Infidelity accounts for approximately two-thirds to three-quarters of all adult marriages that end in divorce. Numerous studies have examined cheaters’ marital status, gender, and social context. According to an adult literature review, cheating is a frequent source of relationship dissatisfaction and a perceived lack of commitment, as well as opportunities for cheating (Wiederman & Hurd, 1999). When one partner betrays the other, the consequences can range from divorce to increased intimacy and closeness within the marriage. When it comes to adult relationships, the reasons for and responses to cheating are frequently the same for older adolescents as they are for adults. Adults can blame cheating on a variety of factors, but older adolescents are more likely to say they would end their relationship with their partner if they were cheated on. Certain instances of relationship cheating may not be about the relationship at all, but rather reflect developmental differences in the capacity for love and commitment between older and younger adolescents (Frederick & Fales, 2016). The capacity to develop a long-term, stable, and committed relationship with another person is a necessary component of adulthood.
Over the past decade, the number of people who support same-sex marriage has risen significantly in almost every demographic and political group. But there are still significant differences in viewpoints on this issue across generations, political parties, ideologies, races, and religions. Millennials, the generation born between 1980 and now, are more open to same-sex marriage than previous generations. Today, 73% of Millennials believe that gays and lesbians should be able to marry legally, while just 24% believe that they should not. Younger members of Generation X support gay marriage, but by a smaller margin than those in Generation Y. (59 percent favor, 39 percent oppose). More than half of Boomers (ages 51 to 69) support same-sex marriage, while nearly half of the Silents (ages 70 to 87), who are the oldest generation, oppose it (53 percent to 39 percent)(Olivia Ann Leeker, 2004). However, support for same-sex marriage has grown in recent years among both Baby Boomers and Silents (nine percentage points among Boomers, 16 percentage points among Silent). Support for same-sex marriage differs widely among different age groups. These differences are most pronounced among older generations (i.e. Silent and Boomers).
The lies used to cover up the infidelity are far more damaging than the sexual infidelity itself. Angry, hurt, righteous indignation and a desire for retribution are just some of the mixed feelings felt by the hurting spouse. In order to have a successful relationship, you must have trust. It is common for spouses to become suspicious of infidelity because something is interfering with their daily routine(Moon & Blackman, 2014). Anger, criticism, or dissatisfaction are all possible motivations for the perpetrator. He may appear guilty, anxious, or disinterested. When it comes to a person’s level of attention, it can either decrease or increase. Keeping one’s word in a relationship is a challenge for many people, regardless of their sexual orientation. Injured spouses’ friends often tell them, “Get rid of him.” Once a cheater, always a cheater,” and there’s evidence to back that up. Approximately 60% of cheaters re-offend in the future. The number of people who identify as gay or lesbian is expected to continue to rise. Detecting a pattern of betrayal sends the message to the spouse that the offender has no remorse or intention to change. “Kevin” is a middle-aged man who is married with two children and is in his late 50s. His wife began to suspect that he was interested in men and began to search for signs of his deception. – Assuming she was a man looking for a “hook-up,” she found his online name and e-mail address and began sending him e-mails(Abdelhamid Ahmed, 2015). Kevin set up a coffee date with “him” without realizing the messages were from his wife.
When confronted by his wife, Kevin apologized in the most appropriate manner. He confessed his sins and expressed regret for what he had done. Instead of making an excuse or defending his actions, he simply stated that his wife had every right to be upset. Kevin was reluctantly placed on probation by his wife. They reversed their relationship’s power dynamics when he took on the role of the submissive one. A promise was made, but no action was taken. Confessing may make the betrayer believe that he is no longer guilty. For all he knows, she may have been the victim of an act of betrayal by him. Because he may believe his actions were unintentional or the result of extenuating circumstances, he should be forgiven. Straight spouses may be asked, “Why do you want to settle for so little?” with the risk of repeat offenses so high. Are you prepared for the humiliation of having your spouse’s illicit homosexuality publicly exposed?” Her social standing could be lowered if the truth about her was made public(Williams & Hickle, 2011). Disgrace can elicit feelings of resentment and a desire to flee. Often, straight spouses hold onto their relationship with the MSM in a dysfunctional manner, which is a reflection of their own inability to commit to the relationship. Therefore this paper will discuss the attitude towards cheating among gay millennials in Hong Kong by analyzing the factors that shape and influence view of cheating and motives of people who cheat. This will be done through a qualitative study which involves interview of people in Hong Kong.
Epistemology can be defined as the study of how and from where knowledge is gathered. In research terms, your philosophy of the world and of knowledge has a significant impact on your interpretation of data, so it is important to make this clear from the start. For example, knowledge can be categorized as empirical or intuitive. As opposed to intuitive knowledge, empirical knowledge is based on facts that can be objectively verified. This simple example demonstrates how your interpretation of knowledge will influence your choice of methodology and methods, as well as your data analysis, as a result of your interpretation.
To understand positivism, one must first have a scientific mindset. Large numbers of participants are used to collect data. In a positivist approach, your research is guided by a hypothesis and subsequent deductions, and you try to view the data objectively. Positivist research, on the other hand, is quantitative and focuses on generalizability to the greatest extent possible.
This branch of epistemology was created as an alternative to positivism when it didn’t satisfy researchers. Despite the fact that the researcher is involved in the research and interprets data, he or she can never be completely objective. Since reality and knowledge are influenced by people, interpretivists focus on the specific, contextualized environments in which they operate. In contrast to positivist research, this philosophical viewpoint is more subjective and susceptible to biases, and thus cannot be generalized. Many epistemological approaches and branches exist within the discipline, such as positivism and interpretivism. There are many subfields of epistemology, and these two are just two of them. Critical inquiry, feminism, and postmodernism all have a place in the worldview(Hobbs & Wright, 2011). Looking at the two extremes of a spectrum will help you understand how these two philosophical approaches are related and how this may impact your research.
In order to understand the world, one must understand ontology and epistemology, which form the basis for philosophical perspectives (how knowledge is created and what can be known). philosophical perspectives are critical for revealing the assumptions researchers make regarding the purpose, design, methodology and methods of the research they are conducting (as well as the data analysis and interpretation). Simply by deciding on a particular scientific field of study, an individual’s subject is imposed with fundamental values(Taylor Camp, 2010).
The reason we choose epistemology was due to three main aspects of knowledge acquisition where it constitutes an assertion of knowledge, how it can be acquired or produced, and how it is assessed; and, second, how it can be transferred. To discover new knowledge, researchers need to understand epistemology and this helped in determining and analyzing the attitude of infidelity among the gay community. The study was classified as empirical due to the number of questions required in the interviews to be able to determine and answering the various questions in the questionnaire such as: if the respondent has cheated before and if they have been cheated by others(Hobbs & Wright, 2011). The interview goes on to ask on factors of cheating such as why do the cheater cheat and what people who have not been cheated on think of cheaters.
Snow ball sampling
Purposive and snowball sampling techniques, for example, allow researchers to start with an already-known population and ask participants to identify additional people who should be included in their study. The study begins with a small number of participants and gradually grows to include a larger number of participants. “Snowball sampling” is a popular sampling technique among social scientists who want to work with a hard-to-reach population. The homeless, ex-offenders, and those involved in illegal activities are particularly vulnerable to this. Other marginalized groups, such as gays, bisexuals, and transgender people, are frequently targeted by this sampling technique (Williams & Hickle, 2011).
Snowball sampling is not considered a representative sample for statistical purposes due to the nature of the sampling method. However, it is an excellent technique for conducting exploratory or qualitative research on a specific and small population that is difficult to identify or locate. Even if you can find a comprehensive list of your city’s homeless population, it may be impossible or nearly impossible to find. You’ll need to find a few willing participants in your study before you can find other homeless people in your area. Those individuals will know others, and so on. Undocumented immigrants and ex-convicts, for example, can both benefit from the same method. In order to conduct this type of research, all participants must have a high level of trust (Fincham & May, 2017). Before participants will agree to identify others in their group or subculture, the researcher must first establish trust and rapport with them. There is a lot of waiting involved in using the snowball sampling method on unwilling groups of people.
The sampling method chosen for this study was chosen for its ability to work with a difficult-to-find population, with the gay community being one of the communities that is closely monitored as part of the research. The ability to conduct qualitative analysis is the other distinguishing feature of this software. This was used to select a sample of the 50 respondents who were critical to the study’s success. For the independent and independent variables, the sampling technique provided a platform for comparison.
Cointegration analysis is the study of the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. This technique can also be used to make predictions about the relationship between variables. A variety of linear and nonlinear regression techniques are also used in regression analysis. Sequential and parametric models are the most common. Multivariable analysis is commonly used to analyze data sets with nonlinear relationships between the dependent and independent variables (George A. F. Seber, 2003). The following equation is an example of a simple linear model:
Y = a + bX + ϵ
The variables involved were:
Independent variable: Attitude towards cheating among millennials
Dependent variables: Behaviors leading to cheating
Factors of cheating such why did they cheat before
The study area involves the gay people in Hong Kong and their views were taken through interviews that involved 50 people with an aim of knowing the
Ontology is the study of what it means to be alive. These are critical questions to answer in order to comprehend the nature of the world we are exploring, to comprehend existence, and to comprehend the structure of reality itself. According to ontological assumptions, the only answer is what can be known, or ‘What is the nature of the universe?’ is the only question. When approaching data from an ontological perspective, the focus is on what the data is about, and this serves as the foundation for the data’s structure. If you correctly identify the business’s priorities and the relationships between them, you can create a data model in 6th Normal Form. To ensure the highest possible data quality, it is important to do one thing at a time and avoid duplication. That does not imply that we have completed our work(Paul quek, 2011). We still need to understand what the things are, how they interact with one another, and how change affects their behavior. The term “ontology” has the potential to become overused as a buzzword in the future. Because this phrase has been in use for quite some time, it is not new to the lexicon. It has a distinguished and long history that can be traced back at least to Aristotle’s time. Ontology, as originally defined by philosophers, is a branch of metaphysics devoted to the investigation of the nature of reality and is one of the most important branches of philosophy. In philosophy and computer science, it has also been used as a noun to describe the outcomes of ontology’s investigations. Consequently, in philosophical terms, an ontology is a theory of what exists; that is, it is a theory about what kinds of things exist and what rules govern their existence.
Recently, in the field of computer science, an ontology is defined as a set of terms, axioms, and propositions that can be interpreted by a computer and over which reasoning can be performed. Logical reasoning is a common practice in the artificial intelligence community, and it can be described as follows: Despite this, SQL is, at its core, a logic-driven programming language. The structure and constraints of a database are represented by axioms and a few words. Queries operate on the propositions and other terms represented by database data, and they are also known as queries. Indeed, relational databases are by far the largest and most widely used ontologies, and some people are beginning to link the pragmatic everyday work of databases with the philosophical and computer science work on ontology to see if there is any benefit to be gained from this approach(Moon & Blackman, 2014). For those interested in learning how philosophical ontology can help you be more productive at your job, I’ll be presenting the findings of my own research in this area.
To put it another way, ontology is concerned with the question of whether social entities are objective or subjective in nature. As a result, ontology can be divided into two broad categories: objectivism and subjectivism, which are mutually exclusive. Objectivism holds the position that social entities exist independently of the social actors who are concerned with their continued existence. There are several alternatives, including a viewpoint known as objectivism, which holds that the existence of social phenomena and their meanings are independent of social actors (emphasis added). Those who believe in constructivism and interpretivism, on the other hand, believe that social phenomena are created by the actions and thoughts of the individuals who are involved in their creation(Abdelhamid Ahmed, 2015). Constructionism is an ontological position that asserts that social phenomena and their meanings are constantly being accomplished by social actors in the course of history.
- Ontologies have a number of advantages, including:
- it has improved quality in entity analysis
- Facilitates domain knowledge sharing by using a common vocabulary among independent software applications.
- Increases usage, repurpose, and maintainability of information systems.
A working knowledge of scientific philosophy is necessary for the proper interpretation of research findings. With the growth of interdisciplinary research, philosophical approaches can be used to stimulate critical reflection and debate about what we can know and learn and how this knowledge affects scientific conduct, as well as the subsequent decisions and actions. According to, researchers must understand epistemology in order to generate new knowledge (Moon & Blackman, 2014). The relationship between a subject and an object can be used to investigate epistemology and how it affects the design of research. By examining the differences and intersections in millennial attitudes toward cheating through the lens of epistemology (Nelson, 2012).
New studies have been conducted as a result of the increased visibility of gay rights, such as one on the prevalence of infidelity among gay couples among millennials. The interpretivists were examined in this study because they believe that reality and knowledge are not objective but are shaped by the people who inhabit them. Unlike positivist research, this philosophical perspective is more subjective and prone to bias, and thus cannot be generalized. Positivism and interpretivism are just two of numerous epistemological perspectives and subfields.
Abdelhamid Ahmed. (2015). Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Assumptions: Qualitative Versus Quantitative. https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=https%3A%2F%2Ffiles.eric.ed.gov%2Ffulltext%2FED504903.pdf
Fincham, F. D., & May, R. W. (2017). Infidelity in romantic relationships. Current Opinion in Psychology, 13, 70–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.COPSYC.2016.03.008
Frederick, D. A., & Fales, M. R. (2016). Upset Over Sexual versus Emotional Infidelity Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(1), 175–191. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10508-014-0409-9
George A. F. Seber, A. J. L. (2003). Linear Regression Analysis – – Google Books. https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=X2Y6OkXl8ysC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=
Hobbs, D., & Wright, R. (2011). The SAGE Handbook of Fieldwork. The SAGE Handbook of Fieldwork. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781848608085
Moon, K., & Blackman, D. (2014). A Guide to Understanding Social Science Research for Natural Scientists. Conservation Biology, 28(5), 1167–1177. https://doi.org/10.1111/COBI.12326/FULL
Nelson, C. D. (2012). Emerging queer epistemologies in studies of ‘gay’-student discourses. Journal of Language and Sexuality, 1(1), 79–105. https://doi.org/10.1075/JLS.1.1.05NEL
Olivia Ann Leeker. (2004). EFFECTS OF SEX, SEXUAL ORIENTATION, INFIDELITY EXPECTATIONS, AND LOVE ON DISTRESS RELATED TO EMOTIONAL AND SEXUAL INFIDELITY. https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=https%3A%2F%2Fcore.ac.uk%2Fdownload%2Fpdf%2F215287359.pdf
Paul quek. (2011). ontology_01.pdf. https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http%3A%2F%2Fqueksiewkhoon.tripod.com%2Fontology_01.pdf
Taylor Camp. (2010). Infidelity Beliefs and Behaviors: A Broad Examination of Cheating in Romantic Relationships. https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=https%3A%2F%2Frepository.arizona.edu%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F10150%2F621917%
Wiederman, M. W., & Hurd, C. (1999). Extradyadic involvement during dating. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 16(2), 265–274. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407599162008
Williams, L. R., & Hickle, K. E. (2011). “He cheated on me, I cheated on him back”: Mexican American and White adolescents’ perceptions of cheating in romantic relationships. Journal of Adolescence, 34(5), 1005–1016. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ADOLESCENCE.2010.11.007