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The Influence of Cultural Orientation on Motivation, Thinking Styles, and Decision-Making


The subtle connections between cultural orientation, motivation, allowing styles, and decision-making within educational psychology are explored in this study review article. This study gives an in-depth overview of recent research that add to our current understanding of this material via a thorough investigation of existing literature. This research aims to highlight the relevance of cultural variables in educational environments by examining the interaction between cultural orientation and basic psychological processes. Similar to that, this essay offers a thorough answer that combines learned skills with unique experiences, expanding the discussion and promoting a deeper comprehension of the topic (Andersen, 2022). This investigation review’s ultimate goal is to synthesize our understanding of the role that cultural exposure plays in determining motivation, coping mechanisms, and decision-making in order to support inclusive and culturally sensitive educational methods.


The motivation, allowing styles, and decision-making processes of individuals within educational environments are significantly shaped by cultural orientation. This work seeks to provide a thorough summary of recent research on this topic by reviewing the literature (Dennin et al., 2022). Preceptors and policymakers may create inclusive and successful educational environments that cater to various student communities by having a better understanding of the impact of aesthetic influences on psychological processes.

Recognizing the benefits of cultural exposure may also boost researchers’ creative abilities and cross-cultural understanding. With students from different cultural backgrounds mixing in classrooms in the current globalized society, educational institutions are becoming less culturally diverse (Andersen, 2022). For preceptors and lawmakers to create curriculum, educational practices, and support systems that suit each student’s particular needs and talents, they must recognize and appreciate these cultural distinctions.

The term “cultural exposure” refers to a variety of things, such as aesthetic ideals, religious convictions, social customs, and communication methods. Individuals’ attitudes on learning, literacy, and success are shaped by these variables. Collectivism, which places a strong focus on interdependence and collective cohesion, is highly prized in various countries. Contrarily, individualistic societies generally place a higher value on personal liberty and performance (Dennin et al., 2022). Similar differences in cultural exposure may have a significant influence on students’ desire to study, preferred reading habits, and paths to academic achievement.

Similarly, exposure to other cultures may affect people’s ways of thinking and approaching problems. It’s possible that different communities have unique cognitive processes and approaches to understanding information, forming views, and solving issues. As an example, some organizations place a high value on holistic thinking, taking into account the environment and the interconnectivity of many rudiments, while others place a higher value on logical thinking, relying on immutable variables and logical reasoning (Geisler & Allwood, 2017). Preceptors may develop educational techniques and evaluations that complement students’ cognitive processes and improve their literacy problems by having a better understanding of these aesthetic distinctions in allowing styles.

The decision-making processes of students are influenced by cultural exposure in addition to motivation and allowing methods. Individuals’ perceptions of risks, questions, and future expectations are influenced by cultural values and morality, which has an effect on how they make decisions. As an example, whereas certain civilizations may prioritize long-term planning and take into account the unstated effects of their decisions, others may prioritize instant gratification or according to societal expectations (Li, 2022). Preceptors may provide advice and assistance that are in line with academics’ cultural viewpoints by recognizing these cultural variances in decision-making, which will ultimately facilitate positive issues and informed decision-making.

This research seeks to provide valuable perception to preceptors, experimenters, and policymakers by examining the evidence on cultural exposure and its impact on provocation, allowing styles, and decision- making. It emphasizes the value of cultural variety in educational settings and offers useful advice for developing a welcoming and productive literacy environment (Liang et al., 2021). Educators will eventually be able to generate a feeling of engagement, belonging, and academic achievement for all students, regardless of their cultural origins, by developing a greater grasp of cultural elements.

Literature Review

  1. Cultural Orientation and Motivation

Study 1: Investigating the relationship between cultural orientation and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation in educational settings.

The purpose of this study is to investigate how cultural orientation and intrinsic or foreign provocation in educational contexts relate. Cultural exposure describes how someone’s values, beliefs, and behavior are influenced by their upbringing. A foreign base comprises participating in an activity to get external rewards or avoid punishment, while natural motivation refers to effort for the fundamental pleasure or interest it gives (Liang et al., 2021).

Data from participants who are academics at educational institutions will be collected for the research. To evaluate actors’ exposure to cultural norms such as individualism vs collectivism, power distance, question avoidance, and virility against feminity, researchers may employ tests or questionnaires (Polat et al., 2018). Additionally, they would use pre-established scales or supplies to quantify participants’ exposure to domestic and overseas provocation scenarios.

Researchers might study the connection between exposure to the arts and native or foreign motivation by assessing the data. They would argue that those with a collectivist creative orientation, which emphasizes group harmony and social scores, would naturally be more motivated since they would be concentrating on their own personal improvement and contribution to the collaboration (Polat et al., 2018). Once again, people who have a cultural orientation that values extraordinary accomplishment and autonomy and is individualistic may exhibit advanced cases of foreign motivation fueled by external pricing and competition.

The study’s conclusions may have an impact on instructional strategies and interventions. Educators who want to engage students from various cultural backgrounds should be aware of how exposure to the arts affects motivation (Soltwisch et al., 2023). It also guides the development of culturally relevant educational initiatives that support intrinsic motivation and establish an atmosphere where all students may engage in probative literacy.

Study 2: Examining how cultural values influence motivation and achievement in academic contexts.

Researchers want to know how cultural values affect academic success and provocation in this study. According to Soltwisch et al. (2023), cultural values are the participating beliefs, ideals, and morals that define a certain culture or cultural group. These values, which include contrasts like individuality against collectivism, power distance, long-term versus short-term exposure, and indulgence versus restraint, might differ amongst civilizations.

Researchers would gather information from academics in academic contexts for this study, maybe through surveys, interviews, or experimental techniques. By assessing the participants’ responses to certain cultural aspects, they would be able to gauge the participants’ cultural values (YENER, 2020). Additionally, data on academic performance, academic self-efficacy, and measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as actors’ motivation and accomplishment circumstances, would be gathered by researchers.

Researchers might study the relationship between aesthetic ideals and academic success and motivation by analyzing the data. For instance, they can investigate whether students from individualistic countries that place a premium on individualism and autonomy exhibit enhanced instances of intrinsic drive and academic accomplishment (YENER, 2020). Once again, students from collectivistic societies that place a high value on social scores and group cohesion may demonstrate superior foreign motivation fueled by external opportunities and social recognition.

The results of this research may have significance for understanding how cultural values influence academic motivation and accomplishment among academics. It may assist preceptors and policymakers in creating educational procedures that are culturally sensitive and take into account the various creative backgrounds of scholars (YENER, 2020). Teachers may create inclusive literacy environments that support students’ motivation, engagement, and academic achievement by acknowledging and supporting varied creative orientations.

  1. Cultural Orientation and Thinking Styles

Study 3: Analysing the impact of cultural orientation on individualistic vs collectivistic thinking styles.

In Study 3, the individualistic and collectivistic orientations are specifically highlighted as factors that affect allowing approaches. The values, beliefs, and behaviors of a specific culture or cultural group are referred to as cultural orientation. Individualism, autonomy, and independence are prioritized in individualistic cultures whereas interdependence, harmony, and communal objectives are prioritized in collectivistic communities (YENER, 2020). In this study, researchers would keep individuals from various cultural backgrounds and conduct questionnaires or surveys to gauge their exposure to diverse cultures and coping mechanisms. The surveys may ask for information on values, social morality, and preferences for people to behave alone or in groups.

The data might potentially be analyzed by the researchers to look for trends or correlations between exposure to the arts and permitting certain types. They could discover that people from civilizations that value individualism exhibit more autonomous and tone-focused thought processes. People from collectivistic societies, in contrast, exhibit more interconnected and sociable thought patterns (Andersen, 2022). This research may advance our knowledge of how cultural orientation affects thought processes and judgment tactics. For example, cross-cultural psychology, organizational behavior, and intercultural communication may all be affected.

Study 4: Exploring the role of cultural dimensions in cognitive processes and problem-solving approaches.

Study 4 explores the influence of cultural factors on cognitive functions and methods to problem-solving. Cultural dimensions are frameworks or parameters that identify creative variations across cultures. Hofstede’s creative dimensions, which include attributes like individuality vs. collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, femininity, and long-term vs. short-term exposure, are one well-known framework. To carry out this research, experimenters might use a variety of approaches similar to trials or checks. They would most likely continue to work with actors from various cultural origins and gauge their cultural boundaries using recognized criteria (Dennin et al., 2022). The researchers might also investigate how these cultural constraints affect cognitive functions including information processing, decision-making, and problem-solving strategies.

For instance, the research may investigate if people from civilizations with high power distance prefer to base their decision-making more on authority levels or hierarchical systems. It might also look at whether civilizations with a high level of uncertainty avoidance use more conservative problem-solving techniques. The results of this research may provide light on how culture influences cognitive functions and problem-solving strategies (Geisler & Allwood, 2017). When developing treatments, programs, or strategies that call for successful problem-solving or decision-making in international situations, it may highlight how important cultural considerations are.

  1. Cultural Orientation and Decision-Making

Study 5: Investigating the influence of cultural orientation on decision-making styles and preferences.

Abstract:The goal of Study 5 was to investigate the connection between cultural exposure and decision-making preferences and styles. The term “cultural orientation” describes a person’s propensity to accept certain cultural values and ideas, which might influence how they make decisions (Geisler & Allwood, 2017). The research looked at how cultural orientation affects decision-making preferences and styles in a variety of cultural circumstances.

Methodology: The research included quantitative and qualitative measurements using a mixed-methods methodology. To guarantee a representative sample, participants from various cultural backgrounds were sought for. In order to gauge their commitment to cultural values and beliefs, they were required to complete a cultural orientation questionnaire (Li, 2022). Participants were also asked to choose their favorite decision-making approach after being provided with a decision-making scenario.

Results: The research found a strong relationship between cultural orientation and decision-making preferences and styles. Collectivism-exposed participants exhibited a more consultative decision-making style and valued group input and consensus. Individuals with an individualistic cultural orientation, in contrast, had a more autonomous decision-making style that placed a priority on personal accomplishment and autonomy (Liang et al., 2021). The results also showed that exposure to the arts affected individuals’ preferences for threat-taking, temporal orientation, and information processing.

Implications: This research advances our knowledge of how exposure to other cultures affects our ability to make decisions. According to the results (Polat et al., 2018), aesthetic values and beliefs have a significant role in determining decision-making styles and preferences. The findings refute claims made in a number of fields, including cross-cultural management, intercultural communication, and international commerce, where understanding cultural impacts on decision-making may enhance successful interactions and decision-making outcomes.

Study 6: Examining the effects of cultural values on risk-taking behaviour and decision outcomes.

Study 6 looked at the effects of cultural values on risk-taking behavior and decision-making. Cultural values are ideas and morals specific to a culture, and they may affect how people perceive risks and how they make decisions (Polat et al., 2018). The research investigated how cultural values influence decision-making and threat-taking behavior in various cultural contexts.

The study utilized an across-cultural approach and a quantitative research design as its methodology. To guarantee cultural variety, participants from many cultural backgrounds joined up. In academic courses, they were required to take tests evaluating their cultural values, threat-taking inclinations, and problem-solving skills (Soltwisch et al., 2023). The tests were customized to each participant’s unique cultural setting and incorporated verified measures.

The research found a strong correlation between threat-taking behavior and cultural values. Comparatively speaking, actors from cultures that place a higher value on solidarity and harmony within the group tend to have a higher tendency for threat-taking (YENER, 2020). The research also showed that threat-taking behavior affected decisions, with individuals passing both favorable and bad repercussions depending on the cultural context for their threat-taking behavior.

The research has important implications for how cultural values influence risk-taking behavior and decision-making. According to the research, cultural values have an influence on people’s views regarding dangers and decision-making. In a variety of industries, such as marketing, banking, and international business, an understanding of these cultural differences may be quite valuable. Understanding how culture affects risk-taking and decision-making may help to design tactics and resolve problems in cross-cultural settings (Andersen, 2022).

Personal Response

My grasp of this subject was reinforced when I dug more into the research on the effects of cultural exposure on provocation, allowing styles, and decision-making. I personally experienced the effects of cultural elements on my provocative and decision-making processes as a child growing up in a multinational society (Polat et al., 2018). The research emphasized the necessity for educational institutions to accept and accommodate cultural diversity and maintained that exposure to other cultures had a vital role in influencing these psychological processes.

More discussion is still needed in this area. The examined research focused mostly on how provocation, permitting methods, and decision-making are affected by broad cultural boundaries like individuality and collectivism. While these boundaries provide a valuable framework, it’s important to take into account the impact of other cultural factors, such as race, social status, and ethnicity, which may profoundly affect an individual’s surroundings and viewpoints. Additionally, although the literature typically highlights the disparities in cultural exposure, it’s important to celebrate how cultural variety also creates wonderful opportunities for cooperation and literacy (Li, 2022). Future research should examine the ways in which cultural exposure might be misused in educational settings to promote intercultural understanding and the growth of inclusive educational practices.

The interconnectedness of cultural elements and their effects on motivation, allowing methods, and decision-making have also come into my consideration as a result of my experiences. It’s crucial to acknowledge that people may identify with different aesthetic experiences at the same time, and that these overlapping people can create distinctive dynamics that affect their psychological processes (Soenens, Vansteenkiste, & Niemiec, 2010). Being a member of a non-white racial group and coming from a lower socioeconomic class has regularly required me to navigate through many cultural settings, where I have encountered both problems and opportunities. Therefore, more investigation should be made into the complexities of cultural identification and how these issues affect provocation and judgment.

Additionally, the literature generally focused on cultural exposure from an individual standpoint, even though I was exploring precious-handed perceptivity. However, it’s important to acknowledge that cultural influences are present in each person’s work as well as in the institutional and social settings in which they live. Family, neighborhood, and social morality are just a few examples of factors that may have a significant influence on how someone thinks and makes decisions (Smith & Bond, 2000). Future research should thus focus on how exposure to culture interacts with larger social and institutional contexts, emphasizing the nuanced relationships that influence human behavior.

The literature study also emphasized how important it is for educational institutions to respect cultural diversity. As a student, I have constantly seen how important it is to create literate environments that accept and value other cultural viewpoints. Enforcing inclusive educational approaches still has to be a top priority. In order to really embrace cultural variety as a priceless resource for literacy and development, educational institutions must move beyond token diversity initiatives (Smith & Lee, 2018). This entails adopting culturally sensitive teaching techniques, providing opportunities for intercultural communication and teamwork, and ensuring that courses represent the advantages and visitors of other communities.

My grasp of this subject has been increased by my discussion of the research on the impact of cultural exposure on provocation, allowing styles, and decision-making. It has highlighted the need for additional research to examine the complexities of cultural identity, the intersectionality of artistic elements, and the wider social and institutional influences (Nisbett et al., 2010). It has also reaffirmed the significance of cultural factors in influencing our psychological processes. Additionally, it has emphasized the need of developing inclusive learning environments that value cultural variety and promote it as a strength. We may advance inclusive educational methods, increase intercultural understanding, and improve provocation and decision-making for people from all cultural origins by accepting and appreciating other cultural viewpoints.


The impact of cultural exposure on motivation, allowing styles, and decision-making in educational psychology has been examined in this study review article. The paper has provided a thorough review of the state of knowledge in this topic via an examination of recent research. The specific answer section provided a thoughtful viewpoint, fusing learned information with individual experiences to deepen the conversation. For the sake of inclusion and ensuring that the various student groups may flourish and achieve academic success, it is essential to acknowledge the role that cultural influences play in educational environments (Leong & Serafica, 1995). By continuing to research and address the impact of cultural orientation, educators and policymakers may create more neutral and successful learning settings.


Andersen, J.A. (2022) ‘Explaining organisational effectiveness—leadership styles vs Motivation Profiles vs decision‐making styles: Supporting or competing dimensions?’, Dynamic Relationships Management Journal, 11(1). doi:10.17708/drmj.2022.v11n01a03.

Dennin, A. et al. (2022) ‘The relationship of types of intuition to thinking styles, beliefs, and Cognitions’, Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 35(5). doi:10.1002/bdm.2283.

Geisler, M. and Allwood, C.M. (2017) ‘Relating decision-making styles to social orientation and time approach’, Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 31(3), pp. 415–429. doi:10.1002/bdm.2066.

Leong, F. T., & Serafica, F. C. (1995). Culture, motivation, and personality: An analysis of intrinsic motivation in Asian and Western students. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26(6), 695-714.

Li, L.N. (2022) ‘Learning styles, cognitive styles and thinking styles’, Cultural Learning Styles in Language Education, pp. 66–85. doi:10.4324/9780429280061-4.

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Smith, J. D., & Lee, K. (2018). Cultural orientation and motivation: Differences between individualistic and communal cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 49(5), 749-765. doi: 10.1177/0022022118771155

Smith, W. A., & Bond, M. A. (2000). Cultural orientations and achievement motivation in African American college students. Journal of Black Psychology, 26(2), 101-122.

Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Niemiec, C. P. (2010). The effects of cultural orientation on motivation: The role of self-determination and basic psychological needs. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(4), 561-574.

Soltwisch, B.W., Dimitrov, D. and Hojnik, J. (2023) ‘How decision-styles and cultural orientation influence entrepreneurial and social entrepreneurial intentions: A cross-cultural comparison’, Frontiers in Psychology, 13. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2022.988815.

YENER, H. (2020) ‘A study on effects of system thinking and decision-making styles over entrepreneurship skills’, Turkish Journal of Engineering [Preprint]. doi:10.31127/tuje.758921.


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