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Ondong Tourist Attraction Site


Ondong is an ancient city of the post-Angkorian period between 1618 and 1863 C.E.[1] It is located at Psadek commune in Punhea Loeu district, in Kandal province. Ondong is approximately 35 kilometres from Phnom Penh City.[2] The remains of this city are found near a distinctive mountain referred to as Phnom Ondong. It consists of different archaeological findings from Post-Angkorian, Angkor, and Pre-Angkor periods. The archaeological findings result from Hinduism, Animism, Theravada Buddhism, and Mahayana worship. Ondong is a famous tourist attraction site because of its historical background.

Tangible cultural heritage values

Various tangible heritage values are found in the Ondong attraction site. First, since there were various worship places in the area, one of the cultural heritages was temples. Ondong has various ancient temples that were constructed during the ancient period. There was a time when Ondong was the capital city of Cambodia.[3] This was the period when temples were built. The temple structures presented are significant instances of traditional art and Khmer architecture. Archaeological artefacts are the second cultural heritage value seen on the site. Since Ondong is an important historical site, it has been exposed to archaeological excavations, such as jewellery and pottery. These artefacts contribute to the attractive nature of the site. Tourists visit the site to learn how traditional artefacts such as jewellery are made. Carvings and statues are other tangible cultural heritage values seen on the site. Many carvings and statues can be seen on the site. These features depict the mythology and history of the Cambodians. They are significant examples of art and Khmer sculpture. Traditional structures concerning religion can also be found on the site. For instance, pagodas and shrines can be seen on the site. The residents currently use the structures. Visitors to this site also use the structures. For instance, they pray inside the shrines.

Intangible cultural heritage identified

Apart from the tangible cultural values found in the Ondong attraction site, there is other intangible heritage in the area. First, the site has different ceremonies and rituals. One of the rituals practised on the site is conducting offerings to ancestors.[4] Most of the residents in the area are involved in the worship of ancestors. Therefore, they make offerings to them. The types of offerings include incense and food, among others. Prayers for prosperity and good luck are another ritual practised on the site. Most of the people who visit this site pray for their success and good luck in their life. They recite prayers in sacred places such as shrines. Ceremonies that are practised are such as honouring buddha. Ondong is a site that is said to be Buddhist. Therefore, people honour their buddha on this site.

3-day tourist visit plans

Tourists may make different plans to visit the Ondong site. One day may not be enough to explore the site. Therefore, one may require several days to view different artefacts on the site. Here is a possible visit plan for a tourist that will take at least three days:

Day 1: This is the day a tourist will arrive at the Phnom Penh International airport from their home country. After arriving, a vehicle will be used to travel to Kampong Speu Province, where the site is found. The journey will take approximately one hour. Before the beginning of the visitation at the site, one can find a restaurant near Phnom Ondong. The restaurant will be used for refreshments or any other kind of leisure. On the same day, tourists will explore ancient stupas, temples, and other tangible artefacts. Tourists can attend a dance or music performance in the evening for refreshments.

Day 2: the tourist will participate in any ceremony at the site. On the second day, the tourist will have familiarized themself with the site. Therefore, it will be easy for him to spot an exciting and relevant ceremony. For instance, the tourist will participate in a water blessing ceremony. The tourist will be expected to learn various issues concerning the ceremony. For instance, he will learn how to bless water at this site. After the ceremony, the tourist will visit a local market. In the market, he will see different artefacts found at the site. For instance, the local market may sell pottery and jewellery similar to the ones found at the site. At the market, the tourist will consume some traditional Cambodian cuisine. After visiting the local market, the tourist will visit one of the nearby traditional craft workshops. In the workshop, the tourist will learn about activities such as woodworking and weaving. The tourist will explore the surrounding environment, such as local villages and rice fields.

Day 3: The tourist will attend a Buddhist ceremony early in the morning. After the ceremony, he will visit a nearby national park to explore wild animals. The tourist will also visit a nature reserve for hiking. After that, he will relax and breathe a cool breeze in one of the hotels near the Ondong site. In the afternoon, the tourist will depart from the site and start his journey back home.

A budget for the 3-day tourist plan

The budget will be determined by factors such as the type of accommodation used, transportation, and activities the tourist will be involved in. The tourist will use about $ 30 per night in the restaurant for accommodation. For transportation, he will use about $14 for the airport. This will be the cost for one way. The tourist will be required to visit different places near the site. Therefore, he will pay for a bus or a car for about $ 40 per day. The tourist will use about $ 15 per meal for food and drinks. Other activities will also be included. For instance, the tourist will pay about $ 3 as an entrance fee to the site. To participate in a music performance, he will use about $ 7. To attend the blessing ceremony, he will require at least $ 5. The tourist will require approximately $ 200 to visit Ondong for three days.

The “types” of tourists you expect to attract to the site

The Ondong attraction site is likely to attract different types of tourists. This is because it has a variety of activities that tourists can participate in. Also, the site has various artefacts that different tourists can explore. The first type of tourists attracted by the site is those interested in history and culture. These tourists may be referred to as history and cultural aficionados. These are the tourists who aim to explore the historical and cultural background of a site. Therefore, they will likely visit Ondong to explore various cultural artefacts.[5] The tourists will also learn about the site’s history and other stories concerning different artefacts. Outdoor and adventure tourists are also expected to be attracted by the site. Indeed, this type of tourist will be the largest group. Their primary aim is to explore the environment surrounding the site. The site provides activities such as wildlife exploration, hiking and other activities. These activities will attract outdoor and adventure tourists. They will visit the site to participate in the activities. Craft and artisans are the third type of tourists expected to be attracted by the site. The Ondong site has various traditional artefacts. There are nearby workshops that deal with the manufacturing of the crafts. Therefore, these tourists will visit the area to learn more about the artwork regarding traditional crafts. Religious and spiritual tourists are also expected to visit the site. The Ondong attraction site involves various religious practices and ceremonies. Religious travellers will visit the site to attend these ceremonies and practices. Indeed, the site also has religious buildings, such as temples, where travellers can perform different rituals.

Key legislation, charters and conventions that relate to your plan

Various legislation, conventions and charters relating to the tourism plan and management. The first convention is the UNESCO World Heritage. It outlines the processes and criteria used to identify, protect, ad manage natural and cultural heritage sites. Therefore, this convection is essential to manage and protect Phnom Ondong. National Heritage Protection Law is the second legislation related to the tourism plan and management. The legislation dictates the laws and regulations that should be followed to protect the sites that deal with cultural heritage.[6] For instance, the laws protect the Ondong attraction site from unauthorized destruction, damage, or alteration. The Safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage convection also relates to the tourism plan and management. It protects the intangible cultural heritage. Such heritage includes ceremonies and rituals. The heritages are safeguarded through activities such as transmission and identification. Lastly, the Tourism Development Plans and Policies are relevant to the tourism plan. These plans and policies guide the management and development of cultural heritage sites. The policies minimize the negative effect of the heritage sites on the local community and the environment. Therefore, these policies will help minimize the adverse effects that the Ondong site has on the local communities.

Relevant stakeholders at your site

I will involve various stakeholders in my site. The first will be the local community. The communities around the site will be involved in developing and managing the Ondong tourist attraction. The local community must ensure that tourism development in the Ondong site benefits them. Tourism is also expected to promote, respect, and protect their cultural heritage. Researchers and academics will also be among the stakeholders. These stakeholders are essential in the development and management of the site because they are involved in research of various issues regarding the site. For instance, they can research environmental, historical, and culturally significant Ondong attraction sites. The information is essential to guide the development and management of the site.[7] The government authorities will also be involved. The national and local governments are responsible for managing different tourist attractions. The Ondong attraction site will be protected from various issues by the government. For instance, the government will protect against the site’s damage and degradation. This stakeholder will enhance the development and management process of the attraction site.

How to protect the site from over-tourism

Over-tourism is a significant concern in most tourist attractions in the country. It is essential to protect against over-tourism in the Ondong tourist attraction site. One of the strategies is to limit the number of tourists. The number of tourists visiting the site at particular times should be limited. A ticket system can be implemented to allow a certain number of tourists to book their travel to the site in advance. The development of infrastructure, such as parking areas and visitor centres, can also help reduce site overcrowding.[8] Some tourists can wait in different areas for others to complete their visit instead of overcrowding the site. Another way to prevent over-tourism on the site is by educating visitors concerning behavioral issues. Tourists can be informed on how they should behave t the site. They should be taught about the need to resecting everyone they explore on the site. They should also be informed of the need to respect everyone at the attraction site. This will create a particular order that will help to manage the site. Seasonal visitation should also be implemented to solve the issue of over-tourism on the site. Different types of tourists should be allowed to visit the site at particular times. This will also prevent overcrowding at the site.

Strategies for demarketing

Demarketing strategies can be used to solve the over-tourism issues on the site. One of these strategies is to increase admission tickets to the site. This will help to attract only a few tourists to the site. Secondly, demarketing can be done by limiting access to the site. This can be done through the closure of the site on certain days. Also, the marketing efforts should be reduced. Such efforts include advertisements on the site and promotional campaigns. These methods will help to regulate the number of visitors to the Ondong site.


Robinson, Paul David Cliff. An exploration into the relationship between spirituality and urban design with specific reference to the city of Phnom Penh in Cambodia. The University of Liverpool (United Kingdom), 2020.

Siang, Noel Hidalgo Tan Suwi. Painted Sites, Sacred Sites: An examination of religious syncretism in Southeast Asia through rock art site usage. The Australian National University (Australia), 2020.

Trew, Matthew J. Selling Symbols: Tourism, Heritage, and Symbolic Economy in Battambang, Cambodia. The University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2019.

UNESCO World Heritage Centre. “Cambodia – UNESCO World Heritage Convention.” UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Accessed March 31, 2023.

[1] Robinson. An exploration into the relationship between spirituality and urban design with specific reference to the city of Phnom Penh in Cambodia. 2020.

[2] UNESCO World Heritage Centre. “Cambodia – UNESCO World Heritage Convention.” UNESCO World Heritage Centre

[3] Robinson. 2020.

[4] Siang, Noel Hidalgo Tan Suwi. Painted Sites, Sacred Sites: An examination of religious syncretism in Southeast Asia through rock art site usage. 2020.

[5] Siang, Noel Hidalgo Tan Suwi.2020

[6] Trew, Matthew J. Selling Symbols: Tourism, Heritage, and Symbolic Economy in Battambang, Cambodia. 2019.

[7] Trew, Matthew J. Selling Symbols. 2019.

[8] UNESCO World Heritage Centre. “Cambodia – UNESCO World Heritage Convention.” 2023


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