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Term Paper Over International Relations in Regards to Environment Issues


In the 21st century, the environment seems to be one of the critical issues in international relations. This is because it has a vast potential to change the gestures of the global system. In addition, environmental issues have some characteristics that ignite conflicts, which call for universal coordination and cooperation. International relations grants nations a chance to collaborate and share vital information that will help overlook universal issues extending beyond a particular region or country. Therefore, it is crucial to appreciate the role of international relations in evaluating its impact on environmental issues, especially climate change. The research reviews scholarly sources in analyzing the importance of the environment in international relations and the effects of climate change on international relations. The research findings indicated some climate change issues that affect international relations, including threats to security and impacts on global communities. The research identifies the importance of international relations in addressing environmental issues. From the study, international communities should manage ecological matters. This is because; humankind will leap its advantage and have a positive impact in the future.

Chapter 1 – Introduction

Sauli Niinisto, Finland’s president quoted that “small steps will no longer do. The biggest steps need to be taken by those with the biggest boots.” Even though countries have discussed environmental issues, all have not been tackled. Several summits are held to address environmental issues. Some of these issues include; environmental threats to security. Ecological hazards to security include; climatic change, water, land and air pollution, deforestation, and ocean acidification. Nations have held summits and meetings to discuss environmental issues. The first kind of these meeting was the (United Nations Conference on the environment) in Stockholm in 1972 (Pagila, 2021). The meeting environment has become a vital issue. Other meetings include; United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in 1992 United Nations General Assembly Special Session on Sustainable Development. Other summits include the COP26, Copenhagen Accord held in 2009, and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climatic Change (UNFCC). These meetings bring nations together to discuss matters to do with climatic changes and other environmental issues. Nations need to strengthen their relationships; environmental issues are increasing higher than the number of meetings held to resolve the environmental problems. Therefore, the international community should conduct more summits and conferences to help resolve these issues. The topic of international relations concerning the environment is essential to current and future generations. This will help create awareness about the significance of a sustainable planet and the need for all global nations to devote themselves to environmental preservations and awareness. Climate change relates to the international relationship. This is because; climatic change is not an issue of one country but an issue that affects the international community. Therefore, international relations students need to understand the effects of climatic change on individuals, nations, and the international communities. This paper focuses on international relations concerning the environment; it focuses mainly on climate change and its effects on international relations.

Chapter 2 – Climate change

Environmental issues, especially climate change, are essential for international relations. Currently, climate change contributes much towards the promotion of international relations. One of the most successful diplomatic meetings in recent history is the Paris summit, which mainly dealt with climate change. This meeting brought together world leaders to discuss limiting industrial emissions from their respective nations. Regardless of whether it was a developing nation or an already developed nation, this was. Scientific research has found the current industrial emission will worsen shortly. Therefore, the international community must find the necessary solution today that would reduce and lessen the effects in the future. The international community brings out the picture of the climatic change and its impact on demography, the economy, and international governance. It is essential to address some of the diplomatic challenges of climate change.

Climatic changes require immediate actions from different countries to find other energy sources to reduce emissions. This includes identifying human activities that contribute to the interference of the climate. Summits and meetings at the international level to develop possible solutions and ways to solve emission issues and possibly other factors that affect the environment. In 2009, there was the Copenhagen Accord (Dong et al., 2018). This accord is essential as it displays the association between change in climate and international relations. However, it is worth noting that despite the meeting, disagreements have risen on responsibility sharing and sharing of the associated cost, which involves members of the United Nations Framework on Climate Change.

Impacts of climate changes on the international communities

Every individual in the universe requires some basic needs. Basic human needs such as water, food, shelter, and health are affected by climate. Climatic changes pose a significant threat to these basic needs. The impacts of climate change are felt differently depending on the nature of the individuals or the group. Similarly, this explains why despite the climate changes affecting nearly all the universe, its impact is felt differently by states. Some nations experience more effects than others do.

Effects of climatic changes on Basic Needs

Effects on food and agriculture

Climate changes directly influence food production worldwide; due to increased temperatures, flooding, and heat stress, yields on crops are reduced. It has also affected fishing around the universe as fish migrate to cooler waters due to temperature increases.

Climate changes affect local, regional and global food security. This is because; it disrupts food availability and reduces food access.

Effect on supply and quality of water

Climate changes are likely to cause water scarcity in many parts of the world. An increase in temperatures is causing a rise in the amount of snow melting and a decline of snow in these regions experiencing the glacier melting. With time there is a possibility of drought becoming more widespread. Water quality is essential for human health, ecosystem, and agriculture.

Effects on human health

This impact can be felt in nations that do not have the necessary capacity to treat and prevent illness. Specific communities are at risk of experiencing very mild health effects of climate change.

Effects on shelter

It is worth noting that changes in climate influence the migration of the people between and within countries of the world. The reason that may necessitate migration to others areas of the world include conflicts, ecosystem degradation, and in search for fertile agricultural land and water. Extreme climatic conditions displace people in other regions.

Challenges facing the international community regarding climatic changes

One of the greatest challenges facing diplomats is working in a dangerous environment. In many instances, working in foreign countries pose a challenge, especially when one experiences horrible weather conditions. Nations should discourage and avoid sending some of their citizens as diplomats in nations that have adverse weather and climatic changes since they are not safe as their citizens. This is because; it becomes hard for these citizens to adapt to these climatic conditions. It is necessary for students undertaking international relations as a major to focus on devising ways to determine whether a country is safe to receive diplomats from another state.

A nation may opt to take any of the following stands in international relations: inactivity, cooperation, or unilateralism. Governments have decided to take one of these stands regarding climatic changes in the universe. These stands affect climatic changes; for instance, when a country decides to take an active denial stand, they no longer support scientific findings on matter climatic change. This will negatively affect any process of controlling the climatic changes. However, those nations who chose to remain inactive believed that they had no role in making any changes regarding infrastructure and industry and decided that life was to proceed normally.

Degradation of environmental resources causes possible conflicts. The effects of climatic changes on universal shared resources result in rising in blames or some sort of entitlement. One party may feel entitled to the left resource while blaming another party for causing the damage. Climate change is a universal issue in both its repercussions and its cause. Despite every nation understanding that a better and stable climate serves a common good, no state is willing to solve issues destroying the climate. Scientific researchers make the effort of informing nations on the theories that would address climatic changes in the universal arena. Some of these theories that address climatic changes include; liberalism and realism. These theories address climatic changes differently; liberalism states that countries benefit from an international arena if only cooperation and harmony. On the other hand, realism suggests that order among nations is vital; this is because, in the absence of order or other guidelines, countries concentrate on their interest, which is based on political power.

Disaster to nations associated with negligence of preventing the emission

Scientific researchers have identified some of the disasters that nations would experience if they did not prevent and reduce emissions. Some of the scientists’ findings and suggestions on what would occur in countries are yet to be experienced. That does not mean nations have not experienced these effects; others already feel the impact. Therefore, the international community should control what has not happened from happening with a more considerable impulse. Despite these nations agreeing to the scientific report, some do not adopt it fully as they believe their industrialization process is threatened. In addition, others believe that their population is alarmed, while others do not think so and have not fully accepted the cost perceived to be involved in the process of change. Some nations have intimidated and threatened scientists involved in climatic research. The challenge these scientists undergo during the research process hinders them and their freedom of study, thus preventing new findings and knowledge that would have otherwise been important and beneficial to the globe. The suggestions and the conclusions that these scientists would have given out are left unknown; the importance of these scientists is only recognized when the destruction has happened.

Environmental degradation, mainly because of climatic change, saw some nations exploring other resources available within these states. For instance, with the melting of the arctic ice, countries in this region opted to expand their utilization of fossils fuels and gases. These nations are breaking the universal agreements to lower emissions because of emissions into the atmosphere. Canada is an example of this case who opted out of the Kyoto protocol in 2011. This impacted the member countries’ left as they were slow to implement the changes and the agreements agreed. The influence and impact of the organization are because Canada is a significant nation. In addition, Canada’s withdrawal from the Kyoto protocol ignited mistrust between the nations left, which significantly affected international relations.

Chapter 3 – International summits on the environment

Environmental governance is seen as a reason that prompted some universal summits on environments. From the first summit held in Stockholm in 1972 to date, the meeting mainly presents ways to tackle universal environmental changes. Some of these summits include;

United Nations Conference on Environment

The pioneer of all international relations to consider the environment was the United Nations Conference on the environment. This summit was in Stockholm in 1972. At the summit, the members embraced some propositions for sound environmental management. The recommendations include; Stockholm Declaration and the Action Plan for Human Environment. The impact of the Stockholm summit was that the environment became a vital issue of international concerns. This became the genesis of all international conversations and interactions on matters environment. A link of interactions emerged between the developing and developed countries. These countries began interacting on pollution, economic growth, and the welfare of human beings around the universe. In addition, the participants come up with an action plan. The action plan defined the methods of examining the universal environmental programs, the management activities, and measures to assist both the assessment procedure and the governance activities. This summit led to the formation of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

Provision of the Stockholm summit

The summit came up with a suggestion international governments should work towards securing Mother Nature. For instance, if a nation protected its natural resources, it would save these resources for its future generations.

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

The meeting was held in Brazil in June 1992. This meeting brought together different people from all over the world who had a vision of the environment and development across the globe. This session had attracted more than 100 members of different countries ( Kaarkoski, 2018). The meeting defined how environmental, economic, and social factors depend on each other. One of them to succeed requires the other elements to be sustained. The conference’s main aim in Brazil was to develop a plan for international measures on development and environmental issues that would assist in international relations. In addition, the motivation of the summit was to address social equity advancement economic growth and make sure the environment was protected. It was agreed that all nations should adopt the sustainable development goal. The summit concept effectively promoted international relations between countries as it sparked the debate on how governments of different nations would ensure they attain their sustainability goals to enhance developments.

Results of Rio Summit

The summit held in Brazil had four major outcomes. These outcomes include;

Rio declaration.

It defines how states relate to each other and the link between nations and citizens on development and environmental conservations.

  • A statement on the concept of forest management.

The statement outlined the importance of forests in ensuring a strong economy and its role in maintaining lives of forms.

  • The convection on biological diversity.

This is the international instrument for ensuring biological diversity protection. It advocates for an equitable share of the advantages that come with using genetic wealth.

The signing of an international pact

The summit led to the formation of the United Framework Convention on Climate Change.

United Nations framework convention on climate change

This is an international pact formed in 1992 to consider different countries’ roles in reducing global warming and climatic changes. The secretariat is in Boon, Germany. Nations led by the executive secretary of UNFCC, secretariat staff around 500, government, and other stakeholders hold 2-5 sessions per year to resolve global warming and climate change issues. The most considerable convection of the United Nations attracts more than 10000 participants around the world (Hickmann et al., 2019). Other convection activities across the year include; holding meetings, events, and workshops. The number of these events that occur during a given year can add up to 180. The secretariat provides support to these meetings through logistics and substantive input. The members report to the secretariat about climatic changes in their respective countries. The administration responds by reviewing the data and information presented to them. It assesses the implementations of treaties at the national level. In addition, the secretariat keeps on informing nations on what climatic issues are emerging. Communication is done through various means, including social media.

United Nations Climate Change Conference (Copenhagen Summit) – 2009

This summit was conducted in Copenhagen in Denmark between the 7th-18th of December. The meeting was the 15th “Conference of The Parties,” commonly known as the COP15 (Dong et al., 2018). At the summit, they an accord drafted by India, China, the United States, South Africa, and Brazil. The accord is known as the Copenhagen Accord of 2009. The accord acknowledged Climatic change as a major challenge today, and nations should take actions to ensure that increases in temperatures do not exceed 2 degrees Celsius. However, the drafted Copenhagen accord does not have any commitments on minimizing carbon (iv) Oxide emissions. The summit on climatic changes brought together heads of different governments to discuss the problems associated with climatic changes. There is a push for creating the “Global Environmental Organization” as a solid alternative for the UNEP. The summit provided a powerful negotiation platform for nations. Some of the issues discussed include; the kind of infrastructure needed for practical cooperation in universal climate change. Developed countries offered funds to help reduce the number of emissions from greenhouse gas. It was agreed upon that they would be supervisions of the actions of the developing countries in ensuring the taking part in the reduction of greenhouse gas.

COP26 (26th conference of the parties)

The United Kingdom hosted this summit in Glasgow between 31st October and 13th November 2021. The summit brought together 197 parties of UNFCCC for a series of discussions. The discussion aimed at coming up with an ambitious, comprehensive outcome that will push forward the issues of the UNFCCC on harmonized climate actions. The parties agreed to keep and maintain the increase in temperatures to 1.5 degrees centigrade. Some of the problems of the engagements at the summit include; nurturing an inclusive and fair climate action, adopting new technologies to help in carbon emissions reduction, and setting a similar timeframe for reduction of emission adherence. At the summit, the parties set some goals, which would be the guidelines to help in climatic actions. These goals include; finance, mitigation, adaptations, and collaborations.

Goals of COP26

i) Mitigations

Mitigation is one of the goals of COP26. The parties agreed to reduce the severity of greenhouse emissions by securing a universal net zero-emission and keeping the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. This target would see the wells warm to above three degrees, compared to the pre-industrial levels by 2100. If the nations fail to control the rise in temperature changes, it will result in fatal flooding, extreme weather, bushfires, and species destruction. The countries agreed to communicate or update others on their emissions reductions every five years. It set targets on how nations would do to their economy or specific sectors to reduce emissions.

ii) Adaptations

The other goal of COP 26 was to come up with a means of adapting to secure nations and their habitations. Human beings across the globe are living in extreme weather conditions worsened by climatic changes. The summit set dates for COP27, which would bring nations together to discuss ways to create a climate that individuals would withstand in the future. International communities agreed on coming together to support the vulnerable nations on the effects of climate change. Global communities should address and minimize the damages occurring because of climatic changes.

iii) Finance

To achieve the goals of climate and environmental conservation, nations need to mobilize funds. For countries to handle and solve the impacts of climatic changes on their people, funds are required. These funds can be obtained from both the public and private sectors. Public finance will be useful for infrastructure development to ensure a climate-resilient and greener economy. On the other hand, private finance will fund innovations and technological advancements to help climatic investments. In addition, developing countries need support from developed countries. During the summit, the developed nations pledged $100 billion each year to assist the developing countries in climate investments. A task force was created to stream the access of climate funds and ensure that the developing countries were well supported in their attempts to adapt to climatic changes and set up pathways in green growth.

iv) Collaborations

Nations agreed to work together to deliver the goals set towards environmental conservation and climate change. The United Nations assured parties that their voices towards the contributions to climate changes would be heard, and one was to be left behind. The president of COP26 assured members that they are working to remove any barriers that might hinder some nations from taking part in COP26. These include communities and indigenous people. Countries working together would result in higher income.

Glasgow hosted the Green Zone, bringing young people, leaders, grassroots, and businesses communities together. There were demonstrations of cultural performances, talks, exhibitions, technical and film screenings to the universal audience. The people who visited the Green zone were more than 37000, and other thousands of people attended it virtually through COP26 platforms such as the YouTube channel.

Kyoto Environmental Policy

Kyoto protocol is a highly regarded International Environment Agreement (IEA), which joined forces with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The year 1997 saw the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol (Kim et al., 2020). However, it was until 2005 the policy was operationalized. Mainly the policy aims at controlling the emission of greenhouse gas. Its membership by the year 2016 was 192 parties. In the same year that is 2016, Paris Agreement was embraced. This acted as the upcoming step to address climate changes.

Provisions of the Kyoto Protocol

The protocol suggested to its membership that it was necessary to develop programs to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas consists of methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. These gases affect the global energy balance in the atmosphere, leading to global warming. The protocol committed each nation to a specific set target in reducing emissions depending on the nation’s circumstances.

It also comes up with means by which nations would easily reach their targets. One method was using and adopting natural procedures referred to as “sinks” that remove emissions from the atmosphere. An example of “sinks” is tree planting. Tree removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Another procedure suggested was the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). This procedure encouraged the developed countries to put money into technological projects and infrastructure development in the developing countries (Grubb et al., 2018). The mechanism suggested that it was only in those states that displayed better emissions reductions. An example is a nation putting money in clean energy sources plants, for example, natural gases, to replace coal plants.

Challenges facing the Kyoto protocol

After two years after the date of the treaty signing, the findings on research on the workability of the policy indicated that many nations would not meet their targets of emissions reductions. Another issue that challenged the policy to meet its target is that the two nations, China and the United States, were not in the treaty. These two countries are the largest emitter of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere.

Montreal environmental Policy

Environment issues and norms influence the governance of the universal environmental associations. The shift in dimensions of the environment prompted the signing of two treaties; the Montreal Protocol and the Basel Convention. The Montreal protocol focuses on the materials depleting the ozone layer. This protocol was embraced in 1987 (Gareau & Lucier, 2018). Initially, member countries had executed a legally binding concurrence to eliminate depleted ozone chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) from production and consumption. The filters from the ozone layers are extraordinarily harmful and have recently been associated with cataracts and skin cancers, productive agriculture reduction, and marine ecosystem disruptions. The united states have been instrumental in adopting and implementing this policy from its incorporation. This policy prompted the Unites States to develop a universal regulation to respond to increasing political demand for internal CFC phase-out to consolidate chemical industry while making peace with civil groups operating domestically. The policy played a role in preventing possible unilateral actions by the United States intending to block CFC products importation. The achievement was due to the presence of an international agreement. In addition, the developing nations were given an additional ten years to implement alternatives CFC. This policy and the agreements become successful due to a universal governance structure. Scientists examining this protocol concluded that if the policy can be fully implemented, the universe can completely recover from the ozone layer within the first half of the 21st century.

It is worth noting that the United States played an essential role in the Montreal Protocol negotiations. Around 1970, a concern emerged about the CFCs, which are frequently used in households products; for example, refrigerators and air conditioners played a significant role in ozone layer depletion and, at the same time, raised the ultraviolent radiations levels that penetrated the surface of the earth. However, the policy exempted some uses of CFC thought to be essential. Some of these uses include;

Essential CFC uses exempted by the Montreal policy

Some uses of CFC are important in the life of human beings. The only instances exempted to use CFC was only when the function and the use was;

  • Essential for the safety and the health of the community
  • No alternatives are available that meet the health and environmental standards.
  • Steps to minimize the reduction were embraced.
  • When the substances for depleting the ozone were not sufficient from the stocks existing.

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

The UNEP initiated the “The Geneva Science Policy Platform on Environment and Security in 2015”. The aim of this platform is to gather information on the relationship between security and the environment. One of the projects, which is underway, is to establish the correlation between low-intensity conflicts and drought. The UNEP is working towards transformative policies. This platform has prepared training sessions titled, “Climate change and security: towards a greener peace” this platform will come up with evidence on how the actions taken on the environment can reinforce security issues. In addition, the platform aims at inviting parties for discussions on matters of environment that can aggravate conflicts.

Environmental degradation contributes to conflict with a country or across the borders of different nations. Environment weakness the security of a given nation in a number of ways;

  • It weakens a state’s economy, which has a major role in building a strong military and material capacity.

The United Nations Environment Programme’s mission is “to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing, and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of the future generations.” To ensure its missions are attainable, the UNEP develops universal agreements and state environmental instruments, reinforces organizations for better environmental management, and examines the conditions of the environments at the nations, regional and global levels.

The UNEP brings together people from all over the world due to the universal membership.

Chapter 4 – Climate change and security

Climate changes result in natural resource conflicts in the event of the absence of effective mechanisms of governance. Climatic changes affect the impacts on the natural resources essential for the security of human beings. This results in the depreciation of crucial resources; for instance, when non-renewable energy sources experience conflicts compared to renewable sources, an individual would opt for the sources not associated with conflicts (McDonald, 2018). Effective adaptation and mitigation are essential to avoid straining the regional, the universal, or national infrastructures.

Security concepts are interpreted as guaranteeing that individuals will still enjoy the most important things necessary for their well-being and survival.

Effects of climatic changes

The effects of climate change vary differently across the universe, and their impacts remain diverse. In some situations, these changes may benefit some countries, while others, especially the developing countries, experience adverse impacts that affect their security. Depending on the physical region of a country, some of the associated direct effects of changes in climate that have a threat on international security include;

  1. A rise in natural calamities.
  2. A rise in the sea level.
  3. Escalating scarcity of resources.

The rise in natural calamities

Rising natural calamities affect the security of nations due to their possibility of decreasing the availability of resources. A possible reduction in resources results in sudden migrations and catastrophes in humanitarian activities. Migration is a significant source of conflicts in that it increases populations’ vulnerability and disrupts the fragile dynamics of a nation.

Rise of the sea level

Mostly the communities inhibiting small islands and river deltas feel this effect. These communities experience widespread flooding. In addition, these communities are told to be ready for the submergence of these islands.

Scarcity of resources

With the scarcity of resources caused by climatic changes, communities migrate to neighboring communities and countries to seek help for their people. This ignites conflicts with the neighboring countries and disputes as a feeling of ownership arises, with each community involved trying to secure entitlement to the available resources.

Climatic change as a risk to security

The changes in climate affect the security of nations in several ways;

  • By worsening the already present environmental conflicts multipliers.
  • Developing new ways that emerge due to climatic changes effects.

Climatic changes present a challenge to global peace and security. Six principles are believed to contribute to international threats to security and stability. These principles are;

  • A rise in the number of fragile nations resulting from climatic changes. This contributes to the development of failed regions and stretches the universal capacity of coping mechanisms.
  • The risk presented to the growth of global economic development. This affects the supply and demands of the regional dynamics, contributing to borders’ conflicts and tensions.
  • Through the growth and emergence of conflicts between the nation affected by the changes in climate and the nation that is believed to be the primary driver of climate change.
  • Through human rights risk and the developed countries’ credibility as a universal actor to curb the effects of climate changes.
  • Through migration of communities to other regions.
  • Through stretching of security, policies because of rising insecurities and the effects of climate change.

Effects of climate change on the national security

The impacts associated with climate changes amplify a country’s security concerns and raise the number of international conflicts. Climate changes cause instability in some nations (Showstack, 2016). The contribution of instability within these nations results from difficulties accessing water and food, infrastructure damages, the spread of disease, and the nature with which a large population is displaced. Climate change is seen as a challenge that affects its ability to secure its people.

Addressing conflicts arising from climate changes

The national, regional, and international policies have failed to address the security questions on matters of climatic change. However, there is a notable development in adaptation to the climatic changes by raising the importance of awareness in the process of participation that plays a significant role in the prevention of conflicts. The understanding is irregular; the advantages of the participants are only felt if cohesive and a clear strategy is embraced. Addressing the associations between climate change and conflicts would help address opportunities for cross-border and communities’ peacebuilding and collaborations as the crucial areas are identified. Disputes arising from climate change can be handled at different forums at levels. The conferences to address climate change and conflicts context are;


Address these issues requires international cooperation. Currently, no international body is mandated to address climatic change conflicts. However, some platforms address climatic conflicts, primarily the United Nations, where resolution and prevention of disputes are addressed.


In some cases, the regions may host institutions that help address problems that arise from climatic changes. These institutions at the regional level have effectively addressed the issues of conflict that would have otherwise resulted in political rivalries with the region. However, these institutions have failed to address long-term challenges, for example, the implications of climatic changes on the region’s security. There exist frameworks within the region that play a role in promoting peace.


Many states address the issue of conflicts by creating policies that act as a prevention mechanism. This prevention mechanism operates through processes of participation where an individual in a state is involved in conflict resolution.

Climate change adaptations and mitigations is a vital element in the prevention of conflicts and creating peace by;

  1. Creating effective governance via reliable human development.
  2. Better management of resources approaches.
  3. Addressing the rights of vulnerable communities and sectors while at the same time helping to guard future peace.

Chapter 5


Adolf Hitler once quoted that, “when diplomacy ends, a war begins.” Diplomacy refers to engaging international communities in discussion and negotiations to encourage peaceful associations between states. International relations have direct relations with the environment. The effects of one of them will influence the other. For instance, environmental degradation results in conflicts between the international communities. Global communities have played a significant role in establishing organizations or institutions that protect the environment, for example, the United Nations. The United Nations has invited leaders, stakeholders, and citizens of other nations across the globe, intending to discuss environmental issues. Examples of this summit include; the Rio summit of 1992, the Stockholm summit, and the conference in Paris. These summits negotiate on environmental topics such as climatic changes. Ecological issues and the environment can cause conflicts among nations while at the same time they can contribute to international cooperation. Environmental issues affect different sectors in various ways, one of them being a global security risk. The international communities should address climatic changes to safeguard future generations while at the same time taking a role in the prevention of conflicts arising from climatic changes. The international community should take this as one of their primary responsibility. Therefore, environmental issues and international relations are hard to separate. The international relations discipline best solves the global environment and climate issues.

Future studies

International relations students should put in work to advance this field while at the same time demonstrating how vital and the value it has in changing an interconnected universe. This would be essential in coming up with a discipline that starts as a basis for understanding the current universe and encourages scientific studies, findings, and conclusions among the decision-makers. This will help the decision-makers access the required data, which is essential in making new policies regarding the environment and environmental issues. These decisions would affect the lives of people currently and in the future.


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Hickmann, T., Widerberg, O., Lederer, M., & Pattberg, P. (2019). The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change secretariat as an orchestrator in global climate policymaking. International Review of Administrative Sciences87(1), 21-38.

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McDonald, M. (2018). Climate change and security: Towards ecological security? International Theory10(2), 153-180.

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