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Analysis at Newcastle Hospital

Public health is one of the academic subjects where the idea of management and leadership has become more well-known. In an organization, management and leadership are separate but related roles. While management is concerned with planning, organizing, controlling, and directing resources toward achieving goals, leadership is a visionary function that involves imagining the future and inspiring and motivating people to act toward a common goal. Various management theories have been established to describe how organizations can be managed efficiently. Classical, behavioral, systems and contingency theories are among the pertinent ones. A contingency theory is applicable in public health because it acknowledges contextual elements’ significance in decision-making.

Autocratic, democratic, and transformative leadership philosophies exist. The transformational approach can be used in public health because it strongly emphasizes empowering, inspiring, and motivating followers to achieve their objectives. Effective leadership and management abilities are crucial to maintaining efficient operations in the emergency department at Newcastle Hospital. Effective communication, teamwork, problem-solving, critical thinking, and decision-making are essential for public health leaders.

 Definition of leadership and management

Although they are frequently synonymous, “management” and “leadership” mean different things. Planning, organizing, directing, and regulating resources to accomplish a particular aim or objective within an organization is referred to as management (Herrity, 2020, p. 1). Conversely, leadership is the capacity to persuade people to work toward a common objective. Leaders influence, inspire, and motivate people to work together to realize a common goal(Bertocci, 2019, p.1). While there are some similarities between the two ideas—such as the power to persuade—they diverge in terms of approach and focus. Leadership emphasizes people, relationships, and communication, while management primarily concentrates on tasks, processes, and systems.

Leadership and Management: Similarities and Differences

While both management and leadership involve guiding and persuading people to achieve objectives, their priorities and areas of concentration differ. According to (Martic, 2022, p.2)

while management focuses on organizing, planning, and controlling resources to achieve those goals, leadership is more concerned with inspiring and motivating people toward a single goal. The technique of influencing and directing others toward reaching shared goals is one of the key parallels between management and leadership. Both require comprehensive comprehension of the organization’s purposes, practical communication skills, and the capacity to inspire and motivate others. Management and leadership include making decisions, planning, and organizing to attain desired results.

The nature of the relationship between the leader or manager and their followers is another crucial distinction between leadership and management. While managers typically have a more formal, transactional relationship with their employees, leaders usually have a more personal and emotional connection with their followers(Bertocci, 2019, p. 9). While managers use their position of power and subject matter expertise to guide and control their employees, leaders frequently rely on their charisma and personal traits to influence and inspire their followers.

 Theories of Management

There are several management theories, and each one defines effective management. The classical approach, which emphasizes a hierarchical organization, established procedures, and distinct lines of authority, is one of the first management ideas (Griffin, 2021, p. 269). The human relations method is another idea that promotes a more people-centered management style that focuses on employee morale, motivation, and work satisfaction. The contingency approach is a third paradigm that contends that various management approaches might work better in certain circumstances. (McAdam, Miller, and McSorley, 2019, p. 1). The systems and social-ecological models are two management theories pertinent to public health.

 Management Theories Relevant to Public Health

 The ecological systems theory

According to(Chong, Isaacs, and McKinley, 2022, p. 3), ecological systems theory concerns how people and their surroundings are connected and interact. According to this Theory, people are influenced by several concentric circles, ranging from their close families to broader social and cultural institutions. According to the Theory, these systems significantly impact individual development and behavior, and environmental influences must be considered when examining social behavior and modifying public health outcomes. Given the requirement for public health interventions to consider a broad range of social and cultural elements that can affect health outcomes, this theory is especially pertinent to public health.

 The contingency theory

The contingency theory is a well-known leadership theory that highlights the significance of situational factors in figuring out how effective various leadership styles are. According to this view, leaders must modify their styles in response to the unique requirements of each scenario because no one technique works for all leadership roles ((King and Vaiman, 2019, p. 196). The difficulty of the work, the extent of the leader’s support and resources, and the traits of the followers are some of the leading contextual aspects that may affect the efficacy of various styles. The contingency theory may be constructive in directing leaders as they negotiate complicated and varied health systems and seek to address the particular needs and difficulties of various communities in the context of public health.

The chaos theory

According to (Bowman et al., 2021, p. 3), chaos theory states that the modest initial deviations in a system can result in unpredictably large-scale future behavior variations. Management is one of the many domains to which this idea has been applied. This theory contends that a management or leader’s seemingly insignificant action or choice can have a significant long-term effect. Leaders and managers must embrace flexibility, adaptability, and innovation in their decision-making processes to anticipate and reduce future obstacles and uncertainties. According to the chaos theory, managers and leaders must be alert and flexible in their approach rather than relying on any one formula or technique to oversee public health initiatives.

 Types of Leadership Styles

One of the most important facets of leadership is style, which refers to a leader’s attitude to, interaction with, and goal-achieving with their team. Different leadership philosophies exist, such as autocratic, democratic, transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. An individual who exercises authoritarian or directed leadership makes choices and issues instructions that are firmly obeyed. On the other hand, democratic leadership is a collaborative process that considers everyone’s opinions(Niinihuhta and Häggman‐Laitila, 2022, p. 3). While transactional leadership uses rewards and punishments to enforce compliance, transformational leadership focuses on inspiring and motivating team members. Laissez-faire leadership practices require little involvement and may result in anarchy(Robert and Vandenberghe, 2022, p. 1). The democratic and transformative methods may be helpful in public health.

 Autocratic leadership

A leader who exercises autocratic leadership controls the team’s decision-making process and forbids team members from offering their opinions(Oranefo, 2022, p. 118). Emergencies, like those encountered in a hospital’s emergency room, can be effectively managed with this leadership approach. As a result of not feeling heard or respected, team members may become demotivated and disengaged. Therefore, leaders must know when to exercise autocratic leadership and when to solicit feedback from subordinates.

Democratic leadership

According to (Baturo and Elkink, 2021, p 4), Democratic leadership encourages group members to actively participate and collaborate, with decisions reached by majority vote or consensus. However, this leadership style can be time-consuming and impair decision-making if not adequately managed. It promotes communication, creativity, and motivation. Since democratic leadership encourages participation and shared responsibility among all stakeholders, it can benefit public health when addressing challenging community health issues. Emergency departments like Newcastle Hospital may need a more directive or authoritative leadership style to achieve prompt and efficient action. Effective management and leadership abilities are essential for resolving public health issues and ensuring favorable health outcomes.

 Laissez-faire leadership

According to (Jony, 2019, p. 30), It is a leadership style where the boss defers to the group’s decision-making process rather than interfering or controlling it. This strategy might be helpful when the group members have the requisite motivation and experience to do the allocated duties. It is also appropriate when the group members have the necessary abilities to produce the desired results, but the leader needs to gain the essential knowledge or experience. As patient lives are at stake and a passive leadership strategy may result in confusion and mistakes, the laissez-faire leadership style may not be the most successful in the healthcare sector. Therefore, public health executives need to take a more active and hands-on approach to ensure their team gives patients quality care.

 Leadership Styles Useful in Public Health

Depending on the organization’s or program’s circumstances and objectives, many leadership philosophies, such as democratic, autocratic, and laissez-faire, can be used in public health contexts. Democratic leadership, which entails a cooperative strategy and active team participation in decision-making, can be helpful in public health for fostering cooperation, enhancing communication, and developing trust among team members. According to (Baturo and Elkink, 2021, p 6), democratic leadership can help generate agreed objectives and solutions that satisfy the demands of all stakeholders in public health since several stakeholders may have varying wants and viewpoints.

During emergencies or crises that call for prompt action and definite decision-making, autocratic leadership, which involves centralized decision-making and a top-down approach, can be helpful in public health. An authoritarian leader can efficiently prioritize work, give clear direction and guidance, and organize resources in such circumstances to lessen the impact of the emergency (Oranefo, 2022, p. 118). In public health situations where team members have a high degree of skill and experience, laissez-faire leadership, which gives team members the authority to make decisions, can be helpful(Jony, 2019, p. 30). This leadership style can foster creativity, invention, and a sense of ownership among team members by empowering them to make decisions independently, enhancing outcomes, and increasing job satisfaction.

 Application of Leadership and Management in the Emergency Department at Newcastle Hospital

The success of Newcastle Hospital’s emergency department depends on the use of management and leadership techniques. Clear communication lines, teamwork, and coordination are all elements of good leadership that guarantee the department’s smooth operation. Similarly, control ensures that resources are used effectively, procedures are followed, and employees have the equipment and training they need to do their jobs. Public health applies to management theories like contingency and systems theories, particularly in emergencies. Similar to how they encourage collaboration, innovation, and flexibility, leadership philosophies like transformational, democratic, and strategic leadership are helpful in public health, particularly in the emergency room. Effective communication, teamwork, problem-solving, and decision-making are critical for managing and leading public health initiatives.

 Challenges in the emergency department

The lack of employees in the emergency room is one of the biggest problems, frequently resulting in burnout and subpar patient care. The unpredictable nature of emergency cases and the requirement for quick decision-making can also cause significant stress in medical practitioners. Furthermore, the department’s capacity to effectively manage patient flow and uphold optimal patient outcomes may be constrained by budgetary restraints and scarce resources. Effective management and leadership depend on addressing these issues and ensuring the emergency department runs smoothly. Strong decision-making talents, communication skills, and the capacity to inspire and empower their team members are all necessary for leaders to help their departments achieve their objectives.

 Leadership and management approaches in the emergency department

The emergency room’s leadership and management strategies are crucial to ensure patients receive efficient and effective care. Leaders and managers must collaborate to improve patient outcomes, develop teamwork, and create a healthy work environment. Public health can be affected by various management theories, including scientific management, human relations theory, and systems theory. Public health can also benefit from leadership philosophies, including transformational, transactional, and situational leadership. Effective management and leadership are crucial in Newcastle Hospital’s emergency room to meet the complicated problems that develop in such circumstances. Problem-solving, critical thinking, and communication are essential for public health leaders.

Skills Important in Leading and Managing Public Health Activities

A wide range of competencies are required for managing and leading public health initiatives. Strong communication skills are crucial for public health practitioners since they frequently interact with many stakeholder groups. They also need to be familiar with issues relating to public health and be able to assess data and spot trends. To solve difficulties in public health, leaders in the field must be able to develop workable plans and strategies and inspire and motivate their teams to succeed. Finally, they must be adaptable and agile to update their approach to consider shifts in the public health landscape.

 Communication skills

Leadership and management depend heavily on effective communication in any field, including public health. To effectively communicate goals, manage team members, and develop connections with stakeholders and the general public. Clear and practical communication skills will put managers and leaders in a better position to drive outcomes, instill confidence, and foster trust. Active listening, clear thought and idea expression, and relationships with people from various backgrounds and viewpoints are all components of effective communication(Jaiswal, 2022, p.1). Communication abilities are essential in public health because practitioners push public health policy, promote health education, and work with various stakeholders.

 Decision-making skills

Making intelligent choices is a crucial component of effective management and leadership. Any organization’s ability to make wise decisions quickly and effectively is essential to achieving its goals and objectives. Making decisions entails evaluating the available options, weighing the benefits and drawbacks of each choice, and deciding which course of action is best given the information at hand. A combination of analytical and creative thinking, problem-solving skills, and a readiness to take calculated risks are necessary for effective decision-making. Decision-making abilities are fundamental in public health leadership and management since the health and welfare of populations are at risk. In this profession, it is crucial to have a thorough understanding of the decision-making process and its effects.

 Collaboration and networking skills

Effective leadership and management in public health depend heavily on networking and collaboration abilities. Diverse parties must collaborate and communicate effectively to accomplish shared objectives. Because it allows for considering various viewpoints, collaboration enhances the quality of decisions a group makes. One of the most crucial networking abilities is connecting with people and organizations that offer essential resources and support. Influential public health executives must have vital networking and collaboration abilities to navigate the complicated healthcare landscape and enhance population health outcomes.

Time management and organizational skills

Leaders and managers must have strong abilities to properly monitor and carry out activities, resources, and projects. These abilities include setting priorities, assigning work, planning timeframes, and efficiently using resources. Excellent time management and organizational skills enable leaders to distribute resources effectively while upholding high productivity levels, employee motivation, and team cohesiveness. Therefore, leaders need to cultivate these abilities, maintain them, and balance conflicting demands. By accomplishing goals within allocated periods and budgets, winning over stakeholders, and creating a favorable work atmosphere, the successful use of these talents frequently also leads to satisfying the needs of various situations.


In conclusion, management and leadership are crucial elements of effective organizations, and their roles occasionally overlap. Leadership focuses more on inspiring, motivating, and guiding people to achieve a shared vision, whereas management is more concerned with planning, organizing, and controlling resources to achieve specified goals. Various management theories have developed based on multiple ideas and methodologies. Some of these theories have application to public health, particularly in terms of illness prevention and treatment, assuring public safety, and encouraging better lifestyles. The same is true for leadership styles, which each offer unique advantages and disadvantages. The transformational and servant leadership philosophies are constructive in public health for enhancing clinical outcomes and neighborhood health. Effective leadership and management abilities are essential for people and organizations to respond to urgent health crises and advance health fairness.

Reference list

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