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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Dr. Stephen Hawking

The famous person selected for this study is Dr. Stephen Hawking, who was born in 1942 in England. Dr. Stephen Hawking was born an average child. He lived most of his life without a disability up t the age of 21 when he was diagnosed with a severe disease called Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). After studying math and physic, attaining a Ph.D. in physics, he became a professor at the University of Cambridge in England. His popularity was attributed to his numerous published books on the Gig Bang Theory and theoretical physics. One of his famous books is A Brief History of Time. Despite being diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, he managed to live with it for more hat fifty years, but he died at the age of 76. On the other hand, I selected this case because it has become a global concern, especially globally in the health care system. In this case, studying and researching a victim of the disease makes it easier to understand and interpret the diseases based on health impacts.

Pathophysiology and clinical manifestations associated Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is associated with physiological alteration. Suggestively, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis affects the neurons present in the body. In this case, it is estimated that Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is identifiable when the motor neurons are destroyed by pathophysiology (Chia et al., 2018). As Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis continues to persist in the body, the motor neurons in the body degenerate in the brain, which affects the activeness of the body muscles (Paganonin et al., 2020). In this case, after interfering with the motor neuron of the brain, the neurons become inactive and ineffective, limiting their ability to transmit impulses (Chia et al., 2018).

The clinical manifestation of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis varies from various perspectives. According to Paganoni et al. (2020), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis affects motor neurons that increasingly encounter extra-motor manifestation. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis starts with weakening the muscles by damaging the motor neurons, which become worse with time as it spreads to other body parts.

On the other hand, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis affects several body systems from various perspectives. According to Maugeri and D’Agata (2020), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis affects muscle strengthening, which may cause muscles paralysis. On the other hand, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis facilitates dehydration and malnutrition because it destroys the muscles that control swallowing. However, some systems are not affected when diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, including the sensory and reproductive systems.

History of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis has been one of the diseases for many years. According to Raymond et al. (2019), it is a progressive, fatal disease with a different range of clinical traits since it was identified in 1824. Historically, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis has existed for decades, affecting the health of people who have contradicted. However, since Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis was identified, many scientists and researchers have tried to discover or invent the cure, but their attempts failed. Global health identified Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis as one of the deadliest diseases. One example of a person that has lived with the disease is Dr. Stephen Hawking (Paganonin et al., 2021). Suggestively, the scientist who paved the way for conducting research and identifying the disease was Jean-Martin Charcot in the 1800s. However, one significant stressor of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is that the cure has not been found, despite several scientific research and predictions. In this case, the disease will continue affecting people. The causal or stressor factors include exposure to radiation, drug abuse, poor diet and nutrition, and occupation. According to Funke et al. (2018), technological advancement has played a significant role in people living with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis overcoming difficulties, such as limited mobility.


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is one of the significant diseases recognized for having devastating health impacts on the victims. Planning is essential in the health care system, especially considering it is associated with making work easy. Having active health workers, such as nurses, is essential for planning the disease. Suggestively, the nurses ensure Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients are well taken care of and informed of their health condition, which helps them take necessary measures and precautions. In this case, formulating goals that will favor people living with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is essential from a health perspective. Setting goals based on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is essential in achieving the objectives, interventions, and clinical plans. The goals are categorized into short and long-term goals, which will focus specifically on the case of Dr. Stephen Hawking.

Short term goals

  1. After one month, the symptoms associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis will be reduced. This goal is achievable because Dr. Stephen Hawking will be engaged in some health practices that will help him recover from the disease. As such, the goal will target reducing the symptoms every week. Hence, Dr. Stephen Hawking will be screened and measured for the symptoms.
  2. The second short-term goal will involve Dr. Stephen Hawking creating awareness and verbalizing the existence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Creating awareness and spreading the knowledge of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis will be essential in helping other people understand the disease. This goal will be achieved through a teaching and training program conducted thrice every week for one month.

Long term goals

The long-term goals involve the goals set to be met after a long period of change implementation. In this case, these goals are expected to be achieved by Dr. Stephen Hawking, who is the primary patient of interest in the study.

  1. They were achieving the normal range of BMI weight by Dr. Stephen Hawking. Suggestively, this goal is significant because contracting Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is associated with health defects and weight loss. Therefore, goals will be achieved by ensuring that Dr. Stephen Hawking maintains a good and balanced diet for five months.
  2. Health management, advisory, and assessment group will be assigned to Dr. Stephen Hawking to help determine and measure changes in his health and the situation of the disease.

Meanwhile, some critical nursing concerns associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis include respiratory failure, weight loss, pneumonia, and high pressure. Suggestively, respiratory failure is attributed to lung problems, contributing to deaths for the people who have Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. These concerns can be treated by taking preventive measures, such as maintaining a good and balanced diet, exercising, and conducting frequent health assessments. However, the patient care technologies for Dr. Stephen Hawking include brain-computer interfaces and eye-tracking devices.


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a dangerous disease that requires effective interventions to ensure the safety of people suffering from the disease. In this case, one of the interventions includes engaging Dr. Stephen Hawking in a training and teaching program involving Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. This will help the patient understand more details concerning the disease. Consequently, training and teaching programs will be essential in enabling Dr. Stephen Hawking to know how to take preventive and safety measures to help him recover. This will help him also understand the starting point of the disease and how it affects the motor neurons of the body muscles (Maugeri and D’Agata, 2020). Therefore, teaching and training programs will help ensure the patient is well-equipped with the correct information concerning Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and learn how to manage and improve health. Another intervention for the disease is pharmacology therapy, which involves taking a right and correct drugs. One of the best drugs to be sued for the disease is Riluzole, which is effective in reducing the strength and effectiveness of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Therefore, Dr. Stephen Hawking will be offered the Riluzole to prevent the effects of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Meanwhile, the current patient care technologies have assisted in reducing medical mistakes while improving the health of Dr. Stephen Hawking. Brain-computer interfaces and eye-tracking devices technology have helped improve the patient’s safety from various perspectives. According to Chia et al. (2018), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis affects the brain neurons, thus affecting impulse transmission. Therefore, using the brain-computer interface is essential in determining how the disease has penetrated the brain neurons and muscles (Chia et al., 2018). On the other hand, eye-tracking technology will be important in determining the muscles and neurons responsible for visibility destroyed by Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Therefore, preventive measures and effective drugs can be prescribed to the patient to help solve the identified impacts of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.


The success of my plan will be measured and determined from various perspectives. One of the important ways to determine is to assess and observe the weight maintenance of my patient, Dr. Stephen Hawking. According to Paganoni et al. (2020), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis causes significant health problems like weight loss and respiratory failure. In this case, if the patient maintains his normal BMI range of weight, then I will estimate that my plan has succeeded. However, when the patient indicates a reduction or loss of weight, it will suggest my plans and interventions failures. Other criteria in determining the ability of Dr. Stephen Hawking to use the precautions and dietary instructions. This will determine if the teaching and training program worked. In this case, if the patient maintains taking drugs and other measures according to the knowledge gained in the teaching and training programs, it will show that my clinical plans and interventions are effective. As such, it will be estimated that the goals and objectives of my clinical plans and intervention practices effectively foster positive change and improvement in the health of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients.

Finally, my proposed plan of care and interventions for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis will give successful outcomes. This is because they emphasize precautionary and preventive measures that help prevent the contraction of the disease, such as maintaining a good and balanced diet. Consequently, the interventions provided focus on ensuring Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients’ safety and good health, such as Dr. Stephen Hawking. Again, the programs teach how to maintain a good diet, take good medical prescriptions, and maintain individual health. This will reduce the effectiveness of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, which affects the neurons and weakens the body muscles (Chia et al., 2018). Therefore, I feel my plans and interventions will be successful.


Chia, R., Chiò, A., & Traynor, B. J. (2018). Novel genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: diagnostic and clinical implications. The Lancet Neurology, 17(1), 94-102.

Funke, A., Spittel, S., Grehl, T., Grosskreutz, J., Kettemann, D., Petri, S., … & Meyer, T. (2018). Provision of assistive technology devices among people with ALS in Germany: a platform-case management approach. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration, 19(5-6), 342-350.

Maugeri, G., & D’Agata, V. (2020). Effects of physical activity on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology, 5(2), 29.

Paganoni, S., Macklin, E. A., Hendrix, S., Berry, J. D., Elliott, M. A., Maiser, S., … & Cudkowicz, M. E. (2020). Trial of sodium phenylbutyrate–taurursodiol for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. New England Journal of Medicine, 383(10), 919-930.

Raymond, J., Oskarsson, B., Mehta, P., & Horton, K. (2019). Clinical characteristics of a large cohort of US participants enrolled in the National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry, 2010–2015. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration, 20(5-6), 413-420.


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