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Global Health Goals and Health Disparities

Importance of WHO And MDGs In Promoting Healthy Living

The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a vital role in strengthening local regulation to make healthy choices available and accessible to all people and establish sustainable systems that enable the whole-of-society partnership to become a reality. Additionally, the organization promotes and monitors the application of established norms and standards. For public health, WHO develops ethical and evidence-based policy alternatives while offering technical assistance and sparking change while also strengthening long-term institutional capacity. Both at the international and national levels, WHO engages in continuous reforms to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness. The Millennium Development Objectives (MDGs) is a collection of goals with quantifiable targets and exact timeframes for improving the lives of the world’s impoverished. This interdependence is shown by all MDGs influencing and influencing one another. When children and people are in better health, they can better study and do better work. To get more excellent health, gender equality is required. Achieving each of the eight objectives is a step toward making people’s lives better.

MDG and How it is Essential in Improving Global Health

Eight of the MDG’s objectives are aimed at improving people’s lives. The fundamental objective of individuals who campaign to eliminate severe poverty and hunger is to ensure that everyone has a job and reduce the number of those who go hungry. Many more challenges are likely to come up when this aim is achieved. Encouragement of a country to achieve the MDGs’ health objectives is one of its main objectives. An individual’s well-being needs to have feelings of happiness to overcome obstacles and accomplish their goals in life. Child mortality is the primary focus of this essay. I picked the United States as the area to see how child mortality is handled.

Outcome Measurement Indicator Used In the USA for Reduced Child Mortality

People in developed countries are working hard to minimize child mortality. Many of the most common causes of infant death cannot be prevented in any manner. A baby’s risk may be reduced, though. Researchers are working to find better strategies to prevent and cure infant mortality and influence the factors that contribute to it. Infant mortality is a significant issue in the United States, and its health care system is working to reduce it. Children’s lives are saved thanks to the government’s support of healthcare centers by providing hospital facilities. Pregnant women are subjected to prenatal screening to keep tabs on and perhaps prevent birth abnormalities. Many of the primary causes of infant mortality may be reduced by a woman taking appropriate care of her health before and throughout pregnancy. Attending a clinic for an evaluation during pregnancy may help prevent congenital disabilities, premature delivery, low birth weight, and other pregnancy issues.

The infant mortality rate is now being utilized as an outcome measurement indicator to estimate the death rate of children. The infant mortality rate is an indicator of a country’s overall well-being. When used as an explanatory variable, researchers have used it to explain the socio-economic progress of a nation. Many experts and decision-makers look to the infant mortality rate to assess a country’s health. To ensure that infant mortality is a reliable indicator of population health, it must be measured consistently. The health sector should develop a new approach for adjusting country-specific reported infant mortality numbers based on relevant socio-economic parameters. When evaluating a country’s socioeconomic welfare, it is necessary to consider newborn and late fetal mortality. Mortality stats with high rates of late fetal and early neonatal fatalities should be examined more attentively (Gonzalez, & Gilleskie, 2017). Better socioeconomic development assessments may be made using updated IMR data, which has policy implications as well. The priorities set by the government or the organizations providing the financing often guide the distribution of national and international assistance monies. The incorrect distribution of funding might result from understated mortality numbers. Pregnant women and infants might suffer due to this misallocation of funding.

Health Disparities among Vulnerable Population Groups

Health disparity is a sort of health difference intimately connected to societal, socioeconomic, and environmental adversity. For example, socially disadvantaged people are more likely to suffer from avoidable inequities in the burden of illness, injury, violence, or the ability to reach optimum health. Groups of individuals who have historically had higher health challenges due to their race, ethnicity, or physical condition are disproportionately affected by health inequalities. Vulnerable groups are disproportionately affected by health inequities. An excellent example of a health disparity in the United States is the gap in access to and quality of health care between different groups of people inside the country. In the United States, racial discrimination is the primary cause of health inequalities. Because of racial prejudice in the health care system, individuals cannot obtain adequate medical treatment. Over time, Whites experience less acute and chronic discrimination due to modest wealth improvements (Colen, Ramey, Cooksey & Williams,2018). Discrimination against vulnerable populations in the United States, such as African Americans and Latinos, causes pain. Limiting access to healthcare services may raise mortality rates in a community.

There is a massive differential between the Black-White infant mortality gap when it comes to maternal and baby health outcomes in the United States. Studies have usually found that adjusting for maternal background characteristics does not explain the disparity. Structural racism has emerged as a critical risk factor for African-American women and their babies in recent studies on maternal and infant health inequalities in the United States. Socioeconomic issues, for example, might be blamed for health disparities. Differences in health might arise due to factors such as one’s degree of education, job, or poverty. Health inequalities may be attributed to various variables, including socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and access to preventative care. Several factors contribute to health inequalities, including racial discrimination.

Nursing Roles That Would Help Achieve the MDG

Patients’ health and safety are crucially dependent on the work of nurses. Nurses provide a prenatal check-up to ensure that any potential pregnancy problems are detected and addressed. Infant medical care and early-stage diagnosis are additional responsibilities of nurse practitioners. Child mortality reduction and prevention require that nurses be well-equipped and empowered with information. Providing moms with the knowledge they need to offer the best possible care for their infants may be easier if they have access to this research-based information (Obodoeze, 2015). Nurses encounter difficulties in their efforts to decrease or prevent these early fatalities. Inadequate medical care facilities, a high maternal mortality rate, and a lack of training are all problems that nurses face. There are nursing techniques for reducing child mortality and decreasing health disparities. Promoting racial health inequalities between patients and health care providers is one such strategy, as is making sure that everyone has access to health insurance coverage in the first place. Reducing gaps in health outcomes may be achieved by boosting the capability and quantity of health care providers in underrepresented populations.


Colen, C. G., Ramey, D. M., Cooksey, E. C., & Williams, D. R. (2018). Racial disparities in health among nonpoor African Americans and Hispanics: The role of acute and chronic discrimination. Social Science & Medicine, 199, 167-180.

Fatima K. M. Obodoeze (2015). Nurses’ Role In Prevention Of Infant And Under-Five Child Mortality In Africa. Retrieved from

Gonzalez, R. M., & Gilleskie, D. (2017). Infant mortality rate as a measure of a country’s health: a robust method to improve reliability and comparability. Demography, 54(2), 701-720.


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