Healthcare professionals have an obligation to inform their patients about their diagnosis and available treatment choices as new information becomes available. A neuropsychological test’s results may indicate a person’s cognitive strengths and shortcomings. Since schizophrenia is a severe and persistent mental illness that profoundly affects a person’s behavior, emotions, and cognitive processes, it is frequently the subject of such analyses. People who live with schizophrenia face a difficult environment due to societal stigmatization and unfavorable attitudes about the condition. Furthermore, compared to other mental health conditions like depression, schizophrenia is stigmatized more strongly by society. Many persons who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia choose not to disclose their disease to others due to the stigma attached to it.
Neuropsychological research on schizophrenia focuses on cognitive function and brain activity. In the media, particularly on the internet, schizophrenia is frequently oversimplified or sensationalized. This essay offers a thorough study by contrasting and comparing the many online portrayals of schizophrenia with the corpus of current scientific knowledge.
This study’s main goal is to look at how schizophrenia is portrayed on a few websites and assess how accurate and comprehensive such portrayals are in comparison to the body of scientific knowledge. This article’s first section provides a detailed dissection and study of the media’s portrayal of schizophrenia. After that, I’ll examine the pertinent academic literature to critique the methodologies, results, and conclusions of at least five significant research studies.
Lastly, to identify any differences, we will compare the representation on the website with that which can be found in the scientific literature. This essay will also look at how these differences might change how the general public understands schizophrenia.
Summary and Description
presently, a big part of the population gets most of their information from the internet. This is especially true for people who are trying to understand complicated mental conditions like schizophrenia. Websites show schizophrenia in different ways based on where the information came from and who it is meant for. This study uses websites from a wide range of sources, such as those open to the public and those based on university research.
Frontiers and the National Library of Science are two websites that give full, scientific descriptions of schizophrenia. People know that these websites are dedicated to studying and following academic standards. The schizophrenia information on these websites is mostly based on scientific literature, which includes different studies, methods, findings, and conclusions. Reichenberg (2010) did a thorough study that focused on evaluating the mental functioning of people who have been labeled with schizophrenia. This piece is a summary of some of the most important studies in the field of neuropsychology, focusing on the cognitive problems that people with schizophrenia often have.
Even so, websites like theconversation.com try to explain the complicated nature of schizophrenia to people who aren’t experts in the field. Authors often use words that people who aren’t experts can understand to make difficult ideas easier to understand. The Conversation makes it easy to learn about schizophrenia by publishing research pieces written by experts that cover a wide range of topics related to the disorder.
These websites all present different angles on schizophrenia. Academic inquiry websites usually take a scientific approach, including thorough citations of relevant publications and in-depth explanations of their methods and conclusions. On the other hand, websites intended for public use have a more straightforward strategy, drawing comparisons to well-known topics or events to improve accessibility for a larger audience.
Regardless of their particular expertise, each website is essential to disseminating knowledge on schizophrenia. Compared to academic websites, websites that cater to the general public can reach a larger audience, which in turn makes information about schizophrenia more easily accessible. Both websites improve the public’s understanding of this mental health issue.
In 2017, Henriksen and colleagues wrote a paper titled “Genetics of Schizophrenia.” The genetic aspects of schizophrenia are examined in this article. One of the biggest danger factors for schizophrenia is genetics. Recent breakthroughs in molecular genetics have boosted hopes that the disease mechanisms underlying schizophrenia can be identified. However, many physicians and researchers who are not genetics experts need help to grasp the intricacy of the object of study and its implications for the genetic findings and their limits. The authors argue that heredity is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia and that the condition has a complex, diversified, and polygenic genetic architecture. By revisiting studies before molecular tool development, this analysis expands on earlier genetics research. The authors argue that the monogenic and oligogenic models—two archaic and imprecise perspectives on genetic inheritance—are no longer relevant. They suggest that a small number of frequent variants with minor effects are not as important in raising the risk of disease as rare, highly penetrant genetic variations. Finally, the study highlights the significance of common and unusual genetic variants in schizophrenia.
Huxley et al.’s (2021) essay was titled “Schizophrenia Outcomes in the 21st Century.” This essay will focus on the effects of schizophrenia in the modern period. The writers exclusively used observational/naturalistic studies, following Warner’s methodology closely. In 1985, Warner presented empirical evidence that posed a significant challenge to the dominant perspective on schizophrenia, which was mostly shaped by the ideas of Kraepelin (Kendler, 2019). Kraepelin proposed that psychosis was closely associated with unfavorable clinical and social consequences. Subsequent to that period, a substantial body of information derived from epidemiological, sociological, psychological, and biological investigations has rendered some components of the Kraepelinian framework for understanding schizophrenia untenable. A total of 6,640 documents covering the years 2000 to 2020 were found after searching via six distinct scientific databases. As part of its approach, this study conducted a systematic review of observational/naturalistic investigations. The authors used the PANSS and GAF to measure the clinical and functional outcomes. The study’s sample size, gender distribution, follow-up rate, and length of follow-up did not correlate with any outcome measure, according to the researchers. Both the MEP and FEP groups experienced the same outcomes.
“Treatment and Qualitative Research of Schizophrenia” by Ammon (2022). The qualitative method of treating schizophrenia is examined in this academic work. Because biographical interviews emphasize problem-centeredness, objectivity, and process orientation, the author decided to use them as the methodological technique for her investigation. The theory-based qualitative analysis method was applied to the comprehensive tape-recorded interviews. Grounded theory approach to qualitative analysis and biographical interviews comprise the research methodology used in this study. The aim of the author was to illustrate the relationship between familial environments and histories and the onset of schizophrenia. Psychodynamic knowledge of schizophrenia is demonstrated, and personality-structural psychotherapy is described. According to the psychodynamic view, schizophrenia is a disease that attacks the very essence of a person, wreaking havoc on their ability to maintain stable relationships, define themselves, and interact with the world around them. The research goes on to provide insights into the backgrounds and familial circumstances that may have a role in the development of schizophrenia.
“Schizophrenia: A Narrative Review of Etiopathogenetic, Diagnostic and Treatment Aspects” by Ammon (2022). This page offers a narrative summary of the literature on the causes, diagnostic criteria, and therapeutic options for schizophrenia. The writers go over the many symptoms, difficulties in diagnosis, and possible treatments for this illness. Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness (SMI) affecting more than 21 million individuals worldwide, which frequently leads to a lifelong disability and reduced cognitive, social, and emotional functioning. Positive symptoms, such as illusions and hallucinations; adverse symptoms, such as depression, alogia, and social withdrawal; and cognitive symptoms, such as concentration, processing speed, ability to solve problems, memory retention, and cognitive flexibility, are currently considered necessary for a diagnosis of schizophrenia. An exhaustive literature search was conducted for this investigation. The writers cover a wide range of ground, delving into the illness’s history, symptoms, diagnosis, and therapy. The difficulties in both diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia are emphasized as the study comes to a close. The authors state that more investigation is required to comprehend the condition and create more efficient treatment methods.
Boczek et al. (2021) conducted a study on schizophrenia and titled it “The Role of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) and Calcium Signaling in Schizophrenia. Focus on GPCRs Activated by Neurotransmitters and Chemokines.” This article looks at schizophrenia from the perspective of the intricate signaling pathways of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The processes of GPCR signaling are emphasized as the authors address the many neurotransmitter systems implicated in schizophrenia and provide innovative thoughts in its therapy. A rising collection of clinical, pharmacological, and genetic proof suggests that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a significant role in disease onset, progression, and therapy, even though the molecular mechanisms underlying this psychiatric disorder remain incompletely understood. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the primary pharmacological targets for antipsychotics, further emphasizing their central significance. Through multiple secondary routes, many of which include intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, GPCR stimulation elicits delayed synaptic transmission. In this investigation, we tested our hypothesis and examined the available treatments for schizophrenia by conducting a systematic literature review. The many systems of neurotransmitters are discussed, as are the treatments that are currently accessible. They also introduce cutting-edge ideas for diagnosing and treating schizophrenia, focusing on novel mechanisms of GPCR signaling. Finally, the importance of GPCR signaling and the prospect of new therapeutics aimed at this pathway are discussed.
Comparison and Critique
The way that schizophrenia is portrayed in the media might differ greatly from current scientific understanding of the condition. People with schizophrenia are frequently misinterpreted and given different treatment by the general public as a result of this discrepancy. A comparison with scientific studies demonstrates how misinformation and damaging assumptions about schizophrenia are pervasive in media representations of the illness. We’ll examine the distinctions, discuss how they affect things, and provide recommendations for more accurate media coverage.
The media’s coverage of schizophrenia sometimes falls short of the scientific literature’s expertise on the disorder. According to research conducted by Owen (2012), most fictional individuals with schizophrenia exhibit positive symptoms, including delusions, auditory and visual hallucinations, and violent behavior. The illness is more complex and multifaceted than is often shown in the media, which tends to sensationalize it.
In contrast, the scientific literature depicts the condition as multidimensional, with both positive and negative symptoms. It draws attention to the intricate interactions between inherited and environmental factors. Henriksen et al. (2017), who researched the genetics of schizophrenia, concluded that both common and unusual genetic changes played a role in the development of the condition.
The disparity between how schizophrenia is portrayed in the media and scholarly publications can cause stigma and public misunderstanding. The media’s emphasis on unfavorable stereotypes has the potential to propagate damaging prejudices and misunderstandings about the illness, which may have an impact on how society perceives and deals with those who have schizophrenia. Furthermore, how schizophrenia is portrayed in the media might affect how medical practitioners view and manage the illness. They might not completely understand the complexity of the condition and the variety of efficient treatment choices available if they are influenced by how it is portrayed in the media.
The way the general public understands schizophrenia can be greatly influenced by the media. But it has to be done in a truthful, subtle, and courteous way. This will support the dispelling of damaging myths and prejudices as well as the advancement of an informed and compassionate knowledge of the condition. For example, the media should stress the variety of symptoms and complexity of the disorder and the multidimensional nature of its causes, steer clear of sensationalistic and stereotypical depictions of the disorder, and support positive narratives and stories about people who have schizophrenia. In conclusion, it is critical that the media accurately, nuancedly, and respectfully convey information on schizophrenia to the public, even though it can play a significant role in this regard. This will support the dispelling of damaging myths and prejudices as well as the advancement of an informed and compassionate knowledge of the condition.
In summary, there is a big disparity between what is depicted in the media and what is known about schizophrenia from the scientific literature. People with schizophrenia are frequently misinterpreted and given different treatment by the general public as a result of this discrepancy. The way the general public views and handles persons who are diagnosed with schizophrenia can be greatly impacted by media representations that uphold negative stereotypes about those who have the illness. Furthermore, how schizophrenia is portrayed in the media may have an impact on how medical professionals view and manage the illness. If individuals base their understanding on depictions in the media, they may not comprehend the complexity of the illness or the range of efficient therapies available.
The media ought to endeavor to present a more truthful image of schizophrenia to enhance public comprehension and lessen the stigma attached to the illness. Promoting uplifting tales and narratives about individuals with schizophrenia may be necessary to do this, as well as avoiding sensationalistic and stereotyped depictions of the illness and emphasizing its complexity and variety of symptoms.
In addition, the public might be greatly educated on schizophrenia through the media. However, it must do it in a thoughtful, nuanced, and fair way. People will, therefore, stand a better chance of overcoming prejudice and gaining a more empathetic and nuanced understanding of the disease. In conclusion, if the media is to contribute to a shift in public opinion, it must present schizophrenia in an impartial, nuanced, and kind manner. People will, therefore, stand a better chance of overcoming prejudice and gaining a more empathetic and nuanced understanding of the disease.
Ammon, M. (2022). Treatment and qualitative research of schizophrenia. European Psychiatry, 65(S1), S784-S784. https://doi.org/10.1192/j.eurpsy.2022.2025
Boczek, T., Mackiewicz, J., Sobolczyk, M., Wawrzyniak, J., Lisek, M., Ferenc, B., Guo, F., & Zylinska, L. (2021). The role of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and calcium signaling in schizophrenia. Focus on GPCRs activated by neurotransmitters and Chemokines. Cells, 10(5), 1228. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10051228
Henriksen, M. G., Nordgaard, J., & Jansson, L. B. (2017). Genetics of schizophrenia: Overview of methods, findings, and limitations. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2017.00322
Huxley, P., Krayer, A., Poole, R., Prendergast, L., Aryal, S., & Warner, R. (2021). undefined. Brain and Behavior, 11(6). https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.2172
Kendler, K. S. (2019). The development of Kraepelin’s mature diagnostic concept of catatonic dementia praecox: A close reading of relevant texts. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 46(3), 471-483. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbz101
Owen, P. R. (2012). Portrayals of schizophrenia by entertainment media: A content analysis of contemporary movies. Psychiatric Services, 63(7), 655-659. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201100371
Reichenberg, A. (2010). The assessment of neuropsychological functioning in schizophrenia. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 12(3), 383-392. https://doi.org/10.31887/dcns.2010.12.3/areichenberg