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Treating Psychological and Psychiatric Disorders


Psychological disorders and psychiatric disorders are frequently referred to as psychological disorders (Kaur and Sharma, 2019). Behavior or psychological symptoms that affect numerous aspects of life might be found in mental disorders. Distress is felt by those who suffer from these conditions. People with a mental illness exhibit abnormal feelings, ideas, and actions. Therefore, the paper is set to discuss Phobia, Depression and Schizophrenia as crucial disorders regarding their treatments by justifying the appropriateness and effectiveness of the treatments.

Phobia (Irrational Fear)

Phobia is an irrational and uncontrollable fear of a situation, an object, or an activity. The therapy to be discussed is systematic desensitization comes from a behavioral perspective thus it can be considered as a learned disorder (Clinic, 2022). The term systematic desensitization refers to exposure therapy that is based on classical conditioning. It was invented in the 1950s by Wolpe. The objective of counter-conditioning therapy is to eventually substitute a relaxation response for the fear response to conditioned stimuli. Therapy for phobias may entail helping patients form new, more positive associations with the feared stimuli. Some people utilize relaxation techniques to ease their anxiety when confronted with their fears. Stress may be replaced with feelings of calm and well-being over time.

The systematic desensitization treatment is predicated on the concept that phobias, such as fear of animals, are often learnt. Individuals can unlearn a behavior and replace it with a new one using classical conditioning techniques. Systematic desensitization is comprised of three major steps: To begin, clients are taught muscle relaxation exercises. Following a recent case study Jill suffered from extended diarrhea following the birth of her baby, as a result of post-partum enemas (Joseph, 2022). Before she left the hospital, her control had improved, but when she went home, it had deteriorated. She lived in an apartment complex with 12 other people and had to share a lavatory, which resulted in numerous accidents due to the long wait times. As if that wasn’t bad enough, she experienced a number of serious mishaps in public locations like grocery stores and restaurants. People were disgusted by her, and she felt humiliated and nervous.

As a result, even the least hint that I might have to use the restroom triggered panic episodes. She sought the advice of numerous medical and mental health professionals over the course of 22 years, but received little to no assistance. After realizing she had never be able to go more than 15 seconds without encountering an open restroom, she had accepted that she would have to live like that for the rest of her life. There was nothing to lose for Jill in trying systematic desensitization therapy after hearing about it for the first time recently. Jill’s new therapy included several sessions of deep muscle relaxation instruction. She was also urged to practice this at home by her therapist.

The evaluation process of systematic desensitization requires a therapist to identify the differences between phobia and fear since many people usually have aversions and fear experiences to particular situations and objects though it does not necessarily mean that they have been diagnosed with phobia. The exposure process aims to change the client’s response to a situation, an object, or an activity that the client fears. The exposure contributes substantially to the effectiveness of systematic desensitization since exposure process is gradual, offering a safe space for a client to learn that the source of that particular fear does not amount to a threat (Cooper, 2018).

Significant research studies show that systematic desensitization is effective in the process of decreasing the irrational fear that is normally characterized with panic attacks and anxiety. The method is very effective since it allows for personal change and development. Thus, the client can focus on the present, and it does not have side effects since it’s a natural kind of treatment.

Evaluation of S.D

Systematic desensitization has been shown to reduce anxiety and panic attacks in scary settings, according to extensive study. By teaching relaxation techniques and exposing oneself to the circumstance they fear, systematic desensitization for anxiety can help stop the cycle of concern. So that the patient can progressively learn to cope with his or her fear, this is done in stages. The conditioned fear response is gradually broken down by this method. The problem of systematic desensitization is that it takes time and often requires some type of real-life exposure to fully eliminate the concerns.

Depression (mood disorder)

Depression is a substantial psychiatric disorder associated with morbidity in significant numbers. The therapy to be discussed is CBT which comes from a cognitive perspective. Cognitive therapy teaches a person to detect and modify their own harmful habitual ideas. Psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), is one such approach. Thought patterns are altered in this type of therapy in order to alter moods and actions. It’s founded on the assumption that current distorted beliefs or thoughts, rather than unconscious forces from the past, are the cause of bad acts or feelings. There are specific acts and behaviors that are targeted in behavioral treatment. Depression can be treated via CBT therapy by helping the depressed individual uncover and correct erroneous thoughts that are fueling their depression. Is not the power of positive thought,” argues Beck. According to a recent case study of Paul, a 26-year-old male with substantial difficulty in social situations, was referred to the cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) team. At its foundation, social phobia appears to be a strong need to convey a certain favorable image of oneself to others, coupled with evident doubt about one’s ability to do so (Clark and Wells 2018).

The disorder is characterized by the elevation of an individual’s mood similar to the one caused by bipolar disorders. So far CBT is the most appropriate therapy, which involves a cognitive perspective that modifies individuals’ thought patterns, enabling them to adjust their behaviors and moods (CBT, 2022). It is often based on the notion that negative actions are always due to distorted thoughts and beliefs and not the extraordinary forces that have origins in the past. Thus to have effective treatment, the medic blends behavioral therapy with cognitive therapy. Cognitive therapy pays attention to the thoughts and moods of an individual, while behavioral therapy focuses on the behaviors and actions of the particular individual. The evaluation for the treatment is required to involve identifying the particular behavioral responses and thoughts that are negative as well as the stressful situations that are usually challenging (Cooper, 2018).

Evaluation of CBT

Studies that have shown the effectiveness of the treatment include a study by Gorka et al. that showed that CBT could offer coping tools that will help one go through particular life challenges (Gorka et al, 2019). A more complex mental health condition or learning difficulty cannot benefit from CBT’s organized approach. Anxiety and emotional discomfort may be felt during the first few sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT).

One limitation of CBT is that it often requires up to twenty sessions; however, the patient is allowed to visit the therapists even after the twenty sessions for more help if they so wish (CBT, 2022). It is different from psychoanalysis since psychoanalysis considers the backward working through an individual’s life history to identify an unconscious source of the issue being faced. A therapist may require the patient to keep a diary to ensure al the procedures are being followed. As a therapist, one may break down thought patterns and reactions into multiple self-defeating categories that some medical experts refer to as cognitive distortions. The categories include automatic adverse reactions, magnifying event significance, disqualifying positive and all-or-nothing thinking. The treatment then develops constructive and balanced ways that have the potential to respond to the particular stressors, making the individual be able to cope with the mental health issues that are challenging and the unwanted behaviors.

Schizophrenia (Auditory, visual hallucination)

Schizophrenia refers to a mental disorder that is often in an authoritarian state that is characterized by an extensive range of behaviors that are unusual such as bizarre beliefs, false distortion, and hearing voices (Schizophrenia, 2022). The therapy to be discussed is Anti Schizophrenia Drugs from a biological perspective. Researchers have recently published the largest-ever WGS study on schizophrenia. Using WGS, researchers may see the complete DNA sequence of each individual (Muller, 2018). Additionally, it aids researchers’ understanding of the variations that exist inside and among living entities. Scientists had never before seen DNA alterations (mutations) in the schizophrenia study using WGS. Apparently, your risk of developing this condition may be raised due to genetic variations. People with schizophrenia were more likely to exhibit these changes, according to researchers. It’s not yet clear how these modifications are affecting the illness.

If the condition is not detected at the appropriate time for treatment to be administered, the issue may become severe, making the individual turn aggressive both physically and verbally. The diagnosis of the issue is supposed to be through clinical examination that considers the potential of the psychiatrist to unravel and try the changes in biological functions and behavior changes. There is no single test that can be utilized in diagnosing schizophrenia because of extensive range of different symptoms that may be seen in a particular patient. The psychiatrist conducting the evaluation should unravel the adjustments in the biological and behavior functions. Besides, the behavior is required to be collected from the caregivers and family. The individual is required to have demonstrated the symptoms for about one months (Cooper, 2018).

The therapy involves anti-schizophrenia drugs that are aimed at reducing dopamine and neuroleptics. The therapy is a biological perspective where the symptoms are treated to decrease their effects on the patient. The medication appears to be the cornerstone of the issue treatment. The medications control symptoms by influencing the dopamine brain transmitter. A psychiatrist may try different drugs with different doses to achieve the most effective outcomes. When administering the drugs, not even the medic can predict when the individual will return to their normal functioning; thus, for efficiency and effectiveness, early diagnosis and scrupulous following the treatment for better outcomes to be realized.

Evaluation of Anti-Schizophrenia Drugs

Studies have shown the effectiveness of the treatment as visualized in every ten people who take the medications. Out of ten people taking the medications, about 8 of them have demonstrated to have improved symptoms. However, the symptoms do not always go away entirely after the medications. Just like other drugs, anti-schizophrenia drugs have multiple side effects. Issues related to the treatment include shivering, stiffness, and rigidity. The side effects appear to be leading to minor and severe life-threatening impacts. In some notable cases the people having the condition may be reluctant in taking the medications affecting the healing process and drug choice. The psychiatrist may recommend additional drugs to address the side effects if the patient requires them, depending on their needs. Thus the management of the issue must consider a holistic approach for effectiveness to be realized. The expressed emotion from the patient plays a notable role in making the recovery process quickly.

The drugs appear to be short-term since they are part of the pharmacologic medication of delirium. It is often necessary to evaluate the safety of the drugs as an individual continues recovering from the issues (Cooper, 2018). All anti-schizophrenia drugs have an increased risk of drowsiness, sexual dysfunction, postural hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death linked with all antipsychotic drugs (Fei et al., 2022). These drugs have a wide range of side effects, and primary care doctors should be aware of these.


In summary, the discussion of phobia, depression and schizophrenia as crucial disorders regarding their treatments by justifying the appropriateness and effectiveness of the treatments is necessary to understand the epidemics and how to handle patients exhibiting disorder symptoms. It is recommended that the individuals diagnosed with the issue participate in group and other individual based medications for well-being to be realized. All the possible options should be considered before a particular therapy is chosen for the treatment purpose. Moreover, the medical practitioners are required to allow the patients to choose the best combination for their self through their guidance for consent and other ethics issues to be guaranteed.


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