The dynamic nature of most chronic diseases and their impacts on various aspects of the patient’s life require the patients to make frequent and continuous self-management decisions. Self-management (SME) refers to facilitating persons in making decisions in their life. SME may lead to improving different variables in an individual’s life. ElSayed et al. (2023) state that some variables that may change due to SMEs include attitude, knowledge, healthy behaviors, and self-efficacy improvement. SME, education, and support are anticipated to impact glycemic control and quality of life in patients suffering from diabetes. However, the evidence for such efficacy and applicability may be inconclusive and thus requires further evaluation. The work critically appraises the different studies investigating the impacts of SMEs, education, and support on glycemic control and quality of life. The aim is to determine the relevance and quality of the studies in answering the research PICOT question.
In patients with type 2 diabetes, how do self-management education and support affect their glycemic control and quality of life compared to usual care?
Background of the Study
SME, education, and support are key components used in diabetes care. The components are aimed at empowering patients suffering from type two diabetes. The SME, education, and support are effective in helping the patients improve their life quality and health outcome. SME and support entail various interventions that are categorized as counseling. Individual and group education, peer support, coaching, mobile application, and telehealth.
Although diabetes mellitus management is improving, there is still the existence of inadequate management. The prevention of diabetes requires various holistic and integral approaches based on the disease’s cause or origin. In Europe, the number of patients diagnosed with diabetes still has low glycemic control. According to Pivari et al. (2019), Inadequacy in glycemic control is significantly increasing globally. This results in increased mortality cases, medical costs, and the use of various health resources. Various studies indicate that support for self-management and education is important when caring for patients suffering from diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a complex chronic illness that requires a multifaceted and integral approach to ensure minimum complications and adequate control (Davidson et al., 2021). It is also important to put the most emphasis on the management of diabetics, especially to the patients and their families. Such emphasis may be done through changes in lifestyle factors, nutrition counseling, and self-management education. Self-management, education, and support will also ensure that type two diabetes patients have access to various information regarding the infection, control of blood glucose level, and experience safety monitoring methods.
Significance of the study
Glycemic control and quality of life are some of the public health problems that affect millions of people that suffer from diabetes mellitus worldwide. The study is thus important since it helps address the issue of glycemic control among diabetic patients. Addressing such issues may help both the patient and the healthcare providers in managing their patients’ health conditions (Andrich & Foronda, 2020). The study will also be key in minimizing the serious cost complication associated with managing diabetes patients, especially glycemic control. Self-management, education, and support is also a good patient-centered approach that is important in empowering patients to improve their outcome and take an active part in health management. Similarly, the study will be a great contributor to the already existing evidence concerning the cost-effectiveness and effectiveness of SMES for diabetes mellitus patients (Qi et al., 2021). The study will also provide practical implications to policymakers, healthcare providers, and patients.
Andrich, D., & Foronda, C. (2020). Improving glycemic control and quality of life with diabetes self-management education: A pilot project. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 51(3), 119-123.
Davidson, K. W., Barry, M. J., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., … & US Preventive Services Task Force. (2021). Screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Jama, 326(8), 736-743.
ElSayed, N. A., Aleppo, G., Aroda, V. R., Bannuru, R. R., Brown, F. M., Bruemmer, D., … & Gabbay, R. A. (2023). 3. Prevention or Delay of Type 2 Diabetes and Associated Comorbidities: Standards of Care in Diabetes—2023. Diabetes Care, 46(Supplement_1), S41-S48
Pivari, F., Mingione, A., Brasacchio, C., & Soldati, L. (2019). Curcumin and type 2 diabetes mellitus: prevention and treatment. Nutrients, 11(8), 1837.
Qi, X., Xu, J., Chen, G., Liu, H., Liu, J., Wang, J., … & Jiao, M. (2021). Self-management behavior and fasting plasma glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus over 60 years old: multiple effects of social support on quality of life. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 19, 1-15.