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Assessing the Problem: Leadership, Collaboration, Communication, Change Management, and Policy Considerations

Unless health issues in the modern period are not adequately monitored, they will lead to numerous difficulties. It is important to note that despite the progress in promoting national coverage, health problems remain to afflict communities and interfere with their capacity to function regularly. Khan et al. (2018) show that immediate interventions are required to safeguard communities and ensure that the most vulnerable groups are safeguarded and do not suffer as a result of consistently low health results. Given that obesity is a major contributing factor to several health issues, obesity is among the illnesses that affect communities in this regard and presents a severe threat to the populace’s health. This implies that if an individual becomes obese and fails to seek treatment early, they are more likely to face health issues and even a decline in their well-being. Early assistance will be appropriate. The issue of obesity, the populations it affects, the research that is now available, legislation, and leadership in illness prevention will all be covered in this paper.

Population Health Problem

Chronic health issues have significant effects on Americans. It is having an impact on the advancements made in the healthcare industry. Obesity is a problem that affects many people and is common in all communities. According to Caballero (2019), an excessive buildup of body fat results in obesity, which leads to an unbalanced state of health. Caregivers often observe that overeating and being inactive cause one to build much fat. In the United States, the problem of adult obesity is getting worse as the number of individuals who are obese keeps rising. Over 35 per cent of the people living in the United States (U.S.) suffers from obesity, making it a serious health problem. In the U. S., the rate of obesity increased from 30.5 per cent in 1999 to 41.9 per cent in 2017–March 2020, according to the CDC (2021). Within the same time frame, the prevalence of extreme obesity increased from 4.7 to 9.2 per cent. Furthermore, obesity is a significant issue since it is associated with heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and several cancers. In the U. S., the average annual medical cost of obesity in 2019 was $173 billion. Individuals with obesity had $1,861 higher healthcare costs than those in a healthy weight range. Estimates from 2013 to 2016 suggest that 89.0% of American adults 18 and older with diabetes were overweight or obese (CDC, n.d.). Moreover, between 17% and 26% of all kidney malignancies in both men and women are caused by obesity. The population of interest is people in the middle age range, between 40 and 59 years old because they are more likely to be obese. 18% of fatalities among Americans aged 40 to 85 are brought on by obesity. Over $190 billion is spent in the United States on healthcare related to obesity.

Hales et al. (2020) claim that as most adults do not reach standard daily levels of physical activity, poor food and lifestyle habits are the leading causes of adult obesity. This indicates that when a person consumes a lot of fats and sugars or many calories without getting enough exercise, their body fat might suddenly or gradually cause them to develop an unhealthy weight. Most of the time, the adults mention that while they are aware of the effects of obesity, they do not have the support necessary to pursue solutions to lead a healthy lifestyle. This implies that problems like heart disease can arise rapidly if one is not taking good care of their health. People at lower socioeconomic levels cannot afford healthy food and routine checkups, which prevents them from receiving timely patient education about preventing obesity. This explains why the issue affects people of all races, but African Americans are the most affected.

Evidence from Peer-Reviewed Literature and Professional Sources

It is crucial to note that while looking into health issues, using material from peer-reviewed sources is essential because it assures that there is evidence to back up an action. The CRAAP model was crucial in this context since it highlighted using a piece of information. This is due to the requirement that any article utilized be current, accurate, objective, and delivered professionally. Thus, the examined publications dealt with obesity, preventative strategies, and related consequences. Saunders et al. (2019) contend that lifestyle treatments, which enhance patient outcomes, are the most effective way to address adult obesity. This is because using pharmaceutical therapies alone will not produce improved results if the patient’s everyday behaviours are not altered to aid the weight loss. Adopting lifestyle changes like increasing physical exercise, consuming a nutritious diet, and giving up alcohol can help to reach an ideal weight. However, this must first be practised through counselling or instruction so individuals can adopt the proper attitude to reach a healthy weight. In addition, healthcare professionals must understand the significance of using the Health Belief Model to give health education that can result in healthier lifestyle changes. Tutunchi et al. (2020) show that utilizing the health belief model to promote weight management and healthy habits is successful since it guarantees that patients will lose weight appropriately. This is achievable because the general public knows the value of maintaining a healthy weight and the adverse effects of an unhealthy lifestyle. The article claims that it is simpler to put protective measures in place and lead healthier lives for populations when they know the hazard a condition poses to their health. Providers must apply evidence-based methods to promote and prevent significant health issues from enhancing adoption and acceptability. Although healthcare professionals are aware of the value of EBP in preventing obesity, Shayan et al. (2019) show that its use is still constrained for various reasons. The absence of supporting resources in healthcare facilities or communities is one of the problems preventing the use of EBP implementation for obesity prevention. Most patients are from areas where it is difficult to find nutritious food or secure areas for exercising. Caregivers’ utilization of remedial EBP therapies is constrained, and patients cannot reach medical facilities for examination in certain situations. Additionally, the paucity of the workforce in healthcare facilities restricts EBP because nurses cannot devote enough time to supporting each patient’s weight reduction journey and monitoring their performance.

State Board Nursing Practice Standards, Organizational/Governmental Policies

Healthcare organizations and nursing boards have regulations that regulate how healthcare professionals should behave when managing patients and creating interventions to raise the standard of care. The Education Law of New York, which emphasizes the rules under Article 139, regulates nurses’ practice. According to the law (NYSED, 2018), a nurse is only permitted to engage in patient education, primary care, primary prevention, and care coordination. To safeguard patients and advance optimal results, obesity management must comply with the legal limitations of nursing practice. In addition to helping patients manage their weight and deal with behaviour change and preventative treatment, these procedures are crucial in preventing obesity and enhancing patients’ dietary habits. When this law is upheld, obesity prevention programmes that work and can be fully deployed will be developed to benefit patients and populations. Additionally, the CDC offers recommendations for nurses to use in preventing obesity, although these all fall under preventative care and weight control. This emphasizes that the intervention must come under the purview of nursing and that a registered physician must approve all potential interventions. Rutledge et al. (2018) estimate that around one-third of Americans suffer from obesity. The National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) is a resource that the authors mention as another way to promote public wellness and health. Caretakers must go by various criteria and rules of care to lessen the disease’s effects and the high incidence within the designated group.

Leadership Strategies to Improve Outcomes

Healthcare organizations must be managed by strong leadership, communication, and cooperation methods. This is due to detailed instructions that must be given to providers in order to enhance obesity control, treatment, and preventive strategies. Hitch et al. (2020) assert that the use of transformational leadership styles enhances the providers’ ability and aids in the design of preventive measures in clinical settings. Since the caregivers can use practical techniques and advance the patients’ wellness, obese patients can receive the proper care. When caretakers are led effectively, they frequently work better and are in a place to fully utilize their abilities. Additionally, since using plain language enables patients to participate in patient care and express their thoughts about controlling the disease, communication is essential in enhancing commitment to the interventions. Effective communication involves using an appropriate tone and language for sensitive individuals, according to Auckburally et al. (2021). Avoiding adjectives like “fat” or “obese” while using phrases like “weight” encourages patients to open up and discuss their circumstances. Patients can work effectively with their caregivers and achieve better health results if there is good communication between them. Additionally, by pooling their knowledge to improve patient judgments, caregivers may offer high-quality patient care by collaborating collaboratively. This results in improved outcomes because, regardless of the setting, the measures chosen must be suitable for the individual to undertake.


Obesity is a risk to the physical wellbeing of the populace and impacts individuals’ wellbeing in localities. This is because obesity affects 42% of adults, further complicating their health conditions. Therefore, lifestyle therapies may be crucial since they alter their behaviour and prevent the disease from worsening. The health belief model can also aid providers in using EBP in obesity prevention and promoting prevention programs. The New York nursing board laws and the CDC obesity prevention recommendations, which specify the measures to be used, must be followed for this to be adopted. Lastly, multidisciplinary collaboration, accessible communication, and results can all be improved by employing transformational leadership.


Auckburally, S. D. (2021). The use of effective language and communication in the management of obesity: The challenge for healthcare professionals. Current Obesity Reports, 10(3), 274–281.

Caballero, B. (2019). Humans against obesity: Who will win? Advances in Nutrition, 10(Suppl_1), S4–S9.

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, June 7). Obesity is a common, serious, and costly disease.

CDC. (2021, September 30). Adult obesity facts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.).

Hales, C. M. (2020). Prevalence of obesity and severe obesity among adults: United States, 2017-2018. NCHS Data Brief, 360, 1–8.

Khan, S., Vandermorris, A., Shepherd, J., Begun, J., Lanham, H., Uhl-Bien, M., & Berta, W. (2018). Embracing uncertainty, managing complexity: Applying complexity thinking principles to transformation efforts in healthcare systems. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1). doi:10.1186/s12913-018-2994-0

National Diabetes Statistics Report 2020. Estimates of Diabetes and Its Burden in the United States.

NYSED. (2018, February 2). Education law: Article 139-nursing.

Rutledge, G. E., Lane, K., Merlo, C., & Elmi, J. (2018). Coordinated approaches to strengthen state and local public health actions to prevent obesity, diabetes, and heart disease and stroke. Preventing Chronic Disease, 15.

Saunders, H., Gallagher‐Ford, L., Kvist, T., & Vehviläinen‐Julkunen, K. (2019). Practicing Healthcare Professionals’ Evidence‐Based Practice Competencies: An Overview of Systematic Reviews. Worldviews On Evidence-Based Nursing, 16(3), 176-185. doi: 10.1111/wvn.12363

Shayan, S., Kiwanuka, F., & Nakaye, Z. (2019). Barriers Associated With Evidence‐Based Practice Among Nurses in Low‐ and Middle‐Income Countries: A Systematic Review. Worldviews On Evidence-Based Nursing, 16(1), 12-20. doi: 10.1111/wvn.12337

Tutunchi, H., Ostadrahimi, A., & Saghafi-Asl, M. (2020). The Effects of Diets Enriched in Monounsaturated Oleic Acid on the Management and Prevention of Obesity: a Systematic Review of Human Intervention Studies. Advances In Nutrition, 11(4), 864-877. doi:10.1093/advances/nmaa013


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