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A Nation-State’s Strategic Culture: Case Study of Germany and Russia

What does it mean to talk about a nation-state’s “strategic culture”? Explain the concept and its impacts, using either one country as a case study, or with a comparative study of two.


In the domain of International Relations, Strategic Culture is an alternate perspective on. Since Strategic Culture is a moderately new idea, it was initially presented in 1977 by the original of key culture scholars (Tappe and Doeser, 2021). It very well may be found in his exposition “The Soviet Strategic Culture: Implications for Limited Nuclear Operation” that the idea of an essential culture in the investigation of International Relations arises when (Tappe and Doeser, 2021). seen that the Soviet Union’s conduct in reacting to US atomic methodology was remarkable, which is hard to clarify by the exemplary point of view in International Relations that was exceptionally well known during the Cold War time, neorealism.

As per (Tappe and Doeser, 2021), US Defense Minister James Schlesinger reported in 1974 that the US has started to extend the adaptability of its key focusing on plans by setting up confined atomic choices as an enhancement to the beforehand existing immense attack choices. The reasoning behind this arrangement is to restrict acceleration in case of an atomic clash between the different sides.

(Fischer and González, 2021) spearheaded the second influx of key social reasoning. “A Theory of Strategic Culture,” he writes in his article. (Fischer and González, 2021) started his contention by scrutinizing the way that after Clausewitz’s age, there were not any more essential scholars who started a suitable conflict procedure in achieving public interests. Vital organizers just focus on rules that seem adequate and reliable while defining procedures, as indicated by (Fischer and González, 2021), by distinguishing different realities that should be considered in essential preparation and that structure an intelligent system wherein the methodology checks out. Notwithstanding, this is lacking to make a dependable methodology. As indicated by (Fischer and González, 2021), it isn’t sufficient to take a gander at a country’s public approaches to grasp a procedure; it is likewise important to check out the country’s vital social factors.

(Fischer and González, 2021). Vital culture in (Fischer and González, 2021). At the end of the day, vital culture in (Fischer and González, 2021) origination centers around setting up military power, where military power is utilized to accomplish political objectives in a conflict, where war is a continuation of legislative issues, and vital culture is characterized as “the arrangement of perspectives and convictions held inside a tactical foundation concerning the political target of war and the best procedure and functional technique for accomplishing it.” It is likewise clear in the present circumstance that the convictions and mentalities that advance in a country’s military have a critical part in the foundation of the country’s essential culture.

As per (Tappe and Doeser, 2021), every nation has its own uniqueness as far as essential culture, where every country’s essential culture is without a doubt shaped by their inward uniqueness as far as history, topography, culture, public legislative issues, financial aspects, innovation, etc (Fischer and González, 2021). As indicated by (Fischer and González, 2021), the key social talk’s significant center is intensely attached to military issues and how the military is utilized to accomplish a political point in war.

As per (Shang, 2021), the third era is more thorough and diverse in characterizing autonomous ideational factors, and spotlights all the more definitively on explicit vital choices as reliant factors. While (Shang, 2021) characterizes vital culture as a “incorporated arrangement of images (e.g., argumentation structures, dialects, analogies, similitudes) that demonstrations to set up unavoidable and long haul key inclinations by planning ideas of military power’s job and viability in highway political issues” It shows that a country’s essential culture is affected by the images that arise inside the country. As expressed by some past researchers, for example, (Tappe and Doeser, 2021), the series of images alluded to by (Shang, 2021) are firmly identified with the public culture of thinking, and all things considered, the way of life of reasoning is an extraordinary part of a country that impacts the definition of a nation’s system.

(Shang, 2021) contended that there are two methodologies for breaking down a state’s essential culture, to be specific intellectual planning and image examination, in his article Thinking about Strategic Culture. Intellectual planning is a method for catching and depicting the design of an individual’s causal assertion in association with a specific strategy region. To see this intellectual guide, the researcher should initially look at true archives delivered by government organizations identified with policymaking, just as true discourses from the public authority being referred to, and afterward map the circumstances and end results of the assertions contained in the records and talks to the arrangements established.

While image investigation is critical in the examination of key culture in light of the fact that social highlights of a nation are one of the key factors that sway the nation’s system and strategy, it is additionally significant in the investigation of vital culture. (Shang, 2021) states that images are a portrayal of culture; as such, images express the way of life that creates in a country. To get more familiar with the way of life in issue.

In light of the previous examination, obviously the three ages have different viewpoints on essential culture. The essential culture of the original is focused on the atomic situation, with a country’s essential choices dependent on a culture of reasoning and enthusiastic bias (Tappe and Doeser, 2021). As indicated by (Fischer and González, 2021), the position looked constantly age is a tactical circumstance, or ordinary struggle, in which vital choices depend on mentalities and thoughts that develop in military associations. The third era, as indicated by (Shang, 2021), likes to make vital decisions dependent on the state’s image framework.

Strategic Culture and Non-traditional Threat: Case Study of Germany and Russia

It very well may be closed, in view of the clarifications of certain analysts, that essential culture is a firmly state-driven perspective. This happened because of the specialists’ clarification that essential culture had a place just with the state and was connected to how a state reacts to a risk. Therefore, in this time of globalization, where worldwide relations are not generally determined exclusively by state players, the helpfulness of key culture started to be addressed.

The creator, then again, accepts that this perspective is still very significant. This happens because of the more intricate members in worldwide relations presenting new “issues” to state entertainers. The issue concerns a non-conventional danger. Non-conventional dangers are characterized as perils that don’t start from a state’s military may (Ghiselli, 2018). All in all, customary perils can allude to any danger that exists outside of a country’s tactical purview. Psychological oppression, transnational wrongdoing, insurrection, theft, helpful troubles, and even infection flare-ups are among the dangers.

The creators use Germany and Russia as contextual investigations in this examination to analyze what key culture means for Germany and Russia’s reactions to non-customary difficulties. In this situation, the two nations are stood up to with similar two issues, however they react in various ways. The issues are the outcast emergency and psychological oppression. Both Germany and Russia have totally different ways to deal with managing the relocation emergency.

In adapting to evacuee issues, Germany took on an entryway strategy. Because of the program, Germany can invite countless exiles. (Reiners and Tekin, 2020) contended that Germany’s position was established on the conviction that the Syrian emergency was an overall disaster with cataclysmic results. Russia, then again, has would not help Syrian outcasts from that point forward (Koziuk, 2021). Regardless of whether the measurements on the UNHCR site is exact (Moretti, 2021). Russia got countless outcasts, adding up to 126,000. It’s only that just about 123,000 of them are Ukrainian outcasts, though Syrian exiles in Russia have not many choices.

In managing the issue of illegal intimidation, Germany proclaimed in its White Paper (2016) that psychological oppression is a worldwide danger and that 1200 military men were conveyed to Syria in 2015 to assist with annihilating the danger (Koszel, 2021). In the interim, Russia has taken comparative moves to send troops in Syria, however Russia has an alternate point of view on illegal intimidation than Germany. Psychological oppression is a critical worry to Russia, yet the country’s Foreign Policy Concept (FPC) from 2016 considers illegal intimidation in the Middle East and North Africa to be a “result” of unfamiliar obstruction.

The methodologies of Germany and Russia on these two subjects are without a doubt connected to attributes of the two nations’ essential societies. The contemporary vital culture is inseparably connected to Germany’s authentic experience during World War II. The Nazi system’s activities during World War II made a permanent imprint on Germany’s essential culture, which proceeds right up ’til today. Since Germany started two World Wars, the past German vital culture, which depended on military and unilateralism and got from the Prussian Empire’s way of life, changed to militarism or wouldn’t utilize the military again (Eckes, 2021). Thus, the standard that later turned into Germany’s essential culture is Nie wieder Sonderweg (Never Again Alone), in which Germany will at this point don’t act singularly and view its way of life as better than that of different countries, however will rather be more open to acting multilaterally with other European nations (Eckes, 2021). Then, at that point, there’s Nie Wieder Krieg (Never Again War), which expresses that no conflict will at any point start on German soil again, and Germany won’t ever utilize its tactical weapons to battle (Eckes, 2021).

Regardless of a minor change in the Kosovo episode in 1999, Germany’s military was at long last engaged with the conflict. The strategy was executed because of the Milosevic system’s decimation. The tactical breakdown was done based on Germany’s feeling of obligation to forestall a rehash of Auschwitz, and another standard of “Never Again Auschwitz” shaped (Staun, 2020). This awareness of others’ expectations comes from the aggregate disgrace that emerged in German culture because of the Nazi system’s direct during World War II (Eckes, 2021). Germany’s regret in the end transformed into a feeling of obligation for global harmony and humankind. Therefore, these accounts have consistently impacted German international strategy.

This clarifies Germany’s exile strategy, in which the nation chose to concede an enormous number of travelers notwithstanding the way that numerous different nations thought about displaced people as a danger to public safety. This strategy is connected to Germany’s essential culture of “never again Auschwitz,” in which the nation doesn’t need an enormous scope helpful emergency to arise. While Germany’s awareness of others’ expectations to maintain order and shield humanity is a rousing power in the battle against psychological oppression. Since this case includes the security of the more extensive local area, which is important for Germany’s obligation regarding world harmony, military instruments should be used.

With regards to Russia, the country’s essential culture is to a great extent dependent on the country’s verifiable experience all through both the Tsardom and the Soviet periods. Russia was topographically positioned in the heartland locale all through the Tsardom time, and therefore, it was oftentimes attacked by adjoining nations. On account of its set of experiences, Russia thinks that it is hard to trust different nations, so it puts a more prominent accentuation on confidence. The comparable thing occurred during World War II, when the Soviet Union, which had consented to an arrangement not to assault Germany, rather turned into the objective of Nazi soldiers’ exercises, with the Soviet Union causing tremendous harm accordingly.

As recently referenced by suspecting (Tappe and Doeser, 2021), the Soviet Union didn’t react to the US LNO methodology during the Cold War in light of the fact that the Soviet Union accepted that the US was not really confining its atomic power as per the LNO’s expressed objectives. Thus, in case the Soviet Union concurs and has as of now brought down its atomic limit in light of US requests, it is very dangerous for the Soviet Union assuming incidentally, the US doesn’t genuinely restrict its atomic power. This occasion made Russia doubt different nations, especially in worries of safety.

What’s more, the way that Russia was effective in repulsing all attacks molded Russia’s picture as a “European hero.” (Spykman, 2017) contended that Russia was the person who saved the International System by opposing Napoleon’s intrusion, which was considered as subverting the framework since he endeavored to administer all European land. Subsequently, a story emerges in which Russia considers itself to be “the extraordinary guardian angel.” According to (Spykman, 2017), Russia distinguished itself as a piece of Europe and should have been recognized in that capacity, yet Europe purportedly dismissed Russia as a part since Europe was frightened by Russia’s ascent as an incredible power from the east (Spykman, 2017).

Since it was not recognized by Europeans, Russia fostered its own way of life as “The Great Russia,” accepting that its personality was excessively grand for Asian countries and other Slavic nationalities, including Ukraine, with whom it has a nearby social relationship. As indicated by (Sereda, 2020), Russian and Ukrainian residents have an awful mentality of one another’s country. Russia’s negative view of the West as an adversary is framed by Russian character that isn’t recognized by Europe or the United States. Essentially, (Spykman, 2017) accepts that Russia believes the West to be an accomplice, yet the overthrow of the Ukrainian president has caused Russia to understand that the West is abusing the reason of equivalent security among Russia and NATO. Therefore, Russia’s impression of the West has improved.

This essential culture clarifies Russia’s evacuee and psychological warfare arrangements simultaneously. To begin with, Russia asserts in FPC (2016) that psychological warfare and common conflict in Syria are the consequence of unfamiliar mediation; yet, given the elements set up, the unfamiliar party is plainly the West. The demonstrations of the United States, which tried to oust Bashar Al Ashad’s system, exhibited this. Russia is careful about this direct, along these lines it dispatched officers to battle psychological oppression while additionally safeguarding the Ashad system from the US. This comment depends on the Russian FPC (2016), which expresses that Russia accepts just the current Syrian system is equipped for finishing Syria’s affable conflict. Russia’s doubt of outsiders was additionally a driving component on account of evacuees; Russia associated Syrian outcasts with being individuals from psychological oppressor organizations.


Vital culture is another way to deal with foreign relations that arose because of neorealism’s inability to clarify state conduct during the Cold War. Three ages of key culture have arisen, each with its own point of view on what comprises an essential culture. The reason is that essential culture is an inward angle that impacts how a nation approaches security, international strategy, and dangers.


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