Regarding parenting, there is a vast deal of difference among families. Culture significantly impacts how families exist and how the kids are reared. Over the past few years, the population in the United States has made a make-up. Deviations driven by socio-economic status, immigration, and single parenting are some factors linked with the various child-rearing styles.
The two child-rearing styles are authoritarian and permissive. To begin with the authoritarian child-rearing style, parents of this style have a one-way mode of communication. For instance, parents establish strict rules that the kids must obey and follow to adhere to their obligations. There is little room for negotiations from the kid, and the regulations must be explained. Parents expect their kids to uphold these standards while making no errors. However, when kids make mistakes, they are always punished. Moreover, children that authoritarian parents raise are usually the most behaved in the room because of the effects of misbehaving. In addition, they can follow the strict instructions and rules needed to reach a given goal. Consequently, this child-rearing style can result in kids with higher levels of aggression but may also be socially inept, shy, and unable to make decisions. The kids also have poor self-esteem, which enhances their inability to make decisions. Since they are not provided with adequate and proper guidance, children remain uncontrolled as they have difficulty managing anger.
On the other hand, parents with a permissive child-rearing style tend to be nurturing, warm and always have minimal or no expectations. They impose limited regulations on their kids. these little rules result in kids with unhealthy eating habits, particularly regarding snacks which in turn results in increased risks of obesity and other health complications at a later stage of child development. Moreover, the kid can also have much freedom as they are the ones who decide when to sleep, do their homework, and even watch television. Consequently, this freedom can lead to harmful habits as the parents need to offer more guidance on moderation. In this style, communication remains open, but parents allow their kids to figure out things themselves. Therefore, parents act more like friends to their kids. The kids can sometimes be demanding, impulsive, lack self-regulation, and selfish.
The two forms of attachment are secure and non-secure attachment. A secure attachment occurs when the kid’s security-seeking offers are met with caretaker behavior that minimizes child distress (Riggio et al., 2020). Secure attachment is usually linked to a sense of worthiness. According to various research, attachment theories define this form of attachment as perfect and permitting for confident investigation from a safe social base. Moreover, in secure attachment, infants displayed a level of caregiver affiliation and exploration during the pre-separation stage, moderate to mild suspicion when the mum left the house, and were easily consoled upon the arrival of the mother (Neckoway et al., 2017). The developmental result is one of flexibility for people upraised under such situations. Securely attached people are always notable for their adaptability (Yildiz & Iskender, 2019). The other form of attachment is an insecure attachment with at least two variations, replicating less flexibility and balance across the bridging and bonding divide. This form of attachment rises from caretaking that is uncaring and, over time, leads to denial by the kid of the caretaker as a basis of offering security.
Culture impacts the various attachment styles based on the child-rearing styles. There are clear facial correspondences between collaborative culture type and insecure attachment and between individualist culture type and insecure attachment. The secure attachment responds to neither of the culture types but is instead categorized by adaptability and flexibility. Because they are rigid about whether weak-tie or strong-tie relationships should be prioritized, insecure attachment fits a specific cultural setting in this way. A recent study has depicted high rates of insecure attachment in individualist societies than in collectivist societies (Yildiz & Iskender, 2019). Moreover, the relations between attachment types and relationship satisfaction vary across various societies. A study conducted in 2010 showed that the negative impacts of insecure attachment on romantic affairs were more severe in collectivists related to individualist beliefs. For instance, if culture is an occurrence of attachment, then caregiving practices for child behavior should differ across nations. In addition, attachment styles are essential in childhood development across various cultures. They also offer a script for upcoming close contacts. Cognitive scripts, memories, and emotions are also linked with a given attachment style and develop an internal model of self and others (D’Arienzo et al., 2019). Some cultures also emphasize emotional stability and nurturing, enhancing secure attachment.
In conclusion, child-rearing significantly impacts how different families behave in a family setup. Child-rearing styles are chosen based on the parent’s reaction to each. However, factors such as socio-economic and migration affect the various child-rearing styles. The different child-rearing styles and attachments are essential as they enhance child growth and development.
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Neckoway, R., Brownlee, K. & Castellan, B. (2017). Is Attachment Theory Consistent with Aboriginal Parenting Realities? First Peoples Child & Family Review, 3(2), 65–74. https://doi.org/10.7202/1069465ar
Riggio, G., Gazzano, A., Zsilák, B., Carlone, B., & Mariti, C. (2020). Quantitative behavioral analysis and qualitative classification of attachment styles in domestic dogs: Are dogs with a secure and an insecure-avoidant attachment different? Animals, 11(1), 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11010014
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Yildiz, B., & Iskender, M. (2019). The secure attachment style-oriented psycho-educational program for reducing intolerance of uncertainty and academic procrastination. Current Psychology, 40(4), 1850–1863. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-0112-4