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The Key Factors and Economic Consequences of Disclosure Quality


This study examines the key factors and economic consequences of disclosure quality or nonfinancial information reporting, which is assessed in terms of ratings for Green Banking Disclosures, Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting/Performance (CSR), Environmental, Social, and Governance (EGS), Financial Inclusion Reporting and Social Performance/Social Reporting, among other categories of data. The EU’s intention to require all publicly traded firms to utilize International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) as the basis for their financial statements is the primary motivation for this study (GAAP). Nonfinancial information reporting is investigated in this study by recognizing and examining, the characteristics of economic consequences, the characteristics of nonfinancial information, describing how nonfinancial data must be disclosed in the financial statements, the assimilation of financial and nonfinancial data, as well as discussing of the potential effects of nonfinancial information reporting.

Non-financial Information

The accounting system may provide nonfinancial information, which is a significant part of accounting information. However, in contrast to financial data, it does not completely fit the description, quantitative, reliable and pertinent. Financial data may be used to meet quantitative needs.. Most nonfinancial information, such as corporate social responsibility reporting/performance (CSR), ESG reporting, green banking disclosures and so on can’t be quantifiably recognized. However, this does not negate the fact that it has a significant impact on the current state of the stock market. Academics and forecasters are increasingly placing nonfinancial information above financial information. Several studies (Gee, 2006; Blake & Lunt, 2001) have looked at the influence of IFRS and GAAP acceptance and execution on shareholder security and efficient markets, as well as the potential economic repercussions of nonfinancial information disclosure.

In the eyes of economists and scholars alike, the importance of disclosing nonfinancial information is on par with disclosing financial data. Corporate social responsibility and responsible conduct are severely hampered by the absence of nonfinancial information disclosure. Risk mitigation and long-term social, environmental, and economic results and competitiveness in the market may be improved by the disclosure of nonfinancial information by corporations (Johnson, Scholes & Whittington, 2008). It’s a way to reinforce the firm’s financial market performance’s security and consistency for the communities that are most impacted by nonfinancial reporting.

Key categories of non-financial information:

  1. Corporate Social Responsibility: According to Cromwell, 2015, it is a management model to corporate sustainable development principles for championing welfare programs within the workplace culture or outside of it, utilising corporate ethical beliefs, continuing to help the effective utilization and management of company assets, and preserving nature.
  2. Sustainability: Maintaining the delicate balance between economic demands, human needs, and ecosystems and natural resources is a key component of sustainable development (Crane & Matten, 2010).
  3. Integrated Reporting: According to Eccles & Saltzman, 2011, Sustainability reports and financial statements are combined to provide an integrated reporting system that demonstrates a company’s capacity to create and maintain value . In addition, the Integrated Reporting Framework (IRF) provides assistance.
  4. Sustainability Reporting: The process of gathering and subsequently publishing information on a company’s non-financial performance, such as its social, environmental, and ethical issues, as well as the definition of metrics and sustainability targets based on an organization’s strategy, is known as sustainability reporting (Spector, 2012). Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI) is typically used to create sustainability reporting methods and criteria in the field, which is how sustainability reporting is often carried out.

Advantages of Non-Financial Reporting

Nonfinancial Reporting provides a number of advantages for the organization. The following are some of these benefits: saving organizational resources, controlling operating costs, managing risks, improving overall efficiency and process management in the organization, increasing business credibility and reputation, differentiating from the competition, generating business leads and exposure in the media, strengthening customer relationship and retention, strengthening relationship with customs officials, enhancing relationship with customs officials.

Economic Consequences:

Disclosure of nonfinancial information has the primary goal of informing investors and analysts about the operations of the company, as well as the timing and degree of uncertainty around future earnings estimates. A growing number of academic scholars and industry analysts have begun to recognize the value of sharing nonfinancial information, as well as the negative economic and financial ramifications of not doing so (Boubaker & Nguyen, 2012). While some analysts believe that publishing nonfinancial information alongside financial data reduces the gap between investors and firms, others argue that it also increases openness inside corporations. Non-financial information, such as the environmental impacts of a company’s commercial activities, is becoming more important as the relevance of CSR and environmental concerns grows internationally. If nonfinancial information reporting standards are not adopted, one of the most significant economic consequences is that businesses would be deprived of opportunities for growth that would have been available had they done so. Since 1971, according to a number of academic studies, firms have been more interested in disclosing nonfinancial information (Beresford & Feldman, 1976; Abbott and Monsen, 1979). Bowen’s “Social Responsibilities of Businessman” was the first explicit publication on the CSR subject in 1950.

There is a link between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and economic success. Investors, government executives, and stockholders may benefit from a company’s commitment to social responsibility. It’s possible to get financial rewards by strengthening your links with these individuals and organizations. Investing decisions are heavily influenced by an institution’s social conduct, according to (Rosen et al., 1991). In other words, a good CSR reputation may help companies get access to more funding. CSR and economic repercussions have yet to be conclusively linked by researchers.

Researchers, on the other hand, have suggested that CSR investments have a detrimental impact on an organization’s bottom line because of the extra expenditures they incur. McGuire et al., (1998) claimed that “making significant philanthropic donations, advocating community planning, and others” are all factors that contribute to the increasing cost (p. 855). As a result of these elevated operating expenses, enterprises who don’t implement CSR policies may find themselves at a competitive disadvantage. The following are some of the economic ramifications of disclosing non-financial information:

Sustainability Benchmark; The achievement of sustainability criteria is a major economic consequence of nonfinancial information. Companies may compare their sustainable level achievements with those of their rivals using several sustainability metrics and evaluations, such as the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP), MSCI, Sustainalytics, and the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI) (Department for Business Innovation and Skills, 2014). Companies who do not disclose their nonfinancial performance are reducing their general credibility by not participating in the standards and sustainability assessments that have a negative impact on their reputation.

Debt Market; When examining the economic ramifications of nonfinancial information, the trade analyst evaluates its influence on the debt market as well. Among scholars, there is broad agreement that releasing nonfinancial information benefits organizations, since it demonstrates more openness and attracts new sources of investment, finance, and development from outside the company (Cooper, Frank & Kemp, 2000). It is also widely accepted that more disclosure of nonfinancial information contributes to reduced debt levels, since greater openness allows the businesses obtain equity capital more readily.

Cost of Capital; Researchers disagree on whether companies that use CSR have lower equity capital requirements than those that don’t do it at all. As a matter of fact, these reasoning rest heavily on the scale of a company’s investment opportunities and its risk involved. Researchers and previous literature assessments have determined that CSR or other nonfinancial information disclosure has a detrimental influence on a company’s capital costs. (Christmann, 2000), a s a result, the overall cost of ownership goes up. However, present scholars also concur with this study, but they also acknowledge that although transparency increases the capital cost, it also strengthens the company’s image and credibility as well.

Increased Investors’ Confidence: Revealing of nonfinancial information boosts investors’ trust, according to contemporary trade experts and scholars. While determining investment selections, speculators and investors are becoming more aware of the company’s CSR and ESG practices. They have refuted Belkaoui’s (1976) notion that companies that do not disclose nonfinancial information always outperform those that do.

Integration of Two Different Concepts and Economic Consequences

A broad variety of sustainability-related accounting and reporting activities increasingly recognize the need of disclosing nonfinancial information (NFI) and implementing IR at a big scale, which will require significant changes to corporate business strategies. Rather than focusing on transactional or operational issues, these reports will provide a holistic view of an organization’s overall performance rather than a narrow audit compliance or financial reporting perspective, and will include qualitative and quantitative information from both qualitative and quantitative sources. As a result, the economic implications stated in sustainability or other nonfinancial information reporting may also include the influence on overall performance and consequences of organization activities, according to sustainability and development accounting Even while financial reporting components are important, companies also need to take into account economic, social and nonfinancial aspects of their operations to ensure long-term value generation while conserving or enhancing capital as defined from a variety of viewpoints.

Consequences of Nonfinancial Information Reporting

Non-financial information has been more important to major institutional investors in recent years, and they prefer it when making investment decisions. The reason for this is because the integrated reporting gives information that may satisfy the needs of the stakeholders. This can help companies accomplish their strategic objectives because of the financial performance and economic ramifications of revealing nonfinancial information (Dhaliwal et al, 2011). Analysis of CSR performance and financial success by Nemours shows that a high quality CSR report by the organization will lead to favorable financial performance (Gao, Dong, Ni and Fu, 2015). As a result, the corporation may lower the cost of financing by improving its CSR disclosures.

The link between financial success and corporate social responsibility (CSR) has recently been studied by an increasing number of companies. El Ghoul, Guedhami, Kwok, and Mishra (2010) shows that CSR performance is linked to equity capital costs for enterprises. When the cost of capital is the internal rate of return and the ratio should be needed because of the market’s perception of riskiness, it is necessary to examine if the market can meet a firm’s future cash flow to ensure that the existing market value can be maintained. The company with social responsibility should be interested in the reduced equity financing costs if the impression of riskiness affects the organization. As a result, it suggests that rigorous disclosure rules, reduced equity capital costs, and more efficient corporate governance may prevent asymmetric information from becoming a problem for the organization. It is also vital to consider the cost of equity when making long-term investment and growth decisions. The term “return ratio” refers to the idea that a company’s CSR efforts may be seen as a financial return (El Ghoul, et al. 2010). Consequently, El Ghoul et al. (2010) found that when they adjusted for other firm-specific drivers, businesses with a stronger CSR quality saved equity capital costs. Additional benefits include showing how environmental policies and product plans are linked to employee accountability while also helping to lower the firm’s capital expenditures.

According to Dhaliwal et al. (2012), reporting on corporate social responsibility (CSR) will improve analyst projections. The cost of capital is more readily influenced, especially in countries with a strong focus on stakeholders. According to Fang et al. (2015), the supply of analysts may be increased via better transparency. Because high-quality CSR makes it simpler for companies to acquire and analyze data and information. analysts have a simpler time gathering and processing data. Analysts’ attention is more likely to be drawn to companies that provide high-quality CSR disclosures, as this example shows. The quality of a company’s CSR disclosures will have an impact on its stock price. Transparency is improved and negative concerns are lessened with higher-quality disclosure, as shown by Dhaliwal et al (2012). Improving the quality of the company’s CSR disclosures may have a positive economic impact. There are two reasons for this: First, the expense of preparing nonfinancial reporting is prohibitive for most organizations, and second, the disclosures often result in positive outcomes for them. Nonfinancial information, according to a recent research, may boost stakeholder confidence and minimize information asymmetry to some extent. Because of this, it can maintain the stock price stable in a highly competitive market (Lins et al, 2017).

Covid-19 effects of the sustainable firms

In order to move toward more sustainable and resilient society and economies, enhanced non-financial reporting may play a crucial role. More than ever, companies need to be aware of the environmental and social consequences of their actions, as well as to take responsibility for their influence on nature, people and the economy. Sharing more than just financial information with investors and other stakeholders may help them better understand the entire performance and impact of businesses and other organizations. Demand for better and more available financial and non-financial information from corporations has grown steadily over the years due to investors’ and society’s expectations, as well as legal requirements. Non-financial rules, guidelines, and frameworks have risen as a consequence, and firms may now use them to improve their operations. In the long run, this proliferation of projects might undermine the overall use and credibility of non-financial reporting by creating a complex picture. A solution to the need for better non-financial reporting must now be found by working together.


Specifically, this paper examined the necessity of providing nonfinancial information, as well as the economic ramifications of such disclosure, in terms of capital costs and the effect on the debt market. We also looked at the opinions of two types of researchers: those who support nonfinancial reporting disclosure and see it as having good advantages for the firm, and those who are opposed to it because they perceive increasing capital costs as the negative consequences of such implementations. The study found that organizations that react effectively to non-financial reporting did well since there was an increase in the demand for such information from outside stakeholders. We also found that firms with positive nonfinancial disclosure performed better than those that did not disclose nonfinancial information or disclosed negative information. Nonfinancial information disclosure has been shown to raise capital costs, as both contemporary and classic theorists agree, but it is also true that organizations that follow this practice have more consumer trust and value than those that do not.


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