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Will Using and Improving the Cultural Aspect in the Education Sector in Europe Improve the Performance of the Students?


The idea of culture has gained prominence and relevance in science teaching throughout the last 20 years. The scientific education discourse has portrayed and explored culture in various contexts, including the culture of technology, the culture of higher education science, the customs of scientific classrooms, and the cultures of particular players in the science educational process (Parsons & Carlone, 2013). Fewer studies fully considered culture as a framework and methodology that may guide investigations and strategies established to tackle the numerous European education problems. UNESCO, the only organization in the UN with a primary mandate that includes education and culture, has worked to integrate cultural heritage and the arts into education as vital tools for advancing humanity. As opposed to the idea that culture is a set of values and ideas, entities have an internal and external world. Via interactions, the participant (student), surroundings (science room), and response (scientific learning) are modified; these changes serve as the foundation for other interactions and so on. Similar to the broader psychological perspective on culture, there are assumed descriptions of culture as dynamic behaviors (Parsons & Carlone, 2013). This research will explain whether using and improving cultural aspects in schools will lead to higher performance in European schools. Moreover, cognitive and cultural difference theories will be used to discuss the issue.

The contemporary issue in context

Education and culture are intricate phenomena with a “chicken or the egg” causal link. Of course, there is a lot of disagreement about what qualifies as “education” and “culture,” not to mention how they relate to one else. There’s a lack of continuity, which highlights the remarkable variety of historical occurrences that may be discussed about education and culture as explained by Meşeci, Campbell & Arslan (2017). Cultural advancements have a significant influence on social changes in a particular manner or another. Several of these advances might be well understood regarding the effects of intentional and accidental educational activities. Individuals, diverse communities, the state, and communities and groups beyond the boundaries of the state are all formed throughout this procedure.

Culture is a phenomenon that appears on many different levels, including local, global, micro, macro, historical, and current, and is reliant on both context and time. Whichever its essence may be, as expressed through a variety of conceptions in the written word, an amalgamation of viewpoints suggests that it crosses space and time in a way that links human conduct and growth to the previous, encapsulates the fluidity of current events, and portends what will inevitably remain solid in the years to come. For the time being, culture provides the field’s distinctive analytical potential. With a heavy focus on the person, culture enables us to grasp parts of the human condition that remain concealed and are, therefore, more readily unquestioningly maintained at the group and societal levels through routines and intersubjective interpretations. Culture should not be disregarded because People’s actions impact the trends and concepts they adopt and modify in certain contexts and with specific individuals (Parsons & Carlone, 2013). They impact people’s perceptions of their experiences, feelings of worry, choices, decisions, and personalities that they pursue. People are not allowed to select for themselves any belonging, achievement description, worldview, or behavior in the European classroom. This poses a threat to their performance.

The abilities required to navigate the complexities of today’s heterogeneous cultures and to be employed in the rapidly expanding creative and cultural sectors may be developed with the support of cultural and educational policy. Investigation of processes of learning as well as the effects of artwork and cultural experiences lends credence to this. The OECD and UNESCO have both demanded that art and culture have a suitable role in education as well as acknowledgment. The member nations of the EU have the authority to set policies about culture and education, but the EU also must contribute in this area by providing financial assistance as well as helping to coordinate their initiatives. Cultural sensitivity and expressiveness were listed as a transversal competency in a 2006 European Parliament and Council report on essential competencies. This was interpreted to include an awareness of specific artistic creations from local, regional, national, and European traditions; their connection to global ethnicities; their ability to express themselves via a variety of mediums, genres, and genres; and their willingness to engage in cross-cultural dialogue. The European Commission keeps funding initiatives aimed at updating education. To bring the essential skills and abilities required for the forthcoming workforce up to date, it held an open forum in 2017.

The need to preserve culture as a model of explanation for educational environments is aptly expressed in this quotation. Scientists, curriculum writers, educators for teachers, legislators, and scholars who need to acknowledge the significance of scientific education environments and how they shape learning are losing out on crucial factors determining whether reforms are effective. The principle of culture draws us in because it can help us understand the injustice and inequality associated with the fields of science and learning’s past. It can also help us understand how science education can use its influence to oppose unfair social systems and improve people’s lives and our surroundings.

The abilities required to navigate the complexities of today’s heterogeneous cultures and to be employed in the rapidly expanding creative and cultural sectors may be developed with the support of cultural and educational policy (Pasikowska-Schnass, 2017). A study on European learning processes and the effects of artwork and cultural learning lends credence to this. The OECD and UNESCO have demanded that art and culture have a suitable role in education and acknowledgment. The Member States of the EU have the authority to set policies about education and culture. However, the EU also has a role to contribute in this area by providing financial assistance and assisting and coordinating their initiatives. A 2006 European Parliament and Commission report on essential competencies listed cultural sensitivity and expression as a transversal competency. This was interpreted to include an awareness of specific artistic creations from local, regional, national, and European cultural collections, their connection to global cultures, their ability to articulate themselves via various mediums, genres, and forms, and their willingness to engage in cross-cultural dialogue. The European Commission keeps funding initiatives aimed at updating education.

Moreover, Cultural heritage has inherent worth and is a non-renewable asset. It has ceased to be thought to be limited to historical structures or physical cultural artifacts, though. A more comprehensive understanding of cultural heritage issues is provided by the holistic strategy, which takes into account both material and intangible cultural assets, occasionally with components of the natural world’s legacy (Jagielska-Burduk & Stec, 2019). Furthermore, establishing an open society enhanced by “cultural variety and legacy is included in the agenda 2030 objectives in the UN General Assembly Resolution – Transforming the Planet: the 2030 Agenda for the Promotion of Sustainable Development, which was approved on the 25th of September in 2015”. “The Council of Europe’s Cultural Heritage and Education Policy: Safeguarding Character and Seeking a Common Core of Excellence is addressed in Agenda 2030 Goal No. 4.” The cultural component of education is included in aim 4.7.”By 2030, guarantee that all students gain the information and abilities required to support equitable growth,” is the stated goal. This will help to promote pupils’ achievement since they will know what is required.

Including culture in the classroom fosters creativity – Inspiration is fundamentally the process of combining disparate ideas to create something fresh, original, and uniquely you. Individuals can be more inventive when they get introduced to a wider variety of concepts and experiences (American University, 2019). An investigation conducted by many research instructors discovered that in a solving issues situation, organizations with a variety of races did much better than those without inclusion It makes sense to bring different viewpoints together in creative contexts, both skilled and nonprofessional. It also Enhances Critical Analysis and Intellectual Skills: Learners can examine viewpoints and beliefs that go above those that they have already established or that were influenced by relatives and close friends throughout their formative years when there is diversity in the educational environment (American University, 2019). Learners can critically analyze their thoughts and understand the globe in new ways when they are exposed to perspectives that diverge greatly from what they believe.

While education acculturates a person, it also maintains, propagates, and advances societal culture. In all its facets and operations, culture and education are mutually reliant, complimentary, and additional. As a result, education is separate from culture. In the life of a man, culture is vital. Comprehending other cultures may aid in a person’s ability to adapt to their natural and social environments, establish their personalities, get socialized, make appropriate use of their freedom, comprehend the cultures of others, and define liberality.

The two theories

Cultural difference theory

The foundation of cultural difference theory is that a group’s regular behavior “is learned via socialization in the home society.” It gradually develops as a “successful adaptability to somewhat predictable social, economic, and geopolitical conditions.” different behavioral patterns are prompted by a group’s place within broader social frameworks. There are six cultural differences, as per Iivonen et al. (1998);

“Knowledge of individual’s characteristics” – cultural disparities exist in the perception of human nature, i.e., whether humans are viewed as good, wicked, or both. It’s common, at minimum in Western society, to perceive individuals as a combination of positive and negative qualities, but it’s also common for individuals to be afraid of the unfamiliar. Therefore, people could believe that strangers from other countries are bad people. It is more common for negative emotions to be expressed than pleasant ones. It’s okay to feel bad; you can’t be dissatisfied whenever you prepare for the worst.

“Including their relationship to others” – Cultural disparities exist in the way humans see how someone interacts with other individuals. Individualism is a cultural trait where individuals cherish their well-being and identify themselves by their accomplishments and personal traits. People in different cultures tend to be focused on groups and identify as belonging to clans or societies. Individuals in such societies place a high value on collective welfare and shared objectives.

“Their relationship to the outside world” – Regarding how people relate to their surroundings, there are cultural variances. In certain societies, individuals rule over their surroundings. In many societies, there is no true division between humans and the natural world, and people may coexist peacefully with their surroundings. In other civilizations, individuals submit to their surroundings and acknowledge the unavoidable forces of nature. The way that different cultures perceive technology and the role that technological innovation plays in society today is quite different.

“Their major style of action, how they see space” – Regarding the principal activity, civilizations differ from one another. Certain cultures place a strong emphasis on acting and reaching goals. The people in this society are doers who desire to be the best versions of themselves. Other traditions place a strong emphasis on existing and assume that individuals, things, and ideas happen on their own. The people that make up this society are beings who desire to live. Whereas the be-er tends to be passive, the do-er is actively involved.

“How they perceive time.” – Cultural disparities exist regarding people’s conceptions of the real world. Multiple cultures vary regarding whether the area should be considered private or public.

An individual’s temporal perspective might vary depending on their culture; they can be focused on past events, current moments, or the future. Traditions and practices play a significant role in the knowledge of a community in past-focused civilizations. Experience from the past justifies creativity and changes. Communities that are focused on the future tend to pay less regard to the past. Future advantages are what justify innovations and modifications. Their temporal horizon is quite long. Cultures that are focused on the present have a limited time horizon and concentrate on the advantages that might arise soon.

Regular cross-cultural interactions mold the globalized world of today. Some people find cultural variety and differences fascinating and rewarding in particular contexts. To negotiate cross-cultural contexts more effectively, it is essential to have a solid grasp of cultural distinctions and how they could affect our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Comprehending the concept of “culture” itself is necessary to appreciate cultural variation fully.

Today, it is clear that understanding cultural differences is important. Numerous individuals and groups work together across national and cultural barriers in many multicultural communities. Even though it’s common for people to consider themselves to be slightly unique and localized, localization is not a wise course of action for the future. An individual with a parochial perspective is unable to acknowledge the significant ramifications of another individual’s diverse lifestyle and employment choices. The world in which we live now seems significantly narrower than it did in the past. It is now somewhat simpler to interact across time and location and break past barriers thanks to new communication technologies. Nevertheless, cross-cultural cooperation and communication are not always made simpler by new technologies. We need to exchange meanings to cooperate and communicate successfully. This frequently necessitates that we communicate cultural knowledge and comprehend cultural variances.

Cognitive theory

Cognitive theory – It is a broad term to call cognition. Several mental operations that fall under the purview of awareness include perceiving external stimulants, contrasting them to previously learned material, creating new information, committing known data to memory, and assessing the logical and qualitative aspects of mental outcomes (Kaya & Akdemir, 2016). It is a broad term to call cognition. Based on culture, the practical application of cognitive theories in learning has steadily grown over the past decade. Concentration, perception, recollection, omitting, and retrieval are the main topics of cognitive concepts. Cognitive frameworks aim to elucidate the organization and functioning of brain functions about the inputs they receive. A teaching exercise is largely successful if it includes tasks that are appropriate for the fundamentals and aspects of the educational process. The responses provided to the aforementioned issues throughout history led to the emergence of theoretical frameworks, including various philosophical ideas, methods, and systems. The results of scientific investigations in the subject have been provided to students and instructors as consistent lodestars, such as concepts, approaches, techniques, procedures, methods, and tactics to direct instructors.

Because opinions and procedures are inherently linked, a teacher who has two views that are at odds with one another may find it difficult to maintain harmony in the classroom. One may argue that an instructor who is aware of the need for culturally competent instruction but who also subscribes to the deficit theory that says that children from various cultures are intrinsically faulty is holding diverse and contradictory ideas. The cognitive dissonance hypothesis explains these contradictory ideas. It is proposed that people with conflicting cognitions—beliefs, actions—would want to reduce cognitive dissonance by bringing their beliefs and related actions/practices into alignment. Instructors in public institutions are required to match their actions to culturally competent ideas as the age groups of their classrooms grow more varied. Increased favorable educational results are more probable whenever teachers undertake culturally competent teaching.

Learning is a very fluid and complicated procedure that varies throughout individuals based on the mode of acquisition. Individually, it entails several brain functions as well as the synchronization of several systems and their reactions to adjustments in one’s inner and outer surroundings. However, the social environment, individuals being learned from, and cultures all have a significant influence on learning. Theories on the brain, namely the mental operations that lead to the formation and arrangement of broad and/or specialized cognitive structures, are referred to as cognitive hypotheses. These enable us to engage in broad cognitive activities such as organizing, deductive metacognition, and solving problems, and to comprehend ideas and theories in many subject matter areas. On the other hand, sociocultural theories are those that “believe that human behavior is inextricably linked to the settings, procedures, and instances where it occurs.” These theories concentrate not only on the individuals but also on the social environments in which people interact with one another.

Applying your two theories to understand and engage with the ‘problem.’

The two theories will explain how the inclusion of culture in the education setting can make students, especially international ones, feel included in the environment. The aspect of inclusion will be discussed in detail.

Based on the cultural difference theory, culture is a foundation for our life, not only the arts. It has an impact on our conduct, attitudes, and beliefs. However, we also influence our society as players within it. Culture encompasses mythology, societal and educational value systems, and daily living (Iivonen et al., 1998)—culture functions as both an arrangement of behaviors and a unifying force in European educational settings. Our lifestyles reflect a culture that is a significant, rigid completeness in how we live that is predictable, homogeneous, and like-minded. Values impact students’ performance and are either overtly or implicitly preferred. Values might be unconsciously held as well as consciously held. The culture we have is the foundation of our principles. The actions of both people and groups shape the culture of a civilization. Without actions taken by individuals, society cannot have culture.

Throughout the course, disparities in communication and language approaches are made clear to the European students. The majority of students in various schools can interact and cooperate in English. Whenever working together, foreigners in Europe must speak a foreign language. European students might discover in class that stated and unsaid languages vary between different countries. Cross-cultural disparities in the applications of conversation and silence exist. Unique standards of acceptability for communicating and being silent might lead to misunderstandings in cross-cultural communication (Iivonen et al., 1998). For example, American students are known to interrupt social quiet with inquiries and demands that others speak to fill the void of interactional stillness. The primary purpose of conversation among Americans is frequently to avoid quiet rather than to convey information or thoughts.” We can transcend cultural barriers and become closer to different cultures thanks to modern information and communications technologies.

Nevertheless, cultural attitudes about technology might influence people’s ideas and technology usage. Learners in one location, for instance, give some applications a higher rating than their peers in another. Several libraries worldwide allow the public to utilize the Internet and its services. On the other hand, this is advantageous; for instance, the Internet makes it easier to obtain material on foreign cultures at open-access libraries that would not otherwise be feasible (Iivonen et al., 1998). This will improve understanding among students and thus improve their performance as every student’s culture will be recognized. However, we also need to recognize that different students will have different attitudes toward and capacities for using the Internet in schools.

Based on the cognitive theory, the indispensable relationship between culture and learning has been well demonstrated by decades of instructional research, especially the idea that people learn in “culturally determined methods in particular cultural circumstances.” As a result, there has been a significant theoretical change in education research, where it is now impossible to see or comprehend the learner as being in a vacuum from their surroundings (Gold, 2021). Instead, the cultural dynamics inherent in the learning context are viewed as influencing and merging all learning as a social activity. Being a dynamic system, culture affects what individuals learn and how they acquire it. This affects vision and memory, two cognitive functions that drive learning and eventually change how pupils perceive and comprehend their surroundings (Gold, 2021). This goes so far as to say that customs, beliefs, and aspirations can vary substantially, particularly among home traditions and dominant academic contexts where conflicts occur. It can also affect what is desired to study in the first place. Consequently, cultural procedures must be considered to fully comprehend how people learn since, based on the setting and type(s) of instruction that are valued, they may either support or undermine learning (Gold, 2021).

UNESCO endeavors to incorporate its multidisciplinary mission in education and culture into a revitalized educational framework based on the dignity of human rights and cultural variety. The ability to be creative, innovative, resilient, critical-thinking, and empathic is essential for seizing opportunities and overcoming obstacles both now and in the future. UNESCO, which operates at the intersection of education and culture, stimulates its assets and expertise to help its European member nations and various interested parties create policies and cross-cutting initiatives (Culture and Education, 2022). UNESCO strives to incorporate culture into a variety of educational contexts and draws near, from history to the creative and cultural sectors, to better prepare students of every generation with the understanding, abilities, and mindsets they need to realize their full potential, meet obstacles to the years to come, and create more equal and calm possibilities for all. Through its extensive networks, knowledge, and expertise, UNESCO has worked to advance the arts in every aspect of education throughout its foundation. Flagship publications on education and culture, including the 1972 Faure Report and the 1996 Delors Assessment, as well as critical cultural campaigns, like the two global meetings on cultural policy conducted in Mexico in 1982 and Stockholm in 1998, have highlighted the connections between culture and education (Why Culture and Education? UNESCO. (n.d.).

An intersectoral project between the cultural and instructional sectors was launched in 2020 as a result of a common vision for the advantages and assistance that both fields get from one another. This project made it possible for the intersectoral plan on education and culture, Understanding for Diversification: Growing Partnerships between Cultural Diversity and Learning for Broad, Feasible, and Resilient Communities, to be approved at the 40th place training of the General Conference of UNESCO in November 2021. Through related UNESCO programs and activities, the Intersectoral Programme aims to enhance learning results and encounters whilst fortifying the relationships between education and culture. It also aims to encourage the exchange of knowledge, expertise, and encounters (Why Culture and Education? UNESCO. (n.d.). To accomplish this objective for better student performance, education must be rearticulated within contexts of culture, cultural aspects must be strengthened in a variety of educational environments, new and expanded collaborations between instructors and students must be established, and creative instructional methods that support the ability of students to participate cautiously both within their communities and globally—including those who are vulnerable or have disabilities—must be explored.

UNESCO is a global leader in intersectoral action, having piloted programs ranging from inclusion in society and liberty of speech to excellent education and environmental protection. Through its established standards and tools to improve students ‘ performance, UNESCO has expressed the connections between education and culture in ethical actions and policy suggestions. Regarding culture, UNESCO has encouraged the acquisition of both material and intangible treasures to deepen awareness of the past and present, enhance viewpoints, bolster heritage conservation and delivery, and enhance intercultural awareness and acceptance of various cultures. It has embraced education as a means of nurturing creativity and talent as well as the abilities necessary to support the growth of the creative sector and the development of jobs. To foster more profound respect and comprehension for different cultures, principles, and methods of life, as well as to provide avenues for students of all ages to obtain and profit from high-quality education that is culturally pertinent, UNESCO has integrated cultural components into education. The enactment of the “2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in 2015” and the importance of culture and education in advancing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially SDG 4 on high-quality education, gave this initiative new momentum. This integration is vital for the student’s performance as they learn in their cultural context.

There are several ways to look at student participation, including emotional, behavioral, and intellectual. A student’s excellent academic conduct, participation in assignments, and participation in school-related events are all examples of their behavioral dedication based on culture, which is defined as being involved in their individual academic learning experience (Gold, 2021). This involvement component manifests as learner effort and perseverance displays, attentional behavioral features, and self-regulation of academic conduct. Students’ emotional responses—whether favorable or negative—to the academic topics they are learning are known as emotional involvement. These emotions are frequently influenced by their opinions of the topics’ present and future educational worth and by their interests in culture. Research indicates that happy emotions are often more effective in promoting enthusiasm and involvement, even though adverse feelings can at times help in this regard.

The internal concepts and thought processes of each learner are the main emphasis of the cognitive approach. According to this framework, expertise is derived via thinking through concepts, representing information in one’s mind, and manipulating, changing, and retrieving these mental models in schools. Explanations of this method in simple terms with the analogy of “learning as acquisition,” according to which our mental constructions are built from foundational information that is similar to tangible things and is then merged, developed, and collected in our brains to form our higher-level patterns (Gold, 2021). Higher-level mental structures are developed throughout time and are utilized to absorb and/or make room for incoming information by students for incorporating culture in the education sector in Europe.

Moreover, Vygotsky thought social and cultural influences had an impact on cognitive growth. He placed a strong emphasis on the contribution that social contact makes to the mental growth of kids, including speech and reasoning (Mcleod, 2023). Via cooperative conversations with more experienced members of the community, kids learn cultural norms, opinions, and methods for problem-solving as part of the socially transmitted procedure for intellectual development and will excel in their performances. Vygotsky placed a strong emphasis on how a child’s social environment affects their cognitive development. According to Vygotsky, children possess the “elementary mental functions,” or foundational skills for intellectual growth, from birth. The basic mental processes of “perception, memory, attention, and sensation” are among them. They eventually evolve into more complex and efficient mental processes—what Vygotsky terms “higher mental functions”—through engagement within the context of schools in Europe. This will ensure that students perform well in their studies.

Furthermore, one way that different student groups’ academic progress is limited is through deficit assumptions. Incorporating culture leads to respect for each culture and enables the instructors to evade deficit beliefs. Deficiency beliefs refer to the inclination to attribute responsibility for failure to institutional frameworks and established behaviors that might impede the learning of learners, instead of the person. Instructors turned to suggest that learners from diverse linguistic, cultural, and financial backgrounds lacked the necessary background knowledge or abilities to finish the task accurately, even though learners drew collaborative family depictions when the teacher anticipated distinctive depictions. This is in contrast to the idea that cultural influences affect interactions between learners and educators. Instructors frequently stick to deficit theories rather than pointing to the allocation of financial and instructional assets as the cause of students’ low academic performance. Raising ingrained presumptions to the spectrum of awareness and incorporating culture in European schools is necessary to alter deficient beliefs. The uneven outcome inequalities of different pupils may appear in instructional methods that eliminate culturally competent sensitivity despite bringing deficiency assumptions to light.

Additionally, among the most straightforward and well-recognized theories explaining how cognition (i.e., beliefs, actions) shift is cognitive dissonance which should be avoided to ensure students excel using culture-based education (Guerra & Wubbena, 2017). According to the cognitive dissonance hypothesis, people want to preserve coherence (or consonance) between various cognitions of their opinions and actions, among other things as well. To attain cognitive consistency, people adjust their opinions and/or activities to become harmonious when these cognitions are discordant. There are four methods to lessen dissonance: “People might add consonant thoughts, eliminate discordant thoughts, enhance the significance of consonant thoughts, or reduce the value of dissonant thoughts (Guerra & Wubbena, 2017).” Dissonance reduction through belief-based rather than behavior-based adjustments has been the main goal of dissonance studies which is essential for good performance for students. Nevertheless, instructors may have negative attitudes regarding learners from different backgrounds. In situations where high-stakes tests are used to determine outcomes, these negative attitudes may highlight related behaviors that contribute to academic inequalities which are evaded by employing four methods to lessen dissonance.

Finally, when cognitive motivation theories fail to fully explain the variation among people’s results, it is suggested that there are unaccounted-for elements. This leads to criticisms of these frameworks. This necessitates a more intricate and comprehensive method of comprehending people’s motivation and participation that takes into account factors that are internal as well as external (Gold, 2021). As a result, sociocultural methods to encourage engagement adopt a simulative perspective, seeing the learning situation as detachable from the student, in opposition to cognitive techniques that either disregard or segregate context from motivating factors. This point of view holds that learners should take into account not just the distinctive qualities of each student, but additionally the distinctive qualities of the classroom, institution, neighborhood, or culture where the student operates.


The ability to be creative, innovative, resilient, think critically, and empathize is essential for seizing opportunities and overcoming obstacles now and in the future. UNESCO, which operates at the intersection of learning and culture, stirs up its assets and abilities to help the countries it serves, especially Europe, and various interested parties create policies and cross-cutting initiatives. Regarding culture, UNESCO has encouraged the acquisition of both material and intangible treasures to deepen awareness of the past and present, enhance viewpoints, bolster heritage conservation and delivery, and enhance intercultural awareness and acceptance of various cultures. Based on the cognitive theory, decades of instructional research have demonstrated the indispensable relationship between culture and learning in European schools. Moreover, based on the cultural difference theory, culture is a foundation for our life, not only the arts, and encompasses mythology, societal and European educational value systems, and daily living. Vygotsky thought social and cultural influences had an impact on cognitive growth. Additionally, one way that different student groups’ academic progress is limited is through deficit assumptions. Incorporating culture leads to respect for each culture and enables the instructors to evade deficit beliefs. Cognitive dissonance is dangerous for students’ wellness and should be avoided through: “People might add consonant thoughts, eliminate discordant thoughts, enhance the significance of consonant thoughts, or reduce the value of dissonant thoughts. Finally, when cognitive motivation theories fail to fully explain the variation among people’s results, it is suggested that there are unaccounted-for elements.


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