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Tuberculosis Epidemiology Research

Description of the infectious disease

The contagious disease chosen for the discussion is tuberculosis. It is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which spreads from one individual to the other via air, affecting the lungs but at times affecting the other body parts like the kidney, brain, and spine. Its symptoms include loss of weight, night sweats, frequent sickness, and coughing up of blood accompanied by chest pains. TB is spread through air in which the germs are put in the air when an individual suffering from it sneezes, coughs, or speaks. From research, the germs can stay in the air for many hours, depending on the area. The complications of this disease include kidney problems, heart failure, swelling of the brain membranes, and spinal pain. According to the Mayo Clinic, TB can be treated using antibiotics such as Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and Rifampin. According to the World Health Organization, TB is present in all countries in the wolf affecting over six million men, about four million women, and two million children (World Health Organization, 2022). This implies that the disease is more vulnerable to men than women and children. The CDC states that the death rates of TB have hiked to 2.4 cases per group of 100000 people representing a 9.8% increase (Centre for Disease Control and prevention, 2022). Nearly 1.5 million people die yearly because of TB, and relatively 9 million get ill yearly.

Why the disease is regarded as reportable

Tuberculosis is a reportable disease because it carries the potential to become an epidemic across the globe due to its high transmission rates. According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, TB should be reported faster as soon as it is identified (Centre for Disease Control and prevention, 2022). They state that any reporter entangling in a confirmed or suspected case of TB should report to any designated department or their officials within 24 hours. The designated departments include healthcare providers like doctors, nurses, physicians, laboratories like lab technicians, and administrators like child care centers, youth camps, or higher education learning institutions. Similarly, individuals can report to federal or tribal entities like an operating facility providing health care services and licensed allopathic, osteopathic, or naturopathic doctors.

Social determinants of health and how they contribute to the development of TB

The social determinants of health for TB include poverty, education, housing conditions, and health access. Poverty has been researched to be among the leading determinants of tuberculosis. Poorly ventilated and crowded living environments are mostly associated with the poor. Similarly, poverty is associated with poor health knowledge, making individuals miss empowerment linked to gaining knowledge about TB. The lack of knowledge can also be linked to education, in which an individual has to learn to gain the required knowledge on how to avoid TB transmissions. Poor housing conditions create a vulnerable environment for tuberculosis, making the individuals susceptible. Access to health allows individuals to be tested by trained clinicians and medical providers. Those who have the conditions are treated and get cured with time.

Epidemiologic triangle concerning TB

Following the causal model of an epidemiologic triangle, various environmental, host, and agent factors result in tuberculosis. An epidemiologic triad mainly consists of an external agent, susceptible host, and a specific environment for disease infection. In the case of TB, the pathogen is called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, breeding on human as the host and in a moderately acidic, nutrient-restricted environment. The agent factors include close contact between the person and the disease (World Health Organization, 2022). The host factors include inhaling sneezed or coughed pathogens from a victim. Conceptually, the environmental factors for TB include drinking, smoking, indoor air pollution, and overcrowding.

Special considerations or notifications

Developing special considerations for the schools and general public is necessary to curb the continuous spread of tuberculosis. Across the globe, patients ailing from TB should be placed under airborne precautions to protect others. Any individuals entering the special airborne precautions rooms should ensure that they wear N-95 respiratory masks. All public members should embrace washing their hands with soapy detergents after coughing or sneezing. Similarly, a TB victim should avoid visiting people or asking others to visit them to avoid the continuous spread of the disease. Schools should consider using fans or opening windows to ensure that air can freely circulate in the classrooms.

Importance of demographic data to community health

In assessing a condition, the patient’s demographic data include identifying their personal information like address, birth date, contact, and name. Demographic data is important when dealing with a contagious disease because it streamlines the medical billing process, improving the quality of healthcare offered to patients. Similarly, it bolsters the cultural competency of the healthcare and enhances proper communication between the patient and the healthcare provider. The demographics enable the provider to understand the patient’s environment better, hence developing a better medical treatment plan for their condition (Centre for Disease Control and prevention, 2022). Contextually, the data allows the healthcare provider to easily track the patient whenever a need arises after they have left the clinic.

Role of the community health nurse

Community health nurses fill the health system gaps for underserved populations. They ensure that all populations are represented and given their required care by going to businesses, schools, and organizations to offer medical services, rehabilitation, and health education. At the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of tuberculosis prevention, they help assess, diagnose, treat, and refer patients suffering from the disease for further care. They assess their patients concentrating on the signs and symptoms of TB, diagnose those who show the signs and treat them to prevent further infections. As a result, collecting data from organizations and schools helps display the prevalence and morbidity of infectious conditions across the globe. A communicable nurse can treat an underserved patient suffering from tuberculosis without hesitation and with expectations of payment.

National agency organizations that address TB

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is the identified agency that addresses tuberculosis. The agency states that TB has remained to be among the leading infectious disease killers around the globe. USAID, in cohorts with the US government, has made TB efforts to reach many people curing those with the disease and preventing it from spreading (United States Agency for International Development, 2020). Similarly, the agency has cooperated with the ministries of health in providing bilateral assistance to the 24 countries with high TB cases. They have provided TB global funds, which target assisting 31 more countries in fighting the disease. As a result, research clearly states that the agency has helped to decrease 25 percent of TB mortality rates across the globe.

The global implication of TB

According to the World Health Organization, a total of 1.6 million people worldwide have died from TB since 2021. Of the total population who died, 187 000 people had HIV alongside tuberculosis (World Health Organization, 2022). Globally, TB has been ranked as the 13th leading cause of mortality and the 2nd leading infectious killer after the legend Coronavirus. The disease is fatal if not treated properly and kills an individual quickly. Its indication has been summed as an acute respiratory failure because of pneumonia accompanied by septic multiple organic dysfunctions, neurological involvement, and adrenal insufficiency. Other nations have regarded it as an infectious killer, advising on maintaining natural lights, good hygiene, and proper ventilation.


Centre for Disease Control and prevention. (2022). Tuberculosis. Saving lives and protecting people. Retrieved from;

United States Agency for International Development. (2020). Tuberculosis. United States Government. Retrieved from;

World Health Organization. (2022). Tuberculosis. Retrieved from;

World Health Organization. (2022). Rapid communication: key changes to treating drug-resistant tuberculosis (No. WHO/UCN/TB/2022.2). World Health Organization. Retrieved from;


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