Between the years 1500 and 1870, a massive network of enslaved people was established along the African coast with more than 12 million enslaved people where the majority of millions of enslaved people perished during Middle Passage. The rise of ‘action at a distance and the individual are all aspects of the development of ‘trade relations and employment,’ as well as ‘useful logic,’ the creation of nationalistic identity and the state, and racial understanding of identification. When transatlantic trading expanded, slavery was transformed; thus, phenomena such as dictatorships, colonialism, and totalitarianism have their roots in the state’s isolation from its citizens and the bureaucratic reasoning that accompanies such delusions. Slavery, on the other hand, was strongly related to the dynamics of civil society, and as slavery grew, the state’s involvement in society (Niehoff, 2017). Legitimizing their colonization of the New World, the Castilian kingdom obtained a papal mandate. My explanation is based on the system’s beginnings in the Caribbean, where slave labor was organized and controlled for agricultural productivity.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis of 1559 brought peace to Europe but left unresolved the precise status of lands “beyond the line,” Europe could not agree on these lands; thus, they maintained a battleground where traders and colonists established a new order. These colonial ventures benefited from the introduction of enslaved Africans, but plantation agriculture was the most lucrative. The workings of slave systems developed to resemble everyday corporate operations and used compulsion in an organized way to produce and maintain order, making gratuitous violence rare. When colonial nations created “civil slavery” focused on expanding commerce networks, they emancipated slave labor from urban tutelage (Niehoff, 2017). Plantation owners and merchants increased the enslaved people they used on their Americas and the Caribbean estates. American slaveholders desired to manage their militia and patrols from the beginning of the country’s history. The aftermath of the plantations’ revolution grew severe since tremendously demanding and unpleasant jobs were to be performed.
The planters made advantage of the enslaved people since they had men and women on their hands to comprehend and carry out sophisticated instructions and elaborate cooperative procedures. Foucault recognized a pre-modern state element founded on racial preconceptions as to the source of public opposition to the aristocrat element in his 1976 presentations at the College of France. Flux and intermixture were a danger to established social identity in the context of Atlantic interchange and antagonism (Niehoff, 2017). It was more complicated and elaborate in the Catholic and Spanish colonies where skin color and phenotype are viewed as determining factors, nature or culture, in the racial theory connected with plantation slavery. Enslaved people later came to be used as a resource for manufacturing other goods. The enslaved person’s identity had to be controlled, normalized, or naturalized to be accepted as a human being.
Nationalism may have mobilized Europeans against one another, but it was rejected as a rationale for enslaving the subject of a monarch of another estate. Political and social exclusion was frequent where a few men and a few married women could assume the head of the home. A kind of exclusion that included women, juveniles, and people with no or little property was exemplified by the slave position. Among a broader section of the population, different “nations” gave rise to the belief that individuals fulfilled their independence by establishing a national community (Niehoff, 2017). The emergence of modernity in the 16th and 17th centuries included a national mood guaranteeing each citizen conceptual liberty or even a role in sovereignty, but capitalism and patriarchy limited this promise and practically barred enslaved people from it. The general public’s perception of slavery was that enslaved people were deprived of their basic human rights and freedoms and were instead subject to the utter, unrelenting, and total dominance of their masters.
According to historian Xavier Rubert de Ventos, the baroque period was an attempt to hold on to classical values in the face of an increasingly chaotic environment. This is a challenge for baroque artists, who strive to convey the Christian world ripped apart, aggrandized, and divided mostly by Church and state (Niehoff, 2017). With hindsight, it’s easy to see how the Gospel, silver and gold, strategic concerns, the need for places to send the overflow of people, the hunt for natural resources and markets, and the effort to boost tax revenues and naval training. Expanding the definition of the baroque to include Protestants and Quakers, Jose Maravall has stated – the baroque genuinely portrayed alternative modernity linked with the Christian ethic and delighted in the show that the Puritans loathed.
Historically, the baroque was more prominent in Catholic nations than Protestant ones because of its counter-reformation roots in contrast to the private entities that were the key driver behind the New World’s civic slavery. The baroque as a spectacle displayed a public commerce, the good face of mercantilism. Cannibalism and other horrible habits were inherent in the “evil” natives, while the “good” natives needed the care and teaching of the Conqueror to learn and grow. The baroque style sheds light on colonial slavery’s transitional nature, allowing us to perceive it as a re-imagined version of an ancient and conventional system of dominance.
Niehoff, A. H. (2017). Caribbean transformations. Routledge.