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The Archiac, Ostinoids and the Igneri

America has had different groups of people living in it for more than 10,000 years. The main occupants of Puerto Rico were the hunters who arrived on the island 1000 years before the Spanish. Igneris, who fostered the Taino culture, had additionally settled there by 1000 years. They had ranches with a variety of plants, both vegetables and fruits. They communicated in various dialects. They had intriguing and different ethnical cultures. Different ethnic groups were living there, for example, the Archaic, Ostinoids, and the Igneris. The dominant group was the Boriken and that is why the place is now called Borinquen. The people embraced communism in that they never fought for property, they had an organized society. They had chieftaincies hierarchical way of governance.

The old Archaic societies of North and South America evolved from the customs of the earliest Americans due to response to the changes in environments, the Paleo-Indians. The icy masses dissolved, and ocean levels rose (Khvorykh, (2020).). Exceptionally huge creatures, for example, mammoths and giants ground sloths couldn’t adapt to the progressions and become terminated. Different creatures, like buffalo, adapted by decreasing in size. Simultaneously new grasses, trees, and different plants evolved. As the climate changed, so did the Indians’ ways of life. The most noticeable change was in their eating routine. The Archaic people utilized a more extensive scope of plant and creature food sources than the Paleo-Indians had. As the larger animals grew extinct, the Archaic people started depending on small animals like the antelope, folks, and deer.

Archaic people developed a new adaptation to their new environment by inventing new technologies. They came up with a short, spear-thrower and a hooked rod that had a great force that at a distance could accurately target a prey (Kitagawa, (2018).). Other tools like fishnets and hooks and lines for catching sea creatures were also invented. The Ostinods embraced woodworking by creating hunting tools. For example, the gouges, axes, and polished stones helped in grinding hard nuts and seeds into more consumable. Both had collecting tools, that is the nettings and basketry that helped them in storing foods.

The Ostinoids were named after the Ostiones site in Boriken in the Caribbean in the years 600 to 1200 A.D. History books and Archeological research shows that Ostinoids peoples existed before 1492 (Sullivan, 2019). The groups were named based on the artifacts related to them. It is still debated that the Ostionoids evolved from the Saladoids who moved from Central America to Cuba.

The Ostinoids had a unique tradition away from the Salanoids. They were socially oriented based on pottery, farming and embraced the communist way of life. Ostionan stoneware is portrayed by straightforward dark smearing, and an orange-red slip applied to the entire ordinarily dainty and hard ceramic vessel (Shev, 2020). It is generally alluded to as redware. Generally, Ostinoids are defined as potters. The first potter mentioned in Puerto was for the Corozo culture at Blanca-the Ostinoids.

The Igneri is the indigenous Arawak people of the Southern Lesser Antilles. Historically, the Igneri are believed to have been conquered by the Island Caribs and displaced before the European contact. By 300BC the Igneris were established and more advanced than their predecessors on the land (Hofman, (2019)). They were mostly oriented to pottery, carvings, and multiple coloring. They knew how to make pots and thin griddles used for cooking cassava. In addition to their great skills in pottery, they were also great fishermen and horticulturists which is a unique form of diet from the other groups. They could build big canoes with a capacitance of ferrying 100 people. This is why they are said to have advanced more than their fellow ethnical groups.

Both the Igneri, Archiac, and Ostinoids were gifted in agribusiness, fishing, and kayak making and route finding. They developed cotton, reaped cassava, and practiced hunting. The Archiac gents and single ladies customarily painted their bodies for fighting (Massaro, (2018).). They never wore garments, except for wedded ladies who wore little skirts made from cotton. The societies had faith in one divine being the Yocahu.

In general, the Archaic time frame is portrayed by the substitution of the last major game of hunting transformation with agriculture (food gathering). Even though the group embraced the different ethnical cultures, they still had a communist way of life and had much cultural practice in common. Apart from their specification, they both tend to practice pottery and hunting and gathering.


Hofman, C. L. ( (2019)). Power, political economy, and historical landscapes of the modern world: Interdisciplinary perspectives. . Indigenous Caribbean networks in a globalizing world., 55.

Khvorykh, G. V. ((2020).). Archiac people. Global Picture of Genetic Relatedness and the Evolution of Humankind. Biology, , 9(11), 392.

Kitagawa, J. K. ((2018).). Archaeological Research in Asia,. Adaptations of the Early Jomon people in their settlement relocation to climate change around Lake Mikata, Central Japan. , 16, 66-77.

Massaro, M. N. ((2018).). A Bioarchaeological Case Study of Prehistoric Reburials from Nevis, West Indies (Doctoral dissertation, San José State University). The Conservation, Excavation, and Analysis of Ancient Human Remains:.

Shev, G. (2020). Taino dietry. Feeding Opiyelguobirán., 1-19.

Sullivan, S. &. (2019). Cotton Cay, Turks and Caicos Islands. G. Report of Archaeological Investigations at CC-2, , 50-62.


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