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Leadership Styles Diversity


Leadership is a crucial component of every successful organization, as it can decide the successes and failures of that corporation. The style and qualities of the leader can have a profound effect on the direction and productivity of the business and its personnel. This report will compare and contrast the leadership traits of U.S. and African organizational leaders to determine how these various styles may affect the productivity and effectiveness of organizations. The relevance of understanding these cultural variations and similarities for building a successful management plan will also be emphasized.

Literature Review

Leadership Styles the United States

In the United States, organizational leaders employ a range of leadership styles based on their preferences and the organization’s needs. There are numerous leadership approaches, each with distinct traits and benefits. Transformational leadership is a common leadership style that emphasizes individual growth and development. This type of leadership seeks to motivate and direct the team in pursuit of the organization’s objective. They focus on their team member’s unique abilities and talents, helping to establish meaningful connections between their team and the organization’s objectives. Innovative solutions are developed through the empowerment and initiative of team members, as well as through the encouragement of creativity and collaboration. According to (Caillier, 2020), a study discovered that transformational leadership directly impacts employee ratings. These results give sufficient evidence for the claim that organizations require transformative leadership.

Servant leadership is another strategy utilized by numerous leaders. This leadership style emphasizes the team, acknowledging its individuals and their core values. This leadership style is characterized by a desire to assist the team by fostering their growth and encouraging people to assume responsibility for their job. According to (Daniels, 2021), studies confirm that an organization’s culture influences employee performance, that employee performance influences corporate equity and that the two together shape the company’s identity and ability to attract and retain talented, committed workers. This style promotes effective communication and teamwork because leaders treat team members with respect and prioritize the team’s collective needs.

Autocratic leadership is an alternative approach in which leaders make decisions unilaterally and expect subordinates to adhere to those judgments. This method is typically adopted when the leader has the authority to make personnel, financial, and policy-related choices during times of crisis (Akanji et al.,2020). This kind of leadership can be beneficial in the short term when quick judgments are required, but in the long run, it can erode professionalism and lead to bad morale.

The Democratic Leadership style emphasizes allowing the team to make decisions together. The leader encourages dialogue, encouraging team members’ collaboration and mutual regard. This kind of leadership can boost the team’s creativity and invention and create trust and morale inside the organization. According to (Hilton, Arkorful & Martins, 2021), their findings suggest a strong positive correlation exists between organizational performance and democratic leadership. Each leadership style has strengths and flaws, and no single style fits every organization or circumstance well. The most effective leaders can evaluate the requirements of their team and adapt their strategy accordingly. By knowing and embracing the specific needs of their business, leaders in the United States can utilize the leadership style that best suits their team’s needs to accomplish their firm’s mission.

Characteristics of Organization Leaders in the United States

Organizational leaders in the United States have created unique leadership traits that distinguish them from other leadership styles worldwide. A frequent characteristic of American organizational leaders is their dedication to democratic values and readiness to delegate and grant individual freedom. Leaders in the United States are often exceedingly empathetic and tolerant of others, as well as highly resilient and adaptable. The American leadership style is sometimes characterized as egalitarian, as organizational leaders believe in leveling the playing field so that all coworkers can engage openly and honestly.

American organizational leaders tend to be exceedingly progressive, constantly emphasizing innovation and foresight. This means they are frequently willing to take risks and experiment with new ideas, even if they may disrupt the status quo. Additionally, American corporate leaders establish a culture of trust and openness in which employees’ perspectives can be heard. This idea is frequently reflected in the behavior of American organizational leaders, who are frequently more receptive to criticism and recommendations from others. American corporate leaders tend to highlight the significance of productivity while simultaneously valuing the promotion of pleasant workplace culture (Caillier, 2020). This implies that they frequently distribute responsibilities to ensure everyone works efficiently while also taking the steps necessary to foster a good collaborative environment. They are also well-known for their motivational abilities since they attempt to inspire their employees and keep everyone engaged. In addition, they have a strong drive and resilience, enabling them to remain focused and hopeful in the face of challenging obstacles.

In general, organizational leaders in the United States display a unifying attitude of trust, teamwork, and open communication that brings out the best in their teammates. They are motivated to foster innovation in the workplace and are willing to take chances when necessary. This leadership style has been extremely effective in the American business world and has influenced how many businesses throughout the world are run.

Leadership Styles and Characteristics of Organization Leaders in Africa

In the context of African organizational leadership, various leadership styles stand out in their efficacy in establishing and sustaining successful businesses in the region. Transformational Leadership, autocratic Leadership, mentorship, participation, and prosocial Leadership are some of the structures elaborated on below.

Transformational Leadership in African Leadership stresses individuals’ motivation, inspiration, and growth to reach a common goal. A significant aspect of this leadership style is the leader’s ability to give vision and instill a sense of shared purpose within the (Caillier, 2020). It is frequently employed to foster innovation, intrapreneurship, and a culture of collaboration, initiative, and originality. African leaders frequently rely on this type of leadership to foster a communal feeling of “Africanness” and establish country-specific success tactics.

In the African region, Autocratic leadership is hierarchical. It is based on a top-down leadership style that stresses authority and direction. An emphasis on team control and direction and high expectations for performance and results characterizes this approach. This method is frequently employed to enforce organizational conformity and guarantee timely goal achievement (Akanji et al.,2020). Mentor leadership includes providing direct direction and mentorship to others and providing them with counsel and educational possibilities. African leaders may utilize this technique to foster talent and equip individuals with the required skills and competencies to achieve organizational goals.

Participative leadership entails the leader actively involving and encouraging team members’ participation in decision-making processes. This method may be utilized by African leaders in order to offer a voice to all departments, acknowledge the significance of collaboration, and establish a climate of open communication where ideas and viewpoints may be expressed. Prosocial leadership emphasizes teamwork to achieve group goals and encourages team members to handle circumstances with a feeling of communal ownership and accountability (Caillier, 2020). This style enables African leaders to construct a shared vision and pursue collective goals while offering a platform for developing individual leadership skills. In order to secure the success of their teams and accomplish organizational goals, African organizational leaders frequently adopt a blend of these diverse leadership styles. By employing these techniques in a united manner, African leaders can capitalize on the particular qualities of their teams and build a cohesive, dependable, and highly motivated workforce.

Comparative Analysis

Leadership Styles and Structures in the U.S. vs. Africa

In the United States, a more traditional leadership style with a centralized structure and a strong leader at the top is typically adopted. Frequently, this leader is responsible for formulating and implementing policies and making all final decisions. This is typically a CEO, president, or other senior business officers who are ultimately accountable for operations and making difficult decisions. In most African nations, however, traditional authority is frequently more decentralized. Numerous small-scale communities, such as villages or large families, typically have chiefs who make decisions and are consensus-based leaders. Respected as authorities, these chiefs frequently wield considerable sway over the decision-making process and the local community. The United States tends to promote autocratic leadership techniques, in which the leader is highly authoritative and dictates how, when, and why tasks are to be completed (Daniels,2019). This is an efficient method for attaining outcomes in a timely fashion. In Africa, however, a communitarian approach is frequently employed, with the emphasis changing from individual to community decision-making, focusing on social and communal values. This leadership style is recognized for fostering cooperation and collaboration while highlighting the significance of inclusion and respect.

Leadership styles and structures in the United States and Africa vary according to cultural norms, local customs, and financial resources. While the United States typically adopts an autocratic leadership style, African nations’ decision-making is frequently based on a decentralized communitarian approach that emphasizes common ideals and inclusiveness.

Cultural Perspectives on Leadership

Cultural attitudes toward leadership vary considerably between nations, particularly between the United States and Africa. Africa traditionally places much more premium on supporting and communal ideals than the United States does concerning leadership characteristics and expectations. Leadership is often perceived hierarchically in the United States. Leaders are supposed to take the initiative, be action-oriented, and prioritize measurable outcomes. Leaders are typically expected to be authoritative, exhibit individualism, and strive for status and power. For instance, corporate leadership in the United States is frequently oriented on the bottom line, short-term profitability, and individual achievement.

In contrast, Africa places a greater emphasis on collective action and less on individual achievement. Leadership is frequently viewed as a shared role, with one individual taking the lead in decision-making while others provide support and counsel (Crede, Jong & Harms,2019). Typically, African leaders are expected to emphasize fostering connections, mutual understanding, and exhibiting trust. They must also be able to consult with their peers and evaluate the social ramifications of their judgments when making decisions. For instance, an African leader may concentrate on fostering an environment that fosters collaboration, communal problem-solving, and outcomes that are mutually advantageous.

In general, the cultural ideas on Leadership in the United States and Africa are vastly different. The United States emphasizes individualism and tangible outcomes, whereas Africa places a premium on communal activity and relationships. These distinctions can be observed in numerous circumstances, including corporate leadership and governmental office (Crede, Jong & Harms,2019). It is essential to remember that leadership styles in different cultures can vary significantly, and recognizing and appreciating these variances is of tremendous benefit.

Conclusions and Recommendations

In conclusion, a comparison of the leadership styles of the United States and Africa has revealed some significant differences, with the United States choosing a more directive and authoritative approach. In contrast, a more collaborative style often characterizes African leadership. When establishing a leadership strategy, it is, therefore, necessary for organizational leaders to consider cultural diversity, as this will affect its success. Although American and African leadership styles are diverse, some areas of commonality can be advantageous to enterprises, such as the significance of teamwork. In order to enhance organizational efficiency and efficacy, the paper suggests that an effective management plan should embrace cultural differences and commonalities.


Akanji, B., Mordi, C., Ituma, A., Adisa, T. A., & Ajonbadi, H. (2020). The influence of organizational culture on leadership style in higher education institutions. Personnel Review49(3), 709-732.

Caillier, J. G. (2020). Testing the influence of autocratic leadership, democratic leadership, and public service motivation on citizen ratings of an agency head’s performance. Public Performance & Management Review43(4), 918-941.

Crede, M., Jong, J., & Harms, P. (2019). The generalizability of transformational leadership across cultures: A meta-analysis. Journal of Managerial Psychology.

Daniels, L. M. (2021). Servant leadership in a globally diverse and inclusive organizational culture. Culture in Global Businesses: Addressing National and Organizational Challenges, 19-43.

Hilton, S. K., Arkorful, H., & Martins, A. (2021). Democratic leadership and organizational performance: the moderating effect of contingent reward. Management Research Review.


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