The Philippines’ main airport was first built as a United States Air Force base up until 1948. A lot of changes occurred for this airport between the 1950s to the 1960s, specifically being passed down to different kinds of administrations. From the government’s National Airport Corporation to being turned over to the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA). In the first 13 years that the airport was further developed by the government, the development of its infrastructure was mainly devoted to international flights. This research paper aims to determine and identify the key elements needed to answer questions provided involving Ninoy Aquino International Airport. This paper will focus on the agency that manages the airport, control the airspace, and this will also be discussing the country’s regulations regarding noise abatement, safety issues, and level of activity at the airport. Qualitative research is used to collect and analyze data from scholarly and journal articles that are available to the public domain.
Ninoy Aquino International Airport
The main entry point for international tourists traveling to the Philippines is the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) and this is presently located at the country’s capital which is in Metro Manila. This is the only airport that is stationed in the National Capital Region and is established alongside the boundary of Pasay City and Sucat Parañaque City. NAIA is well known to rank as one of the busiest and highly congested airports in the Philippines due to its location that serves the increasing demand for international and domestic flights in Manila. This airport was originally used by the United States Air Force and was ultimately relinquished to the Government of the Philippines (MIAA, n.d.). Establishing this new airport created a significant impact on the country’s economy and demonstrated its importance for its citizens. The Government of the Philippines owns Ninoy Aquino International Airport, and its current operator is the Manila International Airport Authority. Since this is the gateway for international flights traveling in the Philippines, there are numerous airlines that operate within the airport. The country’s national carrier is Philippine Airlines, and it is one of the oldest commercial airlines in Asia. While the main destinations for international tourists are Metro Manila and Cebu, there are other secondary regions that have huge access to popular tourist spots that are currently being served by the airport. Unfortunately, these underdeveloped cities have mediocre air connections, hence the flights must be connected through the primary airport hubs of Manila (O’Connell & Vanoverbeke, 2015).
Figure 1. Ninoy Aquino International Airport Master Development Plan.
Manila International Airport Authority
The Manila International Airport Authority’s mission is to provide an efficient, safe, and secure environment that would enable its investors to provide a flawless experience for all airport operators, workers, and passengers that will contribute to the country’s economic development (MIAA, n.d.).
The Manila International Airport airspace is classified as Class C, which means that it is open to all aircraft types with a maximum takeoff weight of 12,500 kilograms. This includes passenger and cargo flights. The airport also has an IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) area that allows for high-level flying using VORs (VHF Omnidirectional Range) and ILS (Instrument Landing Systems).
Ninoy Aquino International Airport comprises two terminals: the international terminal and the domestic terminal. The international terminal contains all of the airline lounges and a few retail outlets. The domestic terminal is smaller and has only a few shops. There are also separate gates for passenger and cargo flights, making it easier for passengers to find their respective flights. Additionally, three runways handle both commercial and military aircraft (Huynh, Kim and Ha, 2020).
The airport has a few facilities that are essential for passengers. These include restaurants, a bank, and restrooms. Additionally, the airport offers free WiFi and charging stations for phones. The terminals also have air conditioning and heating systems if it gets too cold or hot. The airport has a total of six terminals, each with its amenities. These terminals are the North Terminal, the South Terminal, the Central Terminal (used for international flights), the Domestic Terminal 1 and 2 (for domestic flights), and the cargo terminal. The North Terminal has nine gates, while the South Terminal has six gates. The Central Terminal has eight gates, while Domestic Terminal 1 and 2 have four each. The airport also houses a hotel (the Manila Airport Hotel) and an arena that can seat up to 18,000 spectators. There are no airport taxes that passengers have to pay. However, there may be charges for parking and check-in. These charges vary depending on the terminal that a passenger is arriving in. For example, Domestic Terminals 1 and 2 charge P1,000 for parking per day, while the Central Terminal does not. Additionally, check-in time for international passengers can be up to four hours, while domestic passengers typically have a two-hour check-in time.
The airport is located in Manila, which is about 15 minutes by car from the main business district of Metro Manila. Several taxi and bus companies offer affordable rates to get to the airport. Additionally, some jeepneys will take passengers to the airport for a fee. The airport to the city can take anywhere from 20 minutes to an hour, depending on traffic. There are several ways that passengers can get around the airport. For example, a free shuttle service runs between all of the terminals. Additionally, there are numerous taxis and bus lines that stop at various points around the airport. Finally, some jeepneys can be rented for a fee (Huynh, Kim and Ha, 2020).
Noise Abatement Procedures
In order to ensure a comfortable experience for passengers, the airport has established Noise Abatement Procedures. These procedures require all passengers to abide by certain rules to minimize noise levels. These rules include not making excessive noise during takeoff and landing, not using cell phones while in the airport, and avoiding making unnecessary noises (Huynh, Kim and Ha, 2020).
There are several steps that the airport authorities can take in order to reduce the noise levels. These measures include dictating curfew times for passengers, mandating the use of earplugs and noise-cancelling headphones during flights, and imposing fines for airlines that violate regulations. In addition, international airlines must provide advance notice if they plan to operate at night or during periods of heavy traffic (NACTOA, 2016) (Bongo and Ocampo, 2017). Per the Airport Noise and Capacity Assessment (ANCA) report, it was found that the noise levels at Ninoy Aquino International Airport are above the recommended limit for aircraft operations. In order to reduce the overall noise levels at the airport, airlines need to adhere to specific guidelines set forth by the Philippine Department of Transportation and Communications. These regulations stipulate that all flights must comply with the Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) and Landing Weight Limits (LWL) and abide by curfew times.
Furthermore, all aircraft must use noise-cancelling headphones during flights, and no aircraft may operate at night or during periods of heavy traffic. Penalties for violating these regulations can include a fine of up to P500,000, as well as suspension or cancellation of an airline s license (O’Connell & Vanoverbeke, 2015). In addition to complying with government guidelines, airlines are also required to reduce noise levels independently. In particular, airlines are encouraged to use low-noise aircraft, fuel-efficient and reduce environmental impact. Additionally, airlines may choose to operate during off-peak hours to reduce noise levels (O’Connell & Vanoverbeke, 2015).
Despite the government and airlines’ efforts, it is evident that Ninoy Aquino International Airport does not meet the recommended limit for aircraft operations. As a result, the airport faces various noise reduction initiatives to comply with the NACTOA targets. These initiatives include increasing the use of low-noise aircraft, introducing quieter landing procedures, and reducing night flights (O’Connell & Vanoverbeke, 2015). Airlines are also required to provide passengers with earplugs and noise-cancelling headphones, as well as a written copy of the airport’s noise abatement procedures (NACTOA, 2016). In order to further reduce aircraft noise at the airport, the Philippine Department of Transportation and Communications has partnered with various airlines to develop specific noise reduction programs. Overall, the government and airlines diligently reduce aircraft noise at Ninoy Aquino International Airport. However, further measures will be necessary in order to meet NACTOA targets.
According to the Noise Abatement and Control Act of 1995, Noise from aircraft operations at an airport shall not exceed the equivalent noise level during daytime hours measured at a distance of three hundred feet from the airport boundary line, except as provided in this section. (NACTOA, 2016)
The NACTOA recommends that airports operate no more than 84 sound-pressure levels (SPLs) during nighttime hours. At Ninoy Aquino International Airport, aircraft operations exceed the recommended limit of 84 SPLs during nighttime hours. This is due to the airport’s proximity to residential areas and active commercial districts. To reduce aircraft noise at Ninoy Aquino International Airport, the Philippine Department of Transportation and Communications has partnered with various airlines to develop specific noise reduction programs. These programs include introducing quieter landing procedures and reducing night flights (O’Connell & Vanoverbeke, 2015). Overall, these initiatives are helping to reduce aircraft noise at Ninoy Aquino International Airport, but further measures will be necessary to meet NACTOA targets.
The Noise Abatement and Control Act of 1995; limits the noise levels generated by aircraft operations at an airport. At Ninoy Aquino International Airport, aircraft operations exceed the recommended limit of 84 SPLs during nighttime hours. This is due to the airport’s proximity to residential areas and active commercial districts. To reduce aircraft noise at Ninoy Aquino International Airport, the Philippine Department of Transportation and Communications has partnered with various airlines to develop specific noise reduction programs. These programs include introducing quieter landing procedures and reducing night flights (O’Connell & Vanoverbeke, 2015).
The airport environment is important because it affects passenger experiences and satisfaction. The overall visual environment of the airport is important because it can influence passenger perceptions of the airport. Additionally, the acoustic environment at the airport can negatively impact passenger experiences by inducing fatigue and stress (O’Connell & Vanoverbeke, 2015). The airport has improved the overall visual environment by implementing green infrastructure.
Additionally, the airport is transitioning from an asphalt runway to a concrete one to reduce noise levels. In order to improve passenger satisfaction, the airport is working to improve the overall visual environment, acoustic environment, and passenger experience. Specifically, the airport is transitioning from an asphalt runway to a concrete one to reduce noise levels. Additionally, the airport introduces quieter aircraft landing procedures and reduces night flights. Furthermore, the airport improves the overall passenger experience by implementing green infrastructures such as rain gardens (Bongo and Ocampo, 2017). These initiatives help reduce runoff and increase soil moisture levels, improving the acoustic environment. These initiatives help improve the acoustic environment. As a result, passenger satisfaction scores have improved over the past few years. In 2015, passenger satisfaction scores were 84% (Evangelista, 2018). However, this is still below the national average of 97%. Nevertheless, the airport continues to implement green initiatives to improve the passenger experience.
Bergantino and Krygier (2015) argue that airports can improve the overall visual environment by implementing green infrastructure. They further state that green infrastructure can improve the environmental performance of an airport by mitigating environmental impacts and enhancing air quality. In addition, green infrastructure can create a more pleasant environment for passengers. For instance, rain gardens help to reduce runoff and increase soil moisture levels. This can improve the acoustic environment by reducing noise levels. Furthermore, it has been shown that passenger satisfaction scores are higher when airports implement green infrastructures (Bergantino and Krygier, 2015).
In 2013, the Philippine Department of Transportation and Communications (DoTC) initiated a project to improve the Manila international airport. The project, worth PHP 1.5 billion (USD 36 million), will include the construction of a new passenger terminal and apron and expansion of the runway and other infrastructure improvements. The project was completed by 2019. The project was undertaken in four phases; Phase I (2012-2015) focused on constructing a new passenger terminal and apron. Phase II (2015-2018) involved the expansion of the runway. Phase III (2018-2021) included the rehabilitation of existing infrastructure, such as runways, taxiways, and terminals. Finally, Phase IV will focus on improving air traffic management and navigation.
The first phase of the project involved renovating and upgrading existing facilities. This included installing air-conditioning units in all passenger terminals, constructing a new arrivals hall, and repairing or replacing roofs, walls, ceilings, windowsills, escalators and other components (Camus, 2022). In addition to these renovations, the project also installed green infrastructure. This included installing a rain garden in front of Terminal 1, a bioswale in front of Terminal 3, and a green roof over the parking garage (Camus, 2022).
The second phase of the project focused on implementing green infrastructure. This included installing new air-conditioning units and thermal insulation in passenger terminals, constructing a new car park, and planting trees and bushes (Camus, 2022). In addition to these investments, the project also installed green roofs over the Departure and Arrivals lobbies of Terminals 1 and 3 and a green wall in front of Terminal 1 (Camus, 2022).
The project’s third phase focused on improving air traffic management and navigation. This included installing a new radar system, constructing a new control tower, and upgrading the airport’s electrical infrastructure (Camus, 2022). In addition to these upgrades, the project also installed green infrastructure. This included installing a rain garden in front of Terminal 2, a bioswale in front of Terminal 4, and a green roof over the parking garage (Camus, 2022).
The final phase of the project focused on creating new jobs. This included renovating and upgrading existing facilities, installing air-conditioning units in all passenger terminals, constructing a new arrivals hall, and repairing or replacing roofs and windows in all terminals (Camus, 2022). In addition to these investments, the project also created new green jobs. This included installing green roofs over the Departure and Arrivals lobbies of Terminals 1 and 3 and a green wall in front of Terminal 1 (Camus, 2022).
Overall, the project was successful. Passenger satisfaction scores increased after implementing green infrastructure, and flight delays decreased since the installation of new air-conditioning units (Camus, 2022). Furthermore, trees and bushes were planted, which will help to reduce noise levels. Overall, the project successfully improved airport conditions (Camus, 2022). The project was completed in 2016. The airport project is an example of how green infrastructure can be used to improve air quality and increase the efficiency of an airport. In addition, the airport could create environmentally friendly jobs by creating new jobs in areas such as installation and maintenance.
The airport has improved safety by introducing new technologies such as CCTV cameras and infrared sensors. Additionally, the airport is upgrading its lighting system to improve visibility at night. As a result, the airport has seen fewer accidents over the past few years. In 2015, only two accidents were recorded (Evangelista, 2018). These accidents were 1. A collision between a passenger vehicle and an airport bus 2. A runway incursion in 2016 when a passenger jet landed on top of another passenger jet (Evangelista, 2018).
Overall, the airport has been making progress in improving safety. However, there is still room for improvement. The Philippine Department of Transportation and Communications recommends further upgrades to the lighting system and CCTV cameras (Evangelista, 2018). These upgrades will help to improve safety at the airport while protecting passengers’ privacy.
The project has had a positive economic impact on the airport. Since the installation of Covid 19, flights have increased by 3%. This increase in traffic has led to an increase in revenue for the airport. The total revenue generated from aviation services at the Manila International Airport was Php1,521 million in 2016 (Evangelista, 2018). This increase in revenue has allowed the airport to invest in new safety measures and improve services for passengers. The airport generates 4,000 jobs and $1 billion in annual revenue (Evangelista, 2018).
Additionally, tourists spend an estimated $2.6 million each day at the airport (Evangelista, 2018). This money is used to support businesses in the airport area. Overall, the project has had a positive economic impact on the airport and the surrounding community. The airport is also improving the local economy by attracting new businesses and tourists. In 2021, the airport generated P 2.5 billion in revenue. Additionally, the airport is working to develop its infrastructure to handle larger passenger jets. As a result, the airport is expected to increase passenger and cargo throughput by 30% (Evangelista, 2018). This will help attract more businesses and tourists and generate more revenue for the local economy (Bongo and Ocampo, 2017).
Level of Activity
The airport is expanding and improving its infrastructure to handle larger passenger jets. This will help attract more businesses and tourists and generate more revenue for the local economy. Additionally, the airport is developing its infrastructure to handle larger passenger jets. As a result, the airport is expected to increase passenger and cargo throughput by 30%. This will help attract more businesses and tourists and generate more revenue for the local economy. As of 2022, it had daily arrivals of 2.6 million people and departures of 2.5 million people (Evangelista, 2018). The airport has cargo planes transporting goods to and from the local area.
The airport has spent P 10 billion on infrastructure development since it opened in 1998. This includes the construction of new terminals, runways, and parking facilities. The airport also spends money on air traffic control and security measures.
Construction began in 1978 and was completed in 1981. Terminal 1 has a capacity of 5 million passengers per year and is the main terminal for all domestic flights. It has two parallel runways measuring 3,200 m × 45 m (11,000 ft × 147 ft). The original IATA code for the airport was NAQ.
Terminal 2 structure; In 1973, the air terminal was overhauled to modernize it, and Airways Engineering suggested another Terminal 1 structure. Renardet Sauti, Transplan and FF Cruz Consultants were contracted and worked with LV Locsin and Associates to assemble and plan the project. Development started in 1978. In 1981, a fire razed one of the old terminal structures, and it was immediately supplanted with the new 67,000 m2 Terminal 1, equipped for handling over 4.5 million travellers every year. In 1989, during a drawn-out survey by Aéroports de Paris, two new terminals (Centennial Terminal and Terminal 3) were suggested. By 1991, Terminal 1 had reached a limit with a recorded yearly growth pace of 11%.
100th Anniversary; Terminal Construction of the Centennial Terminal (100th commemoration of the autonomy of the Philippines) started in December 1995, was finished in 1998 and started activities in 1999. The Japanese government gave an advance of 18.12 billion yen to the Philippine government and gave 75% of the undertaking cover cost. Aéroports de Paris drew out the plan for the terminal. With a storey area of 75,000 m2, it was initially planned as a domestic terminal however was subsequently redesigned to accommodate global flights. With an all-out limit of 7.5 million travellers each year (2.5 million worldwide flights and 5 million home flights), it can convey 9 million travellers each year, depending on the situation. Development halted the construction of the Terminal 3 venture that was to start in 1997. Development was suspended after the President of the Philippines, the public authority and the Supreme Court renounced the Build Operate Transfer (BOT) contract in 2003.
The solution was found, construction was accomplished in 2007, and the terminal formally opened in July 2008. BOT contention was because of supposed abnormalities in the BOT regulations in the Philippines; PairCargo and Fraport AG as the Philippine International Air Terminals Co Inc (PIATCO) were not permitted to finish the development of the terminals. The BOT resolution was announced void by the Philippines president, government and Supreme Court in 2003. It was trailed by much lawful fighting, including worldwide courts. In 2006, PIATTO took a $6m result from the Philippines Government and designated another worker for hire, Takenaka of Japan, to finish the development work by 2008 (culmination costs were $6m).
Terminal 3 plans
The $640m Terminal 3 is 1.2km long and can handle 13m travellers each year. The 34 airbridges and 20 contact entryways can at the same time use 28 levels “$ 640 million terminals are 1.2 km long and the limit of 13 million travellers per year.” The terminal has an electronic framework status with a 70 FID (flight data show) and a 314 LCD screen—the five doorways in the departure lounge area are furnished with an X-ray machine. The last security check confines front of the car door has 18 x-ray machines to limit inconveniences in passenger checks. Luggage Claims Hall has seven major carousels, each with FID. FourLevel Shopping Center interfaces the terminal with a multi-facet parking garage with 2,000 car-volume. There is additionally an open-air vehicle leave that can accommodate 1,200 vehicles.
The terminal 3 advances was given by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Japan’s Export-Import Bank with a $ 500 million advance.
Plans and growth
PIATCO has announced plans to build a second terminal, Terminal 4, which will have a capacity of up to 20 million passengers per year. The new terminal is expected to be completed in 2020. PIATCO also plans to expand its operations into other airports across the Philippines, including Aseana International Airport and Clark International Airport. The PIATCO Group is an international transport company headquartered in Manila, the Philippines, interested in airport development, freight forwarding and port services. The company was formed in 1988 and operated a network of 13 airports throughout the Philippines. In 2016, PIATCO was ranked as the world’s seventh-largest airport operator by passenger traffic and is currently serviced by over 60 airlines.
In summary, the Ninoy Aquino International Airport is a large and well-maintained airport with a variety of facilities and services to meet the needs of passengers. The airport is well-connected to the city and provides frequent flights to various destinations. Overall, it is a great choice for travellers planning to visit Manila. The airport can accommodate future growth and is well-equipped to handle future traffic demands. The Ninoy Aquino International Airport is the busiest in the Philippines, handling more than 8 million passengers annually. It is also one of the most remote airports in Asia, located about 25 kilometres from downtown Manila. Despite these challenges, the airport has maintained high standards of service and facilities. In addition to domestic flights, the airport is also used for international flights to destinations in Asia, Australia, and North America.
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