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Technologies and Architectures That Provide the Foundation for Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is an emerging model of IT that provides on-demand web access to a joint pool of configurable computing means (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be speedily provisioned and unconstrained with slight management power or service provider interface. The cloud model allows users to access services using web-based tools rather than a command-line interface or desktop applets (Kavis et al., 2019). It have to be illustrated that the cloud model encompasses three service models: “Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS).”

The three service models can be used individually or in combination. The SaaS model, for example, provides access to applications that are delivered via the Internet and can be used on-demand. The PaaS model offers a computing platform or runtime environment. Examples of these services include databases, messaging engines, application servers, and job schedulers (Kratzke et al., 2018). Finally, the IaaS model is intended to provide access to resources such as network storage, virtual machines (VMs), compute instances (virtual servers), and operating system environments required to run cloud applications.

The Cloud deployment model focuses on delivering computing resources as a service made available over a network and accessed by end-users through a web browser. In this scenario, the cloud server consists of three (3) main components: The network, an operating system (OS), and the virtual storage devices where the data will be stored. This makes it different from the other deployment models that typically consume compute resources directly from a single server without any middleware (Thomas et al., 2013). The cloud deployment model comprises multiple distributed computing resources across at least two physical or logical tiers that are interconnected using technologies such as virtualization software and a LAN or WAN. The network can be composed of any network topology and infrastructure. The cloud deployment model can be used for many different types of applications. Still, this model is very limited in the number of systems deployed in the same environment. The cloud deployment model takes advantage of existing IT infrastructure and has the flexibility to scale up or down rapidly, depending on the resource needs of specific workloads across an enterprise.

Private clouds were initially designed for organizations with limited resources, but private clouds are currently used by almost every organization because of the overall benefits offered. Private cloud systems create an opportunity for organizations to keep their data secure, manage their data effectively, and control the applications and resources being used by end-users (Kavis et al., 2019). Private cloud computing is based on a client-server architecture where user devices have client software (e.g., a web browser) installed to securely provision virtualized resources on the private cloud.

Private clouds have several advantages over public clouds in terms of security, privacy, and performance because they are run from within the organization that owns them (Kratzke., 2018). Because the data is stored on servers within the organization, it can be accessed from any location where there is a secure connection to the Internet. Organizations that deploy a private cloud environment can choose which applications will be included and tailor their private cloud to meet their specific needs.

Public clouds, also commonly referred to as “third-party clouds” or “commercial clouds,” are built and owned by companies other than the consumers of the cloud services. Unlike a private cloud where the data is stored locally, public clouds store their data on storage devices located at multiple locations with no physical control by the consumer (Kratzke et al., 2018). The consumer can access their data or applications at any time and from any location with an Internet connection. Public clouds store sensitive information to power social media applications, such as Facebook and Twitter.

Hybrid clouds are a mix of both the public and private cloud models. In some cases, the cloud provider may be an enterprise that can build its infrastructure, but in other cases, the enterprise may choose to rent computing resources from a third-party cloud provider for services such as data analysis (Thomas et al., 2013). This allows them to have the capabilities and flexibility of running their applications close to their original location and have access to cost-effective and scalable services powered by a third-party cloud provider. Hybrid clouds are an ideal option for businesses with great IT staff who want an assist in managing their data centers while also allowing them flexibility when it comes to deploying resources such as applications and data storage.

An IT professional’s choice of cloud deployment model depends on several factors, including cost, performance, and security. Suppose a business wants to leverage the flexibility of a public cloud to deliver services or applications but is concerned about data privacy or confidentiality. In that case, it can implement a private cloud that only stores data from its organization (Cohen et al., 2019). In this case, their IT staff will manage the systems in the private cloud environment and will be allowed to give access to other parts of their organization as needed. A hybrid cloud will enable businesses to access the resources they need while also having control over where they are hosted and removing any concerns about security or privacy with storing data off-site.

Ultimately, a company’s decision to implement an in-house private cloud, a public cloud, or a hybrid cloud will depend on how much control they want over their data and application requirements. Technical expertise is required to install, operate and maintain these environments properly. However, many IT professionals consider public clouds to be more accessible and affordable because they typically provide greater flexibility in terms of the number of systems deployed compared to private clouds. Cloud Computing has become the most frequently used IT term for cloud-based infrastructure. The primary benefit comes from its ability to offer a seamless user experience and lower the Total Cost of Ownership. Moreover, Cloud Computing is considered a service that will be available 24/7 making it more cost-effective and efficient (Thomas et al., 2013). A public cloud is open to anyone to use for computing resources. It is usually managed by a third party such as Azure, IBM, Google, or Amazon Web Services (AWS). Public clouds are typically accessible over the Internet with software that enables users to upload their applications. The Cloud computing process consists of different processes such as provisioning, launching, storing data, and maintaining it all in the cloud environment.

Load balancing is used to ensure that the bandwidth requirements are met while keeping the latency of requests within acceptable limits. The Load Balancing system will take a single request and distribute it to multiple servers so that each server can process its assigned requests. This process automatically handles requests in a round-robin fashion or randomly between the various servers in which this request will be sent. It could be deployed with a variety of devices ranging from hardware-based servers that are designed to perform this service. Utilizing Load Balancing is advantageous not only for its flexibility but also for its customization abilities. This system can easily be configured to work with different environments and desired results, whether they require traffic to be directed to specific web servers or they want the system to automatically distribute the workload across balanced web farms. The system can be set up to require that all traffic that does not fall under a specific category be redirected to a separate server, ensuring that the webserver will only receive requests from targeted visitors.


Thomas, E., Zaigham, M., & Ricardo, P. (2013). Cloud Computing Concepts, Technology & Architecture.

Kavis, M. J., Cohen, R. A., Sweet, L. H., Lusignan, P. W. M., Benayoun, M. D., Baker, T. I., … & Piegorsch, W. W. (2019). Architecting the Cloud: Design Decisions for Cloud Computing Service Models (SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS).

Kratzke, N. (2018). A brief history of cloud application architectures. Applied Sciences8(8), 1368.


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