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Adjustments and Growth

Since the beginning of this course, students have been introduced to the ideas of physical development, cognitive development, and social/emotional/psychological growth. It is common for 90% of newborns to learn to sit between the ages of 5 and 9 months of age in Physical Development. When it comes to holding their heads up, 90% of newborns are able to do so between the ages of 3 weeks and 4 months. By the time a baby is four months old, he should be able to hold his head up. As with physical milestones, there are also cognitive milestones that we expect children to achieve (Markus & Nurius, 2000). Observing these stages as youngsters develop new cognitive, problem-solving and communication skills is useful. In middle and late childhood, cognitive abilities continue to grow. When confronted with tangible facts, rational and ordered thought processes emerge.

It is widely accepted that the idea of self-concept serves as a bridge between the individual and society and symbolizes the individual’s attempts to discover personal meaning and knowledge (Elizabeth, 2016). Almost every aspect of human conduct has been examined in connection to self-concept, including cognitive capacity and competence, moral behavior, career choice, misbehavior and deviance, social patterns, family interactions, and health and adjustment. It is implied in many of these research, including the one described here, that self-concept serves to mediate and control inputs offered by the environment rather than being a byproduct of the stream of activity. There are many other psychological structures that influence behavior, but self-concept is the most important (Markus & Nurius, 2000). To better understand the dynamics of self-concept in middle childhood, we examine both the content of self-concept and the functionality of self-concept (how it influences or regulates their actions).

Acquiring a solid grasp of one’s own identity that is both steady and thorough. It entails a growing separation between “me” and “not me,” as well as a grasp of what the “territories of the self” are, at the most general level (Elizabeth, 2016). A person’s early self-perceptions are likely to be based on traits they have been given rather than ones they have discovered for themselves. Middle childhood is a time when a person’s self-perception broadens to include the perspectives of others. This time period is marked by an increased sensitivity to the wants and expectations of others, as well as the knowledge about oneself that comes from them. The bulk of the child’s efforts may be focused on building a sense of social identity and a sense of belonging in the universe of roles they have now been exposed to (Elizabeth, 2016). Self-awareness today encompasses aspects like values, standards, long-term objectives, ambitions, and strategies for the future.

To better understand the impact of socioeconomic class on a child’s self-esteem, researchers need to concentrate on the child’s impressions of his or her social milieu (Elizabeth, 2016). The content of self-knowledge and the character of children’s intentions, goals, plans, and tactics may not be impacted by ethnicity or socioeconomic status, but it is certainly feasible. Consistency in social conduct and the clarity with which objectives are modelled or conveyed is emphasized by studies on comprehending contingencies and adopting behavioral norms. Behavior other than words may be used to communicate meaning in nonverbal. When it comes to verbal and nonverbal communication, it’s more realistic to conceive of them as component of the same system, rather than as two independent entities. Communication process tends to convey emotions more effectively than verbal communication. No formal standards control our use of nonverbal signals, unlike the rules of grammar that govern our spoken communication, in terms of composition. Like with spoken symbols, nonverbal communication does not have dictionaries and thesauruses available (Markus & Nurius, 2000). Recent technology advancements have made it feasible to characterize coordinated bodily motions in great detail, allowing researchers to get a better understanding of interpersonal coordination’s causes and effects.

Despite their love of playing with others, they have a hard time giving up their stuff. Also, youngsters learn about their gender roles via play and might identify themselves as either a girl or a boy. Healthy development necessitates the growth of a good self-perception. Self-esteem is linked to higher grades, more independence, and a willingness to try new things in children. Establishing one’s own identity and self-confidence is the first step in the development of a good self-concept in youngsters. When children compare themselves to others in primary school, their self-concept continues to grow.


Elizabeth, E. (2016). The role of Guidance and Counselling in effective teaching and learning in schools. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 36-48.

Markus, H. J., & Nurius, P. S. (2000). Development During Middle Childhood: The Years From Six to Twelve. Washington: National Academies Press.


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