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Network Architecture Paper


This study outlines the TCP/IP Protocol Suite and highlights how each layer of the Framework mirrors the communicative stream of a structured firm across management units and throughout offices.

Effective communication from one party to the other is the cornerstone of all internet activity. The TCP/IP mechanism is the foundation of the more significant part of such communications. It was developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a team of computer experts to accommodate a growing network, and it has now grown into the benchmark for message delivery and interpretation.

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developed the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) paradigm (ISO). The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model defines a working framework for implementing standards in stages, with control passing from one to the next. It divides network topology into seven categories. The tiers are the hardware, data connection layer, network layer, transport layer, session layer, presentation layer, and application layer. As a result, software and infrastructure may be designed separately for each layer (Shabani, Dermaku, & Ademi, 2020). Nevertheless, to correctly deliver a message, every tier serves a distinct function. However, for all intended purposes, the bulk of the tiers have one obligation: communicating with the tiers above and behind them in the architecture.

The TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)

In the 1970s, DARPA created the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol). ARPANET created the notion, also referred to as the “Internet Model.” TCP/IP, which stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, is a collection of protocols for communication often used to connect network devices across the internet. TCP/IP is also a private communication protocol for networks. The TCP/IP protocol suite is a simplified form of the OSI model. It contains four layers rather than the OSI model’s seven (Mahmoodi et al., 2022). These are the layers:

  • Process/Application Layer
  • Host-to-Host/Transport Layer
  • Internet Layer
  • Network Access/Link Layer

The Application Layer

The application layer contains the software and serves as the user interface; the information flow commences with the application level of the client. Whenever a consumer submits an order, it is analyzed at the client’s application level before being forwarded to the subsequent level.

The network’s application layer receives signals from the transport layer. After the storage transaction is completed, the verification would be sent back from the storehouse application level so that it can be communicated to the various tiers and shipped to the customer.

The Transport Layer

This layer is just where data is encapsulated. In the client’s transport layer, orders supplied by the client and transmitted through the application layer are packaged into transport layer information format modules.

The segmented data is decapsulated and transmitted to the warehouse’s higher layers by the network’s transport layer; any responses from the host’s protocol stack are wrapped and then sent back to the consumer’s tier.

The Internet Layer

This layer generates sections and sequences for transit to the layers below. The transport layer-separated signal is handled at the client’s protocol stack, and IP headers are attached to the originator and recipient hosts’ IP addresses.

The received data is handled at the host’s network layer by eliminating the IP headers before being transmitted to the transport layer; when the reply from the server is returned, the information is inserted by the client’s IP address and delivered to the target.

Network Access Layers/Link Layer

This layer combines the Data Link Layer with the Physical Layer in the OSI paradigm. It looks for equipment identification, and the mechanisms at this layer allow for actual data transmission. This layer of the client’s network layer protocol provides the header and footer to the session and inspects it for errors throughout transmission (Heuschkel et al., 2019).The module takes the frame, sends it through the other layer, and any reply is sent to the client’s target through transmission medium in the host’s network layer protocol.

The network access layer is the customer’s point of contact with the internet. The frames are prepared for transmission, and the message’s beginning and end points are noted to avoid superfluous data from being provided within the packets. Such as the transport layer, this layer checks data as it passes through obstacles on its trip to its target. The transport layer is preoccupied with the target, while the network access layer is focused with how data leaves and traverses its way to its desired location.

The physical layer

The physical layer is commonly part of the network access layer, although it can be split further to represent how data moves across connection such as fibre, copper, and coax. Information can also be sent wirelessly to enhance the TCP/IP protocol suite. It is indeed critical for individuals to comprehend the applications they’re operating since some have limitations on what customizable physical layer settings may be used


As a consequence of these communication patterns, data is efficiently transferred within every layer for interaction between the customer and the servers. Whenever it involves network architecture, the TCP/IP protocol stack paired with the needs of the user might be a winning combination. Although TCP/IP provides a variety of information, it is nevertheless up to the customer to determine the particular infrastructure and programmes to execute. Due to the last decades’ data transmission wars and TCP/near-universal IP’s acceptance, I anticipate to see this architecture used in the next data wave to preserve the internet accessible and operational.


Heuschkel, J., Fleckstein, E., Ofenloch, M., & Muhlhauser, M. (2019, December). Udp++: Cross-layer optimizable transport protocol for managed wireless networks. In 2019 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Mahmoodi Khaniabadi, S., Javadpour, A., Gheisari, M., Zhang, W., Liu, Y., & Sangaiah, A. K. (2022). An intelligent sustainable efficient transmission internet protocol to switch between User Datagram Protocol and Transmission Control Protocol in IoT computing. Expert Systems, e13129.

Shabani, A., Dermaku, K., & Ademi, G. (2020). Analyzing OSI Model Layers, Benefits and Disadvantages.


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