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The Association Between Political and Federal Structures and Park Regulation in the US and Canada

Political Structure

Politics is the exercise of power in a society, particularly decisions regarding public policy. Politics denotes the procedures used to establish and adopt public policies, particularly the duties played by chosen government officials, public opinion, group interests and political parties (Public Policy and Politics, 2021). In the united states, politics strongly impacts policymaking because chosen officials must try to expect how the actions and policy statements might impact their chances for re-election. To ensure that parks adhere to set regulations and promote the well-being and safety of people, animals and the environment, elected officials at state, provincial and town counties participate in park regulations. For example, Public Policy and Politics (2021) affirms that both government offices occasionally are responsible for amusement parks. The state government, comprising publically elected members, helps establish essential laws while offering recreational facilities for its citizens. For example, Virginia states commonwealth states,” That government is, or ought to be, instituted for the common benefit, protection and security of the people, nation or community; of all the various modes and forms of government, that is best which is capable of producing the greatest degree of happiness and safety and is most effective against the danger of maladministration” (National Park Service, n.d.-b).

Parks and recreation constitute the vital functions of the government. The legislation and court have endorsed the provision of recreational facilities and services by all government agency levels as a vital function of the numerous units in the government under parks and recreation (National Park Service, n.d.). In the US, different cities have different policies ranging from park regulations. In California, the regulations state that park maintenance by the city primarily benefits people, and it should not profit the municipal corporation- if it is a public function (National Park Service, n.d.). In Kentucky, it is stated that parks might be considered as solved in the city’s jurisdiction that public parks, operated and safeguarded without a person or corporate gains, are all excepted from taxation and are established and managed by taxation (National Park Service, n.d.).

In Maryland, the city refers to park operations as propriety function is against public policy “because it would retard the expansion and development of park systems in and around our growing cities, and stifle a gratuitous activity vitally necessary to the health, contentment, and happiness of their inhabitants,” (National Park Service, n.d.). Rhode Island considers that park maintenance as a release of governmental functions. Utah holds that public park maintenance is the issue of public service for the overall common good, mainly chosen for the entertainment and enjoyment of the general public. Overall, states that view parks as proprietary comprise Wyoming, Texas, New York, South Dakota, Missouri, Oklahoma, West Virginia and Pennsylvania – even though there are overall recognitions that the public function of a government is recreation.

On the contrary, Canada’s political system comprises representative parliamentary democracy established on the United Kingdom Westminster model (European Parliament, 2022). Nonetheless, unlike the United Kingdom, Canada is also a federal state with a division of legislative power in the provincial, territorial and federal governments. Canada is a constitutional monarchy and shares a head of state with the United Kingdom, Queen Elizabeth, who represents Canada’s governor general (European Parliament, 2022). Park regulation in Canada is associated with its political structure because the Canadian National Parks Act binds Her Majesty in the right of Canada or province (Legislative Services Branch, 2019). According to the Act, the minister manages, controls and participates in administrative duties comprising the administration of public land s in parks; the minister can occupy the lands to create public parks.

The minister might contract with provincial and federal ministers and agencies, local people and the indigenous government, bodies formulated under land claims contracts and other individuals and companies for conducting the Act’s purpose (Legislative Services Branch, 2019). In applicable occasions, the ministers shall offer opportunities for public engagement at local, regional and national levels, comprising the engagement of indigenous organizations, programs formulated under land claims contracts and representatives of park societies. The minister will also participate in the improvement so regulations of parks, the creation of parks, the establishment of the management plan, and organizing and development of land use in communities around the parks and any other issues the minister regards as relevant. Legislative Services Branch (2019) affirms that The minister will have to provide reports every two years n each house of parliament showing progress and the creation of new parkas.

Federal Structure

The initial federal legislation recognized the nation to be responsible for active parks and recreation, the accepted Congress Act in 1864, which granted the Yosemite Valley, Mariposa Big Trees Groove, and the state of California under the condition that the areas are mainly for recreation, public use and resort (National Park Service, n.d.). Congress approves the federal government department and unique acts to pass to their states and civil partitions and lands comprising recreation and public parks improvement. The primary objective of federal law is to widen the federal government’s obligation to administrative roles and supervision of facilities and expand recreational movement by integrating the local people and state in country-wide programs (National Park Service, n.d.).

Parks in the US are under the jurisdiction of both the federal government and the different federal states. The federal government has jurisdiction over parks in the US because of the following; there is mutual history and ownership of the parks. Federal legislations lead to solid environmental protection policies (Erick, 2021). The park services formulate policies based on the Organic Act- a federal law that created the agency years ago. The Organic Act states, “The service thus established shall … conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wildlife therein and … provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations” (Erick, 2021). Despite having different states laws, all 401 areas in the park service interpret this rule into strict principles that conserve the natural environment

The federal body in charge of parks in Canada is Parks Canada Agency. This body reports to the Minister of Environment and Climate Change (Government of Canada, 2018b). Parks Canada oversees national historic sites, national marine conservation areas, and national parks on behalf of Canadians and strengthens public cooperation, amusement and gratitude. The agency provides above thirty regulations that propose activities people can participate in inside the parks. It has established the regulatory interpretation policy to promote awareness and clear comprehension of its regulatory necessities (Government of Canada, 2018). Parks Canada is devoted to offering considerate, respectful and expert services in all its interactions with people and businesses. The agency has established Quality Service Standards that validate the service employees offer, emphasizing values and fulfilling people’s expectations.

The agency safeguards and represents forty-two national parks in Canada, from huge, to remote parks that only allow a few visitors. It also provides numerous methods to receive and answer questions or grievances from visitors and businesses concerning regulation issues. The regulatory service standards offer contact information on how businesses can receive permits and licenses. The forward plan offers email and phone contacts on organized regulatory programs (Government of Canada, 2018). The agency also engages aboriginal people and all stakeholders when establishing procedure materials that strengthen comprehension, awareness and observance of agency regulations.


Days Challenges Solutions
Week One Lack of good research papers due to restrictions on accessing some papers. · Ask for help from the professor and other students that might help.

· Set time aside used only to search for reliable papers

Week one Limited time · Prioritize my academics and reduce my leisure time and use the time to research my paper.
Week two Low quantity of literature · Formulate ways to manage the literature

· Identifying and noting down keywords and alternative terms and continuously looking for relevant sources

· Look f for several reliable sources, and compare the information to obtain information that supports my research topic.


Erick, J. (2021). Why Don’t States Run National Parks? National Parks Conservation Association.

European Parliament. (2022). BRIEFING Continental democracies.

Government of Canada. (2018b, February 6). Regulatory Interpretation Policy – Park Canada Agency’s Regulatory Interpretation Policy.

Legislative Services Branch. (2019, September 4). Consolidated federal laws of Canada, Canada National Parks Act.

National Park Service. (n.d.-b). Retrieved April 7, 2023, from

Public Policy and Politics. (2021). Public Policy and Politics.


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