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Review of a Nursing Research Article

Research problem

The research problem identified in the article is the high rates of hospital readmissions for patients with heart failure (Sousa & Santos, 2019). Researchers believe high readmission for patients with heart failure is influenced by limited knowledge of symptoms and signs of the disease as it progresses.

Research purpose

The research aims to identify the factors that result in hospital readmissions for patients with heart failure. This understanding would guide informed practices regarding the potential strategies, such as disease management programs, that can help decrease readmission rates.

Review of literature

The literature review highlights heart failure as a serious public health problem affecting individuals worldwide, creating a global significance. Now, with the high rates of readmission, heart failure influences the poor quality of life, increased mortality, and financial burdens in managing the condition during the readmission phases (Sousa & Santos, 2019). The literature review also emphasizes self-care in heart failure management and the need for tailored disease management programs to help patients suffering from the condition overcome mental and physical implications.

Nursing Framework

This research article highlights the nursing framework of nurses promoting patient education, empowerment, and self-management in dealing with heart failure. This is because the report emphasizes the need for heart failure patients to practice self-care to manage the condition. Therefore, nurses must educate patients on the proper self-care interventions for heart failure patients.

Research questions

One of the research questions in the article is what factors contribute to hospital readmissions for patients with heart failure in Portugal (Sousa & Santos, 2019)? Another research question is how disease management programs be tailored to the Portuguese culture and lifestyle to decrease readmission rates.


The variables in the study include health management, including knowledge about symptoms and adherence to treatment plans; behavior management, including learning and compliance with self-care behaviors; and support received during clinic visits, home visits, education, and telephone follow-up.

Design appropriateness

This article used a qualitative study design to collect and analyze non-numerical data to understand experiences, concepts, or opinions. The design is appropriate for exploring the subjective experiences and perspectives of patients, cardiologists, and nurses regarding factors contributing to hospital readmissions and potential interventions.

Data collection procedures

The study used semi-structured interviews to collect data from patients, cardiologists, and nurses. The data was then recorded by interviewers and transcribed for content analysis.

Validity and reliability of instruments

The use of semi-structured interviews supports the validity and reliability of instruments used in research. Semi-structured interviews allowed for an in-depth exploration of participants’ experiences and perspectives on factors influencing high readmissions of patients with heart failure and potential interventions (Sousa & Santos, 2019).

Final sample description

The final sample used in the study consisted of five patients with heart failure, two cardiologist physicians, and three expert nurses from a cardiology ward in Portugal (Sousa & Santos, 2019). The inclusion criteria for patients were older than 18 years, admitted to the HF cardiac ward, and willing to participate in the study.

Results and statistical analysis

After the researchers transcribed the study’s recorded data, they conducted a content analysis to identify and summarize the emergent themes from the participants’ responses (Sousa & Santos, 2019). The content analysis involved reading and coding the data to identify meaningful units of information and then categorize these units into broader themes. The themes may be relationships, commonalities, or differences in the experiences and opinions of the participants. In this study, the results suggest implementing educational programs for heart failure patients to improve their conditions management practices after discharge from healthcare centers.

Significance of the study

The study is significant as it highlights the need for tailored disease management educational programs in Portugal to address the factors contributing to hospital readmissions for heart failure patients (Sousa & Santos, 2019). The recommendation is based on the finding that limited education on self-care practices as the disses progress influences the high readmission rates.

Legal and ethical issues

One of the ethical issues that the study observed is obtaining informed consent from the participants. The study mentions that all participants provided written informed consent to show they willingly decided to participate in a study to share their perspectives and opinions. The study also received ethical approval from the Committee for Ethics of the hospital, implying that it followed the guidelines required for such studies (Sousa & Santos, 2019). Additionally, the study met the legal requirement by adhering to principles defined by the Declaration of Helsinki regarding the use of human subjects and their protection.

Cultural aspects of the study

The cultural aspects of the study are evident in emphasizing the need to consider the Portuguese culture and lifestyle when developing disease management programs for heart failure patients in Portugal (Sousa & Santos, 2019). The study acknowledges that the interventions to reduce readmission rates for patients with heart failure may result from the cultural context factors such as lifestyle. Therefore, researchers advocated for interventions tailored to the specific Portuguese cultural context. The hypothesis was whether limited knowledge of symptoms and signs of heart failure disease as it progresses influenced high rates of hospital readmissions.

Impact on future nursing practice

One of the ways the study may impact future nursing practice is the invention of patient education programs on disease management. The study has revealed that patients generally know the proper management practices they should take to improve their well-being, which slows down their recovery. However, in the future, the nursing practice may involve offering treatment and patient education on management practices for heart failure patients (Sousa & Santos, 2019). There is also a likelihood of finding extra support and delegating more resources within the nursing practice strategies to o enhance self-care behaviors to prevent hospital readmissions among patients suffering from heart failure

Applying research to nursing practice

In applying the research to nursing practice, I will provide patient education and empowerment to equip patients with the knowledge they need to involve themselves in their self-care to reduce hospital readmissions actively. I will also advocate and utilize for disease management programs to provide guidance, support, and resources to help patients effectively manage their condition at home. Notably, I will ensure the disease management programs are culturally sensitive to ensure the approaches align with specific cultural preferences within my area o practice. Notably, I will collaborate with other professionals to ensure they are actively involved in the care and management of patients suffering from heart failure.


Sousa, J. P., & Santos, M. (2019). Symptom management and hospital readmission in heart failure patients: a qualitative study from Portugal. Critical care nursing quarterly42(1), 81-88.


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