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Annotated Bibliography: Congenital Disabilities

Birth defects are common congenital disorders that happen while the baby develops in the mother’s womb. They can either be structural or developmental defects. Therefore, the sources below will give a brief description of congenital disabilities as well as their usefulness in my topic:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). What are birth defects? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved February 27, 2022, from,-Every%204%20%C2%BD&text=Birth%20defects%20are%20structural%20changes,vary%20from%20mild%20to%20severe.

According to CDC (2021), a birth defect is a structural change normally reported at birth. Additionally, a birth defect can affect any part of the body, and it can either be physical or affect the internal organs of an infant, such as the heart. In conjunction with that, there are different causes of birth defects, including taking alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy. The source further discusses how one can identify a birth defect and treat and prevent such defects. However, there are birth defects that are difficult to treat. Therefore, the authors address how we can live with such people since these defects do not necessarily affect an individual’s lifespan. Generally, the source has detailed information about the general overview of birth defects and how to associate with people suffering from such defects. Hence, the journal has a detailed report that is very important in my topic since it helps me understand more about birth defects.

Ansari, J., Moufarrej, Y. E., Pawlinski, R., & Gavins, F. N. (2018). Sickle cell disease: a malady beyond a hemoglobin defect in cerebrovascular disease. Expert review of hematology11(1), 45-55.

Ansari et al. (2018) state that sickle cell defect is a congenital hemoglobinopathy normally caused by gene mutation. The defect can be classified as a developmental defect since it affects the normal functioning of the red blood cells. The defect was first reported in 1910 by Herrick. The article contains a well-detailed flow of information about the origin of sickle cell diseases and the treatment of this disease. The authors further give advanced details based on sickle cell disease and its distribution in different parts of the world. Moreover, the article highlights this congenital disability’s physical and clinical challenges in the United States and other regions such as Africa and Asia. According to the article, the authors suggest that hydroxyurea is the only approved therapy for sickle cell defects. The information contained in this article is essential in my topic since it gives clear, detailed information about this congenital defect.

Mayo Clinic. (2018). Cleft lip and cleft palate. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved February 27, 2022, from,Cleft%20palate

The cleft lip is an opening located in the upper lips, palate, or both (Mayo Clinic, 2018). These birth defects are structural defects that occur due to incomplete closure of the facial structures and are usually noticed at birth. Some of the cleft lip and palate symptoms include an opening in the lip or the palate a unique speaking voice (nasal), among others. In addition, some of the complications related to these defects include difficulty in feeding, among others. The article contains well-organized information about cleft lip from the introduction to preventive measures. Hence, it makes this article an important source in the study of cleft lip and palate as a birth defect. The source further suggests some preventive measures that pregnant mothers can take.

Nicoll, R. (2018). Environmental contaminants and congenital heart defects: a re-evaluation of the evidence. International journal of environmental research and public health15(10), 2096.

Nicoll (2018) claims that a heart defect is a congenital abnormality that accounts for one-third of every fundamental birth defect. Nicoll further argues that heart defects are the leading cause of stillbirth, neonatal, and spontaneous abortion, making this defect one of the most life-threatening birth defects. However, children who survive this defect always have lifelong medication complications. Heart defects are majorly caused by environmental contaminants such as smoking, pesticides, and other environmental pollutants. The main preventive measures include avoiding chemicals and exposure to cigarette smoke, especially for pregnant mothers. The source contains some of the important information essential in researching the main causes and harmful effects of heart defects as one of the birth defects. Hence, the information contained in this article makes it a suitable source for the study of heart defects.

Wijayasinghe, S. R., Abeysekera, W. Y. M., & Dharmaratne, T. S. S. (2018). Descriptive epidemiology of congenital clubfoot deformity in Sri Lanka. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak28(2), 166-8.

Clubfoot is a congenital disability associated with foot deformity (Wijayasingshe, 2018). The main components of this defect include midfoot cavus, forefoot adduction, among other components. The author further argues that this defect is mainly caused by idiopathic. Since the deformity of the foot characterizes the defect, the main treatment aim is to obtain an anatomical and functional foot. The treatment should start as possible to allow optimal growth of the talus leading to better outcomes. The source contains well-integrated information concerning clubfoot. The above information makes the source a better research source in my assignment topic.


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