The focus is on two areas; To examine the US, Crime, and social justice reality. In the first case, the Prison Industrial Complex is linked to modern corruption and social injustice (Barak et al., 2018). The second topic is US racial inequality and its convoluted history of segregation and persecution. Intersectionality drives this conversation. This essay will cover all criminological theories and historical viewpoints on race and inequality to examine US justice (Zinn, 2015). To understand US criminal justice, this essay will examine incarceration’s complexities and institutional racism’s roots.
The Prison Industrial Complex, which criminalizes underprivileged people, directly causes socioeconomic inequality and imprisonment (Barak et al., 2018). The Prison Industrial Complex is the network of jails, government, and private corporations that has expanded the prison system and exploited its convicts as cheap labour. The Prison Industrial Complex institutionalized Racism and inequality by oppressing and denying underprivileged groups progress and education. This discussion examines how mass imprisonment has criminalized low-income, working-class, and minority areas.
Prisons are utilized more for social control, and inmates are abused; Prison Industrial Complex politics grow more critical. The system of laws, regulations, and procedures disproportionately impacts the most disadvantaged. These approaches have caused incalculable suffering, mistreatment, and death to captives. Prisons help the government make money by privatizing prison jobs, leading to inmate maltreatment and unfair pay. This article will investigate the Prison Industrial Complex, encompassing politics, ideology, and prisoner mistreatment, to understand American criminal justice.
Intersectionality and Racial Discrimination in the United States
Black Americans in the United States have long suffered the effects of racial inequality since it is pervasive throughout the country (Barak et al., 2018). Understanding how several forms of oppression interact to create unique experiences for Black Americans and other oppressed people makes intersectionality a vital analytical tool. The economic and social standing of mostly segregated areas were harmed by structural racism, as shown in Segregation History in the United States. The effects of intersectionality on African-Americans are explored in Intersectionality and Its Impacts on Black Americans (Zinn, 2015). Segregated facilities included institutions, housing, schools, workplaces, and public services. The history of segregation in the United States explains how discriminatory legislation forced African-Americans to leave their communities and seek work elsewhere, often leaving them financially destitute. Examining intersectionality helps provide light on issues of racial discrimination; the roots in history have and continue to have an impact today.
Institutional Racism in the US.
“Institutional Racism” aims to explain how institutional and systemic racism maintains inequality in the US Racism includes leading groups that promote racial inequity (Zinn, 2015). The Roots of Race Socialization examines how media and textbooks promoted racism. “Institutional Racism” studies the everyday prejudice black Americans face. Inequality is shown by unequal pay, restricted progression, and underrepresentation in authority (Zinn, 2015). The Origins of Race Socialization explores the underlying origins of this racial gap, which goes beyond mere prejudice and into the structure of our society. Learn about racism in the US to eradicate discrimination and achieve social justice.
The Impact of the Prison Industrial Complex on Racial Inequality
The Prison Industrial Complex and Racial Inequality are the focus of this research. As the prison population grows, criminalization and systematic targeting of marginalized communities (Zinn, 2015). Both inmates and the local community have suffered due to the resulting practices. The long historical roots of racism are responsible for the development of institutional racism and unequal opportunities for African Americans. By breaking down the causes of racial disparity, it is geared to unite previously divided groups and bring about lasting change. A thorough understanding of the social reality of justice in the United States achieves the target, which has examined these topics and criminology concepts at length.
The book Institutional Racism investigates how structural and systemic racism have maintained inequality in the United States. This type of racism involves using power and authority in institutions perpetuating racial inequity (Barak et al., 2018). The Origins of Race Socialization examines how this type of racism was spread, primarily through images in the media and educational literature that reinforced prejudiced attitudes. Institutional racism investigates the unfair chances and unfavorable circumstances that Black Americans endure in the United States institutional Racism. Inequality typically results from uneven earnings, lack of access to education and healthcare, and lack of participation in political and leadership posts. The Origins of Race Socialization investigates the root reasons for this systematic disparity, which extends beyond personal views to society’s structures and institutions.
A people’s history of the United States
As Long As Grass Grows Or Water Runs,” found in “A People’s History of the United States,” is an example of a chapter that draws attention to past wrongs(Chomsky, 2021). This section of the book concentrates on the forced relocation and subsequent genocide of Native American peoples, most notably the Cherokee, throughout the nineteenth century.
In this chapter, we learn how the federal government’s push for territorial growth necessitated the forcible relocation of Native Americans. The Indian Removal Act was an initiative that paved the way for the settlement of white people and the development of commercial and transportation infrastructure east of the Mississippi. The result was “a massive continental empire stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific.” The amount of human misery, though, was immeasurable. Hundreds of Native Americans were relocated to the west(Libresco, 2005).
Politicians argued that they wished to preserve Indigenous lands in the 18th century. In the Revolutionary War, most Indians fought for the British and were a strong force. For the government to create a prosperous economy, additional land was needed. One of Zinn’s central themes is the similarities between the two political parties, particularly on social problems that directly impact Americans. Though the parties could not agree on how to handle the Indians or whether to visit a particular country, they disputed general economic issues like “banking and tariffs.”
War also brings people together. Zinn also notes how the government frequently makes up a foreign danger to rationalize imperialism. To protect themselves, Jackson says the Seminoles must be defeated. By staying put, the Creeks, he says, effectively declared war.
The Native American villages of the nineteenth century are chronicled in As Long as the Grass Grows or the River Flows. This section explains why the Native Americans were forced to leave their homelands and settle on reservations and how the United States government broke treaties with those people. More than 150 Sioux, including women and children, were killed by US soldiers at the Wounded Knee Massacre, and hundreds of Cheyenne and Arapaho were killed at Sand Creek. Zinn describes the strategies employed by European conquerors and the later US government to displace indigenous peoples from their homes forcibly. Seizures of land, forced removals to reservations, and violated treaties all contributed to the suffering of the indigenous peoples. The government’s goal was for Native Americans to be fully integrated into mainstream American society, and part of that process involved eliminating Native languages, religions, and practices. When taken as a whole, Chapter 7 of “A People’s History of the United States” is a sobering reminder of the violence and persecution Native Americans have endured throughout US history and their continued fight for justice and sovereignty.
To support Zinn’s claims, I primarily relied on Edward E. Baptist’s book; The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Creation of American Capitalism. Baptist thinks slavery was central to the development of American capitalism rather than merely a supporting factor. Using examples of violence and torture, he shows how the exploitation of enslaved people was fundamental to the growth of the cotton business. The topic of Indian removal and its effects on Native American societies can be explored in greater depth in scholarly works. Such works as Dee Brown’s “Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee” offer a comprehensive look at the impact of the Indian Removal period on indigenous peoples. A Badger Boy in Blue: The Civil War Letters of Chauncey H. Cooke, edited by Edward S. Cooper, and “The Trail of Tears: The Forced Relocation of the Five Civilized Tribes” by Charles River Ton all provide more insights into the events leading up to and following the removal.
Criminology content from class, race, gender, and crime the social realities that demonstrate the contemporary results of the historical injustice
One of the primary themes of Zinn’s book is the function of racism and prejudice in American history (Barak, 2018). Throughout the text, Zinn demonstrates how these attitudes have legitimized atrocities like slavery, genocide, and the subjugation of minority communities. Compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the United States, Native Americans have the highest rates of arrest, incarceration, and length of sentence in the federal prison system, as the Bureau of Justice Statistics reported.
Several causes, such as economic disadvantage, limited opportunities, and past trauma, contribute to this overrepresentation. Furthermore, the criminal justice system has been complicit in reiterating past wrongs against Native People. The Bureau of Justice Statistics found that the incarceration rate for Native Americans is 38 percentage points higher than the national average. Even though they only comprise 3% of the US population, Native Americans account for 9% of the federal jail population.
The concept of colonialism as a type of structural violence is presented in Class, Race, Gender, and Crime: The Social Realities, a criminology text that shows how Native Americans still feel the effects of past wrongs. The term “colonialism” describes how one people dominate another regarding power, wealth, and traditions. Colonialism has resulted in continued aggression against indigenous peoples, such as the theft of land, the suppression of indigenous languages and cultures, and the imposition of Western values. Higher poverty, unemployment, and crime rates have resulted from this structural violence directed at Native American communities.
I want to add my unique perspective by arguing that the wrongs done to Native Americans are not relegated to the past but are still a part of the present. Land rights, environmental degradation, and cultural erasure are only some of the consequences of the United States government’s refusal to acknowledge the sovereignty of Native American tribes and honor existing treaties. Native Americans are overrepresented in the US prison population because of many factors, including a lack of resources and opportunities. For this reason, it is essential to rectify past wrongs and advance restorative justice for Native American communities.
Barak, G., Leighton, P., & Flavin, J. (2018). Class, race, gender, and crime: The social realities of justice in America. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Publishing Group, Inc (ISBN: 9781442268852)
Chomsky, N., & Walker, A. (2012). The Indispensable Zinn: The Essential Writings of the” People’s Historian.” New Press, The.
Cohen, R., & Murrow, S. E. (2021). Rethinking America’s Past: Howard Zinn’s A People’s History of the United States in the Classroom and Beyond. University of Georgia Press.
Libresco, A. S. (2005). Voices of a People’s History of the United States. Social Education, 69(5), 287-290.
Swalwell, K., & Sinclair, K. (2021). The appeal of a controversial text: Who uses a People’s history of the United States in the US history classroom and why. The Journal of Social Studies Research, 45(2), 84-100.
Walker, S., Spohn, C., & DeLone, M. (2016). The color of justice: Race, ethnicity, and crime in America. Cengage Learning.
Zerzan, J. A People’s History of the United States.
Zinn, H. (2015). A people’s history of the United States. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers. (ISBN: 9781442268852)