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Racial Disparities in Sentencing and Incarceration Within the U.S. Correctional System


This proposed research’s anticipated findings are that the study is expected to echo various sentiments expressed in existing literature regarding the deep-rooted issues of systemic racism and discriminatory policies within the U.S. correctional system. For instance, the portrayal of historical context emphasizes the persistent impact of past discriminatory practices, promoting the disproportionate rates of incarceration among marginalized communities, especially African Americans (Alsagga, 2022). As a result, the study results, in this case, are expected to corroborate the argument that historical injustices continue to cast a long shadow, massively playing an anonymous role in shaping the current landscape of racial disparities in the criminal justice system. According to Braun & Polick-Kirkpatrick (2023), mass incarceration and prison labor have a complex relationship between economic interests and the perpetuation of racial disparities. Concerning this, the anticipated findings will project the significant role of profit motives in sustaining the prison-industrial complex, thereby promoting disparities within marginalized communities. Additionally, the study is expected to give insight into the ethical concerns surrounding prison labor, emphasizing the lack of workers’ rights and fair compensation, factors that contribute to the overrepresentation of African-American and Hispanic individuals within the incarcerated population.

The present limitations or barriers towards community-based interventions propose an expectation that such localized efforts may be insufficient to address the complexity of the prevailing systemic biases and power imbalances in the criminal justice system (Cate, 2023). In this case, the study excepted finding may emphasize the need or necessity for more comprehensive reform efforts that go beyond community-focused solutions to handle broader societal and structural issues contributing to racial disparities. In the context of anti-racism and racial justice initiatives, the expected or anticipated results call for the critical nature of ongoing efforts to confront systemic racism within the criminal justice system. In relation to this, the research is expected to emphasize the significance of policy reforms, transparency, and accountability in promoting fairness and equality. This means the findings may reinforce or promote the idea that a steadfast commitment to addressing historical and ongoing racial biases is important for effecting transformation within the criminal justice system, intertwining it more closely with principles of justice and equality for all. Generally, the expected findings of this research will reinforce the urgency for comprehensive reforms and sustained efforts towards a more equitable criminal justice system by holding the potential to deepen our understanding of the complex dynamics contributing to racial disparities in sentencing and incarceration.


This research’s expected findings hold significant implications for criminal justice policy, practice, and future research, providing a roadmap for transformative changes within the system. In the context of policy implication, the research anticipated findings hold the potential to catalyze much-needed policy changes. In relation to this, the study recommendation that may arise involves a comprehensive reform of sentencing laws to eradicate racial disparities, a critical reevaluation of mandatory minimums, and the initiation of targeted interventions to dismantle systemic biases embedded within the criminal justice system. Policy makers in this case could draw these significant insights with the aim of enacting legislation that addresses the root causes of racial disparities, promoting a more equitable and just legal framework. In relation to practice implications, criminal justice practitioners stand to benefit from the research insights, with implications extending to the adoption of more equitable practices. The expected finding may propose or suggest a need for modified training programs that address implicit biases, foster cultural competence, and ensure fair and just treatment at every stage of the criminal justice process. Professionals within the system can contribute to dismantling systemic barriers and fostering a more inclusive and unbiased environment by incorporating these insights into practice.

Concerning community engagement, the emphasis on community-based intervention necessitates the need for increased community engagement within the criminal justice system. The study expected findings in this case may suggest that practitioners could collaborate with local communities to co-create and implement programs that specifically address the unique challenges faced by minority populations. Such initiatives or approach would promote trust between communities and the criminal justice system and contribute to positive outcomes by addressing the specific needs of marginalized groups. The research anticipated findings emphasizes the crucial aspect of educational initiatives within the criminal justice system. For example, training programs for judges, lawyers, and law enforcement personnel could be redesigned to increase awareness of systemic biases, foster understanding of diverse cultural backgrounds, and significantly contributing to fair and unbiased decision-making. These approach initiatives play an anonymous role in reshaping the attitudes and practices of key actors within the system. In the context of future research directions, the anticipated findings may pave the way for future research by highlighting gaps in the existing literature. In addition, the study may point or guide towards specific mechanisms through which systemic biases operate, opening avenues for deeper exploration. These findings may also emphasize the need for further investigation into the effectiveness of specific policy interventions, providing a foundation for ongoing scholarly inquiry into the reduction of racial disparities within the criminal justice system. The implication of the expected findings go beyond academic discussion since they provide tangible and actionable insights for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers, guiding the way toward systemic reform and fostering a more equitable and just future within the criminal justice system.


Alsagga, L. W. (2022). The reasons behind the mass incarceration in the USA. Essex Student Journal13(1).

Braun, Y. A., & Polick-Kirkpatrick, K. (2023). Mass incarceration and the problem of prison labor. In Beyond Bars (pp. 23-32). Policy Press.

Cate, S. D. (2023). The Myth of the Community Fix: Inequality and the Politics of Youth Punishment. Oxford University Press.


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