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How Does Poland Think About Vaccine Nationalism? What Should Be Done Further To Tackle Future COVID-19 Variants?


Vaccine nationalism, characterized by countries prioritizing access to COVID-19 vaccines for their citizens, has significantly affected global efforts to combat the pandemic. This paper explores Poland’s stance on vaccine nationalism through the use of SWOT analysis and examines possible strategies for addressing future COVID-19 variants and responding to how the country has cooperated with other stakeholders and worked independently to contain the issue.

SWOT Analysis


The country has worked to ensure an adequate supply of vaccines to protect its people. Poland has actively participated in agreements and initiatives to acquire vaccines, ensuring access to many vaccine choices. Due to this, a sizable section of the population has been successfully immunized, which has helped to lessen the severity of COVID-19 infections and fatality rates (Żuk, Żuk & Lisiewicz-Jakubaszko, 2019). Poland’s healthcare system has also shown resilience, successfully handling vaccine administration and distribution. The nation has set up vaccination centers, mobile units, and a productive registration system to make the vaccination process easier. Poland has also acknowledged the value of international cooperation in combating the pandemic. To coordinate activities, share information, and get access to resources, the country has partnered with global and regional organizations, including WHO and the European Union (EU) (Żuk, Żuk & Lisiewicz-Jakubaszko, 2019). Poland has benefited from the pooled knowledge and experience in crisis management due to this cooperation.


The uneven distribution of vaccines across the nation is a major issue. There have been differences in vaccine availability and uptake, particularly in rural and underprivileged areas. This imbalance could exacerbate existing health disparities and make it more difficult for the nation to contain the pandemic (Żuk, Żuk & Lisiewicz-Jakubaszko, 2019). Another issue is the absence of long-term planning to address potential COVID-19 variations. Vaccines against the current variants have been successfully administered in Poland, but it is imperative to be ready for potential mutations and the appearance of new variants.


Poland can take advantage of many chances to combat vaccine nationalism and deal with potential COVID-19 variations. First, the nation can improve its capacity for domestic vaccine production (Żuk & Żuk, 2020). By investing in domestic production facilities, Poland can lessen its reliance on outside vendors and ensure long-term vaccine supply stability. Poland can give research and development funding priority. Poland can contribute to the global understanding of COVID-19 variations and create ways to effectively address them by committing money to scientific study (Żuk & Żuk, 2020). This includes investing in genomic surveillance tools to identify novel variations and modify immunization plans as necessary quickly.


It is dangerous that the SARS-CoV-2 virus is still evolving since new varieties may be able to subvert the protection offered by current vaccines, necessitating the creation of updated vaccines or booster doses (Steinert et al., 2022). Additionally, inaccurate information and anti-vaccination sentiment widely disseminated to the public can undermine vaccination efforts and hinder the achievement of high vaccination coverage. Geopolitical unrest and trade restrictions can also challenge Poland’s efforts to respond to pandemics and promote vaccine nationalism. To maintain the unrestricted flow of vaccines and medical supplies, the nation must manage diplomatic difficulties and work toward multilateral solutions.

Stance and Response

Poland has collaborated with regional and international organizations and worked independently and with other nations to combat the issue. On December 28, 2020, Poland launched its National Vaccination Program (Jędrzejczyk & Balwick, 2022). The campaign, directly organized by the Office of the Prime Minister, was designed to immunize the general public against COVID-19. Poland prioritized immunization of medical personnel, sufferers of chronic diseases, and occupants of long-term care facilities a top priority (Jędrzejczyk & Balwick, 2022). The program’s progression saw a decline in the average age of those invited for immunization. Additionally, qualified healthcare workers were permitted to provide vaccinations by the government, including nurses, paramedics, final-year medical students, and pharmacists. Poland took part in the effort of the European Union to adopt the COVID-19 Passport, also known as the Digital COVID Certificate. Shortly after the EU introduced the certificate, the nation adopted it (Jędrzejczyk & Balwick, 2022). This certificate made it easier to travel within the EU and included evidence of immunization, test results, or COVID-19 recovery.


Poland’s perspective on vaccine nationalism acknowledges the benefits of global collaboration and equitable vaccine distribution. By making the most of its strengths, such as a robust immunization infrastructure and international partnerships, Poland can support international efforts to combat potential COVID-19 variations. But there are weaknesses to overcome, such as low vaccination availability, unequal distribution, and vaccine reluctance. Poland can improve its ability to produce vaccines, fortify its public health infrastructure, and combat misinformation to better prepare for and respond to future variations. Controlling the pandemic and halting the establishment of new varieties will depend on international cooperation, vaccine sharing, and support for equitable distribution.


Jędrzejczyk, T., & Balwicki, Ł. Poland country snapshot: public health agencies and services responding to COVID-19. European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. March 2022.

Kretchmer, H. Vaccine nationalism–and how it could affect us all, 2021.

Steinert, J. I., Sternberg, H., Veltri, G. A., & Büthe, T. (2022). How should COVID-19 vaccines be distributed between the Global North and South: a discrete choice experiment in six European countries. Elife11.

Żuk, P., & Żuk, P. (2020). Right-wing populism in Poland and anti-vaccine myths on YouTube: Political and cultural threats to public health. Global Public Health15(6), 790-804.

Żuk, P., Żuk, P., & Lisiewicz-Jakubaszko, J. (2019). The anti-vaccine movement in Poland: The socio-cultural conditions of the opposition to vaccination and threats to public health. Vaccine37(11), 1491-1494.


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