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Health, Safety and Nutrition: Chapters 1, 2 and 3

Why is sleep important and how much sleep should preschool age children have each day? What are some ways in which a child, who refuses to sleep, can be encourage to rest quietly?

Sleep is important to a child’s body because it needs time to rest and grow. Sleep is just as important as eating healthy, staying active and feeling safe. A preschooler should have a nap during the day and sleep approximately 12 hours at night (Marotz, 2014). The normal amount of sleep for 3-year-olds is 10 to 12 hours per day. For 4-year-olds, it’s 9 to 10 hours per day approximately. One way to encourage a child, who refuses to sleep, is to have a list of quiet activities. The list could include reading, having someone read a story or listening to quiet music (Marotz, 2014).

Would it be realistic to expect an 11-month-od infant to be toilet trained? Explain. Should parents be concerned if their 9-month-old infant cannot sit up without support? Explain.

Most infants may take up to one year to be fully toilet trained, so expecting this from an 11-month-old can be quite unrealistic. Parents should not be concerned if their 9-month-old infant has not mastered sitting up independently, as the natural progression is typically getting to crawl, then standing or cruising while holding onto something, and then walking with assistance (Marotz, 2014). Infants are capable of learning at an early age, toilet training requires a child’s ability to communicate with others and to have control over their own bodies. An 11-month-old may be able to understand when he has urinated or defecated; however, he may still lack the verbal abilities to inform someone else. Additionally, 11-month-olds cannot control their bowel or bladder function as well as older toddlers can.

How can early childhood educator’s observations benefit the health of a child?

Observation allows ECE professionals to take a closer look at their interactions with children and to see how crucial interactions are as they grow to know and assist children more fully (Marotz, 2014). Observation is a powerful tool for connecting with children and learning about their relationships with others and their surroundings.

Your text notes the importance of correct posture and body mechanics for both children and adults. List three practices that you can do with children to support this learning.

Posture and body mechanics are important aspects in the health and well-being of any child. The correct posture in the classroom, while seated at a desk, at the lunch table and while studying is an important part of the proper development of their bodies. The spine is not fully developed until children have reached the age of 25, therefore it is imperative that they learn healthy posture habits early in life and practice them throughout childhood (Marotz, 2014). A process called Distraction can be used to encourage children to hold their spines straight when standing. When a child has incorrect posture, you inform them that you will help them learn how to hold their spine straight by gradually pulling up on their heads, which assists their muscles by providing them with more strength to stand correctly. This model is repeated multiple times each day, until almost instantaneously without fail the child will hold a correct posture in all sitting and standing positions.

Children’s oral health is an important component of their overall health. Learning to brush their teeth in the correct manner contributes to oral health. List 5 ways of making this routine fun for children.

Oral health is an important component of overall health. Comprehensive programs that begin early in life can help to prevent tooth decay, a chronic and prevalent childhood disease. Make brushing teeth fun! Here are five ways to encourage children to brush their teeth: 1) Use a small amount of orange, lemon, or peppermint flavor to make brushing more flavorful – children are more likely to be motivated by positive sensory experiences (Marotz, 2014). 2) Use a toothbrush with popular cartoon characters on it (Berg et al., 2010). 3) Let children choose the flavor of toothpaste that they want. 4) Let children go first when brushing. 5) Create positive reinforcement for them once they are done with their teeth brushing activity: include a rewarding activity like reading or playing with toys that they only get to do after their teeth have been brushed (Marotz, 2014).


Marotz, L. R. (2014). Health, safety, and nutrition for the young child. Cengage Learning.


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