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Annotated Bibliography on Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology

Comer, R. (2014). Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology. Schizophrenia: Pearson. Retrieved from


The author of this book, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, is an award-winning teacher, accomplished researcher and experienced therapist. The author understands how to communicate the complexities of abnormal psychology, demonstrates students’ concerns, and empathically portrays the real human impact of psychological disorders such as stress and depression. The primary author is also joined by Jonathan Comer, who brings his expertise in developmental psychopathology research, brain circuitry, cognitive-behavioural research and technology-driven treatment, which all pervade abnormal psychology.

The author’s detailed information about depressive and Bipolar disorder is captured in several slides of the book Fundamentals of abnormal psychology (Abdollahi, Lye, Cherati, & Zarghami, 2021). The book illustrates that around 9% of senior people in the United States suffer from severe unipolar depression in any given year. As many as 5% suffer from mild forms; around 19% of all adults experience unipolar depression at some time in their lives. The rate of depression is higher among poor people than wealthier people. The book also demonstrates that people of any age may suffer from unipolar depression. Women are at least twice as likely as men.

There are five critical areas of functioning that could impact: Emotional signs and symptoms “Depressed,” “empty,” and “humiliated” Having only a smidgeon of pleasure Symptoms of motivation Lack of motivation, initiative, and spontaneity Suicide kill between 6% and 15% of those suffering from severe depression. Behavioural signs and symptoms When you’re less active, you’re less productive. Symptoms of the mind Hold an unfavourable opinion of themselves and blame themselves for bad things that happen to them Pessimistic Physical signs and symptoms Headaches, dizziness, and overall discomfort.

Depression may be triggered by stress. People who are depressed have a higher number of stressful life events in the month leading up to the commencement of their symptoms. Some doctors distinguish between reactive (exogenous) depression and endogenous depression, which appears to be caused by internal sources.

According to family pedigree, twin, adoption, and molecular biology gene research, some people inherit a biological tendency. According to studies, up to 20% of relatives of those who suffer from depression are also depressed, compared to less than 10% of the overall population.

Genetic Factors that cause depression

Twin studies reveal a significant genetic component: Identical (MZ) twins have a 46% concordance rate. Fraternal (DZ) twins have a 20% concordance rate. Adoption studies have also linked severe unipolar depression to a hereditary component. Researchers have discovered that unipolar depression is linked to specific genes using molecular biology techniques.

Bio-chemical factors that cause depression

Serotonin and norepinephrine are norepinephrine and serotonin, respectively. Depression was discovered in the 1950s as a side effect of blood pressure medicines. Others reduced serotonin levels, while others reduced norepinephrine levels. The discovery of genuinely potent antidepressant drugs that eased depression by boosting either serotonin or norepinephrine underlined the importance of the NT. Not only serotonin and norepinephrine are involved in depression. There’s a complex dynamic going on, and additional NTs could be affected.


Abdollahi, F. 1., Lye, M.-S. 2., Cherati, J. Y., & Zarghami, M. 4. (2021). Depressive symptoms in men immediately after birth. Journal of Psychosomatic Research; 151. Retrieved from

Comer, R. (2014). Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology. Schizophrenia: Pearson. Retrieved from


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