will help differentiate their intelligence. Also, tasks play a significant role, but at some point, they do not give the exact details of the person instead, they assume the ability. Sometimes results may describe a person’s personality wrongly and as a result they might create a mentality in people that is not true.


Birinci, H., Berezina, K., & Cobanoglu, C. (2018). Comparing customer perceptions of hotel and peer-to-peer accommodation advantages and disadvantages. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.

Freeman, K., Geppert, J., Stinton, C., Todkill, D., Johnson, S., Clarke, A., & Taylor-Phillips, S. (2021). Use of artificial intelligence for image analysis in breast cancer screening programmes: systematic review of test accuracy. bmj374.

García-Batista, Z. E., Guerra-Peña, K., Cano-Vindel, A., Herrera-Martínez, S. X., & Medrano, L. A. (2018). Validity and reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in general and hospital population of Dominican Republic. PloS one13(6), e0199750.

Holic, R. I. (2018). Literature Review on Personality Traits and Psychological Profiles of Gifted Populations [PDF].

Ma, L., Guo, H., & Fang, Y. (2021). Analysis of construction workers’ safety behavior based on Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Personality Test in a bridge construction project. Journal of construction engineering and management147(1), 04020149.

O’Connor, P. J., Hill, A., Kaya, M., & Martin, B. (2019). The measurement of emotional intelligence: A critical review of the literature and recommendations for researchers and practitioners. Frontiers in psychology10, 1116.

Stern, D. N. (2018). The interpersonal world of the infant: A view from psychoanalysis and developmental psychology. Routledge.

Siregar, Y. E. Y., Zulela, M. S., Prayuningtyas, A. W., Rachmadtullah, R., & Pohan, N. (2018). Self-regulation, emotional intelligence with character building in elementary school. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research251, 315-318.

Sanchez-Gomez, M., & Breso, E. (2019). The Mobile Emotional Intelligence Test (MEIT): An ability test to assess emotional intelligence at work. Sustainability11(3), 827.

Zhu, Z., Ng, D. W. H., Park, H. S., & McAlpine, M. C. (2021). 3D-printed multifunctional materials enabled by artificial-intelligence-assisted fabrication technologies. Nature Reviews Materials6(1), 27-47.


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