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Prescription of Opioids

Opioids are compounds that act on opioid receptors to cause effects similar to morphine. They are primarily used in medicine to alleviate pain, including anesthesia. Other medical uses include diarrhea suppression, opioid replacement therapy, reversing opioid overdose, cough suppression, and executions. Non-medically, opioids are widely used for euphoric effects. Prescription opioids for pain management are typically considered safe when used as recommended by a physician for a short period. Opioids can be highly effective treatments that distinguish between a functional and dysfunctional life. Individuals are more likely to suffer from chronic pain than cancer, diabetes, or heart disease. Living in pain can intensify difficulties faced in life. It can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life over time. Many people seek over-the-counter pain medicines, but these may not be sufficient in cases of severe pain. At some point, prescription medications may become necessary.

Opioids are practical and widely prescribed therapy choices for pain, such as the pain experienced following surgery or cancer, treatment, or chronic diseases, such as lingering pain from an accident or an unexplained reason. Opioids are a group of medications that include fentanyl, codeine, morphine, hydrocodone, and oxycodone. They are made from poppy seeds and have been used for millennia. The prescription of opioids should not be banned because opioids can effectively treat cancer-related pains when appropriately used. To lessen a person’s experience of pain, opioids link to proteins in a person’s body referred to as opioid receptors. Opioids, in essence, assist an individual’s body in experiencing less pain. Lisowska et al.’s (2018) studies have established opioids’ efficacy in reducing pain in people with cancer, low back pain, peripheral neuropathy, and other painful illnesses. Relieving severe and chronic pain can help individuals sleep better, eat more, have more energy, feel better in their mood, and have a higher overall quality of life. While adverse side effects and reliance are a concern for some people, they are not universal.

There are various counter-arguments for why opioid prescriptions should not be regulated, including interfering with other patients’ requirements and that the United States needs a vast supply of opioids. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “about 191 million opioid prescriptions were written in 2017 for American patients” (Evans et al., 2017). According to studies, opioids are among the most often prescribed medications for pain in the United States. Numerous individuals need to take opioids regularly until they have fully recovered from surgery or physical harm. Prescription opioids have been increasingly utilized long-term to manage chronic non-cancer pain over time (Cher et al., 2019). Attempts to liberalize the use of CNCP opioids began in the 1980s, with much of the impetus for these fights deriving from past aggressive opioid programs for cancer patients (Cher et al., 2019). Chronic opioid therapy has been recommended for patients by various professional organizations. According to Cher et al. (2019), a safe and effective chronic opioid treatment for chronic non-cancer pain requires clinical expertise and experience with opioid prescribing concepts and risk assessment and management of opioid misuse, addiction, and diversion.

Specialists endorse the use of opioids in a rationally defined “subset” of patients with chronic non-cancer pain (Pardo, 2017). However, inadequate data are available to provide adequate guidance on selecting patients who may benefit from opioids. However, whether and how practitioners can use these drugs in a primary care setting is entirely dependent on expert guidance and clinical judgment. Generalists are faced with balancing the pain-relieving qualities of opioids against the likelihood that certain patients may abuse and divert these medicines (Smith et al., 2017). Numerous studies have been undertaken to distinguish between those who can benefit successfully from opioids by decreasing pain and function and those who may be prone to opioid misuse or abuse.

Pain management becomes critical when pain is experienced daily. Pain management becomes critical in order to maintain a regular life. When pain does not lessen, medicine provides permanent or temporary pain relief. The term “over-the-counter” refers to medications available without a prescription. Individuals can obtain opioids, which aid in reducing fever and pain caused by stiffness or muscle aching. Along with decreasing temperature and pain, opioids aid in reducing edema and any irritation that may occur (Pardo, 2017). Opioids, such as acetaminophen alleviate pain by acting on the areas of the brain that receive pain signals. Additionally, it functions as an analgesic by inhibiting the formation of the prostaglandins responsible for pain.

Opioid prescriptions should be taken under physician supervision. In other instances, opioids are prescribed when regions of the body are inflamed, resulting in swelling, itching, allergic reaction, or redness (Lisowska et al., 2018). When used to control the sensation of pain, they are taken as pills and are also available as injections. Some individuals may experience adverse effects associated with opioid usage, including weight gain, an upset stomach, severe or mild headaches, abrupt mood changes, problems sleeping, an increased risk of a weakened immune system, and gradual bone weakening. They should be taken just as prescribed and at reduced levels to minimize potential negative effects. Additionally, these are only delivered briefly and at a potentially low dose.

Some opiates are natural, synthetic, or semi-synthetic. These are solely indicated for the alleviation of acute discomfort. The pain experienced immediately following surgery is significant, and opioids are given only when extreme pain is experienced (Pardo, 2017). This medication does not cause the stomach or other body areas to bleed, as many other medications do. If opioids are used to manage pain, with a low addiction rate. Addiction is extremely rare if used for a brief length of time. Certain Opioid-related adverse effects may occur. These include depression, constipation, nausea, continuous itching, and breathing difficulties. If a drug is used over an extended time, addiction develops.

Opioids are occasionally administered to alleviate pain or mental distress. These function by rebalancing the natural chemicals in the brain that cause sadness or pain. The medication contributes to an increased sense of well-being and relaxation, which aids in the management of chronic pain or pain conditions in patients who may not respond to standard treatments (Ljungvall et al., 2018). A low dose of antidepressants can be used to alleviate headaches and menstrual pain. Only drugs can alleviate this type of acute pain. A continuous dose of these medications is required to allow the medicine to accumulate in the body over time and produce results. Depression must be treated with a larger dose of the medication. Antidepressants do have side effects, but they are milder than those associated with other medications. They may include constipation, difficulty urinating, blurred vision, weariness or a dry mouth, nausea, and headaches.

Opioids should not be prohibited because they are typically used to treat seizure disorders. When used properly, opioids can help minimize adverse effects by working on the nerves that cause pain (Smith et al., 2017). These are generally well-tolerated drugs that may produce drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, or nausea. According to Smith et al. (2017), systemic barriers include a scarcity of safe, effective, and reasonable multimodal pain treatment alternatives. There are long waitlists for multidisciplinary pain clinics and pain management professionals and an insufficient number of community-based self-management facilities. A system capable of delivering attention, clarity, reassurance, and empathy is required to manage chronic pain patients. Substitutes for opioids may be addressed, and the likelihood of opioids may be minimized if health practitioners have the time to address the depth of these individuals’ problems. However, health care professionals receive little knowledge regarding chronic pain during their college, residency, and continuing professional development programs (Smith et al., 2017). Perceived impediments to prescribing opioids contribute to poor pain control as well. It is now established that opioids may be appropriate for a subgroup of patients with various illnesses that produce chronic pain, including many that are difficult to diagnose accurately. Opioids can result in lower pain intensity (or more tolerable pain features), a manageable side effect profile, and better function and quality of life for various benign illnesses. Additionally, they may facilitate the availability of additional pain control strategies (Smith et al., 2017).

Opioid withdrawal occurs when an opioid-dependent patient abruptly decreases or discontinues opioid use. It can also occur when a patient administers an opioid partial agonist such as buprenorphine or an opioid antagonist such as naloxone or naltrexone while still having an opioid in their system. While opiate withdrawal does not cause mortality in and of itself, its symptoms can be fatal in some instances (Ljungvall et al., 2018). During the late stages of withdrawal, nausea and diarrhea might result in dehydration or heart failure. If the patient does not replenish the fluids lost due to these symptoms, they risk dying from these complications. This condition is more prevalent in jails that lack the necessary resources for addiction management (Smith et al., 2017). Patients seeking opioid addiction therapy may do it in the safest and most comfortable environment possible. Clinics and Treatment Centers can treat withdrawal symptoms with medication. A physician determines the appropriate dosage of medication to make therapy more comfortable. With withdrawal symptoms under control, a patient may focus on recovery tactics that will help them avoid recurrence. Additionally, opioid use disorder clinics provide support services and counselling to assist patients. When opioid withdrawal symptoms are evident, pharmaceutical withdrawal therapy is required. Methadone or buprenorphine are used to provide long-term opioid substitution.

Specific individuals can prevent withdrawal symptoms entirely by carefully and gradually decreasing their dosage. A physician can work with the patient to develop a day-by-day or week-by-week plan for tapering off their medication. The patient can avoid unpleasant withdrawal symptoms by tapering opioid medications under physician supervision. However, if the patient does not have symptoms, they can control withdrawal symptoms with non-drug-based alternatives. Consuming sufficient water can assist a patient in avoiding dehydration, which can develop during opioid withdrawal and make them feel ill. Examples of mind-body therapies that many individuals find beneficial during opioid withdrawal include; meditation, relaxation, and Yoga (Pardo, 2017). They are generally harmless and only exist for a short period. They can be managed with the assistance of a physician. Despite their great potential for addiction, opioids Prescription medication is critical for safe medical practice. It is required to manage acute pain, such as that caused by injury or surgery. Prescription opioid medication is critical for safe medical practice. It is required to manage acute pain, such as that caused by injury or surgery. It is an ineffective treatment option for non-terminal chronic pain. Numerous measures have been implemented to address the opioid issue, primarily by controlling symptoms, such as hydration, and achieving and maintaining maximum comfort.

Prescription of opioid pain medicines is exceptionally effective at relieving pain. While individuals continue to fight opioid addiction and abuse, they should also take measures to assist other individuals who suffer from acute or chronic pain and require access to medications. This includes finding better treatment alternatives because most opioids have abuse-deterrent qualities, great for public health benefits. The longer an individual uses opioids; the more accustomed their body becomes to their effects. Therefore, the prescription of opioids should not be banned. Psychiatrists may be best equipped to advocate for the establishment of controlled consumption centers in areas where the illegal market is prevalent and for the implementation of drug courts and other diversionary models to assist in the treatment of opioid users who have run afoul of the law. Psychiatrists must lead the discourse about reversing the current drug epidemic by removing the stigma associated with diagnosing and treating these disorders and ensuring that they are treated as clinical conditions rather than moral failings.


Lisowska, B., Kosson, D., & Domaracka, K. (2018). Positives and negatives of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in bone healing: the effects of these drugs on bone repair. Drug design, development and therapy12, 1809.

Ljungvall, H., Rhodin, A., Wagner, S., Zetterberg, H., & Åsenlöf, P. (2020). “My life is under control with these medications”: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of managing chronic pain with opioids. BMC musculoskeletal disorders21(1), 1-14.

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Smith, S. R., Bido, J., Collins, J. E., Yang, H., Katz, J. N., & Losina, E. (2017). Impact of preoperative opioid use on total knee arthroplasty outcomes. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American volume99(10), 803. Impact of preoperative opioid use on total knee arthroplasty outcomes

Cher, B. A., Morden, N. E., & Meara, E. (2019). Medicaid expansion and prescription trends: opioids, addiction therapies, and other drugs. Medical care57(3), 208.

Evans, C. T., Fitzpatrick, M. A., Poggensee, L., Gonzalez, B., Gibson, G., Jurasic, M. M., … & Suda, K. J. (2021). Outpatient Prescribing of Antibiotics and Opioids by Veterans Health Administration Providers, 2015–2017. American journal of preventive medicine61(5), e235-e244.

Sayed, D., Kallewaard, J. W., Rotte, A., Jameson, J., & Caraway, D. (2020). Pain relief and improvement in quality of life with 10 kHz SCS therapy: summary of clinical evidence. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics26(4), 403-415.


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