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Foundations of Nursing


The specific care needs of each person call for the creation of individualised, person-centered care plans in the field of caregiving (Fazio et al., 2018). This essay focuses on the topic of Mr Bartek Janacek, a 75-year-old senior service user who needs a lot of care. The goal is to investigate Mr Janacek’s unique care needs and detail the procedure for creating an effective person-centered care plan that specifically caters to his needs. For this article, fictional characters have been established to preserve real people’s privacy (NMC, 2018). This paper emphasises the value of Mr Janacek’s particular circumstances, preferences, and goals while developing a thorough care plan. It also recognises the significance of person-centred care. His physical, emotional, and social well-being are all considered when providing him with care, and his autonomy and dignity are encouraged.

Assessment Plan

Prioritising the unique needs of service users is at the heart of person-centered care. In order to ensure a thorough understanding and facilitation of these demands, health, and social care professionals must first conduct a thorough assessment to determine the individual’s needs. Person-centred care is a philosophy that offers each service user specialised care and treatment that considers their particular needs. It is crucial for providers to collaborate with service users, make the required modifications, and give support in order to enable them to understand and make informed decisions about their treatment (Benoit et al., 2017). The Care Act 2014, which requires providing care and support planning for individuals with evaluated needs, also emphasises integrating health and social care (NHS, 2017).

The creation and execution of a carefully documented care plan is the cornerstone of person-centered care delivery. This paper guides caregivers through the client’s background, goals, preferences, and medical information. It also aligns caregivers. The person-centered approach emphasises patient-specific care (Jansson et al., 2018). Care planning should use SMART objectives, per best practices. Care providers can improve the accuracy and efficacy of care planning by using the SMART objectives approach, ensuring that clients receive the proper degree of support within a specified timeframe. This strategy allows care providers to evaluate and modify their actions to meet the client’s changing requirements (Jansson et al., 2018). It also encourages clarity, accountability, and improved client outcomes. Therefore, creating and implementing an extensive care plan forms the basis of person-centered care. Care providers’ use of this plan ensures that they have a clear grasp of the client’s needs, preferences, and objectives. Care plans are made sure to be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound through effective provider-client communication and adherence to the concepts of SMART goals (Jansson et al., 2018). These guidelines can help care professionals provide timely, efficient, and tailored care that enhances their clients’ general wellbeing and pleasure.

Based on Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), the evidence-based care plans will involve mobility assistance, personal hygiene assistance, and medication management.

Mobility Assistance

Mr Janacek’s movement is limited because his leg is in a plaster cast, and he needs help getting around safely. The objective is to keep him as independent as possible while protecting him. If Mr Janacek needs help physically moving from one place to another, such as from his bed to a chair, a nurse should be on hand to help. The nurse should help Mr Janacek with any mobility equipment he needs, such as crutches or a walker, and make sure he knows how to use it properly. The nurse should frequently evaluate Mr Janacek’s mobility requirements, offer suitable assistance devices, and instruct him in secure transfer and movement practices. Regular workouts should be included to stop muscular atrophy, as a physical therapist advises. Every time Mr Janacek has to move or transfer, the nurse should be there to help, considering his preferences and timetable. Working with a physical therapist can help choose the best mobility aids, offer advice on secure movements, and create an exercise plan specific to Mr. Janacek’s requirements. Regular contact between the caregiver and physical therapist is crucial to track development and modify the care plan as needed.

A person’s wellbeing is greatly impacted by their ability to remain mobile and independent, especially when experiencing injury or physical limitations. Caregivers are essential in maintaining the comfort, safety, and maintenance independence of those like Mr Janacek who require care due to limited mobility. According to Goh et al. (2017), walkers and crutches can be extremely helpful for people with trouble moving about. They give stability, support weight bearing, and allow for safe movement, restoring freedom in daily activities for people like Mr Janacek. Considerations, including the individual’s height, weight, and required level of stability, should be considered while evaluating and providing the right mobility aids. Nevertheless, simply providing mobility assistance is insufficient. Proper instruction on how to use them is equally important to ensuring their efficiency and preventing mishaps or additional injuries. Individuals who got appropriate instruction on using crutches or walkers had greater confidence, decreased risk of falls, and enhanced functional mobility, according to a study by Goh et al. (2017). Person-centred care is a core strategy that acknowledges each person’s individuality, as well as their preferences, values, and aspirations. The application of person-centered care in mobility aid support and training promotes active engagement in patients’ care, respects their unique autonomy, and generates a sense of empowerment (Bianco et al., 2015). Additionally, establishing a person-centred care plan and ensuring successful mobility assistance usage depends on efficient communication. Caregivers should use a range of communication techniques. As a result, caregivers need to pay attention to Mr Janacek’s worries, preferences, and expectations about using mobility aids. Caregivers can develop trust and create a cooperative connection by exhibiting empathy and respect. To successfully convey instructions and information about mobility aids, caregivers should avoid medical jargon and use plain, accessible English. This strategy supports Mr Janacek’s active participation and comprehension. In order to determine Mr Janacek’s precise mobility requirements, suggest suitable mobility aids, and create tailored exercises to enhance strength, balance, and mobility, collaboration with physical therapists is beneficial. The treatment plan and therapeutic objectives are in sync, thanks to regular communication with the physical therapist. Therefore, person-centred care must include assisting people like Mr Janacek with mobility aids and instructing them on how to use them properly.

Personal Hygiene Assistance

Mr Janacek may need assistance with personal hygiene duties due to his limited mobility to keep himself clean and avoid infection. The caregiver is responsible for helping Mr Janacek maintain his comfort and dignity by helping with washing, grooming, and restroom use. Assisting with washing and showering, helping with hygiene tasks, including hair care and shaving, and providing support for toileting are additional responsibilities for the caregiver. Additionally, the caregiver must speak to Mr Janacek respectfully and clearly, explaining each step of the procedure and letting him participate as much as possible. His choices for how often he bathes, the items he uses, and privacy should come first. According to Mr Janacek’s preferences and timetable, and taking into account any medical or therapeutic advice, personal hygiene assistance should be given. Finally, working with an occupational therapist or a geriatric nurse can assist in developing adaptive tools or methods that encourage independence and guarantee a secure and accessible restroom environment. Regular communication with the medical staff is essential to address any worries or changes in Mr Janacek’s condition.

For people with limited mobility, like Mr. Janacek, personal hygiene is essential for preserving general health and well-being and preventing infections. Caregivers have a crucial duty to offer supportive help when people are unable to execute personal hygiene duties because of limited mobility independently. According to Kilian et al. (2016), personal hygiene includes a variety of practices like grooming, oral care, toileting, and bathing. Receiving assistance is essential for people like Mr Janacek, who cannot carry out these chores alone for various reasons. Maintaining cleanliness is important for the health of the skin and for one’s general well-being. Regular showers or baths, changing into clean clothes, and maintaining good oral hygiene all contribute to physical comfort, reduce body odour, and boost self-confidence. According to Weber et al. (2010), maintaining proper personal hygiene is essential for avoiding infections, especially in people with limited mobility. The risk of bacterial or fungal infections, urinary tract infections, and dental health problems can be decreased by regularly washing and drying the skin, following good toileting procedures, and caring for one’s teeth. Personal hygiene practices also support a person’s psychological health by encouraging a sense of vitality, self-assurance, and dignity. Caregivers can benefit how people feel about themselves and their emotional condition by helping people like Mr Janacek maintain their hygiene. In long-term care facilities, Arden and Chilcot (2020) looked into the effects of comprehensive hygiene care interventions on preventing healthcare-associated illnesses. The study concluded that residents’ incidence of illnesses was greatly decreased by routine support and attention to personal hygiene. Arden and Chilcot (2020) also contend that respecting individual preferences and upholding dignity depended on excellent communication between carers and those getting personal hygiene support. The demands for personal cleanliness, preferences, and any special needs due to skin problems, movement limitations, or sensory impairments should all be carefully assessed by caregivers. Similarly to that, offering aid with personal hygiene requires excellent communication. Respectful communication is key, as is describing each stage of the process, engaging the person in decision-making where practical, and paying close attention to any concerns or preferences they may have.

Medication Management

During his rehabilitation, Mr Janacek could need support with managing his medications. In order to ensure adherence and safety, the caregiver should assist Mr Janacek in planning and administering his prescriptions as directed. In addition, the caregiver needs to go over and comprehend the prescription plan, create a timetable or use pill organisers, and give reminders for taking medications. Mr Janacek should be included in the process as much as possible, and the caregiver should encourage him to ask questions or voice concerns. Each medicine should be explained to him along with any potential adverse effects. Regular medication evaluations by a pharmacist or other healthcare practitioner are necessary to ensure proper use. Cooperation with a pharmacist or healthcare expert is essential to ensure correct prescription information, detect any possible drug interactions or contraindications, and provide Mr Janacek with the appropriate education. Regular communication with the medical staff is crucial for medication updates or changes.

In order to support people like Mr Janacek’s rehabilitation and well-being during their recovery period, medication management is essential. Due to his limited mobility, Mr Janacek may need assistance arranging and administering prescribed medications. Effective medication management is crucial for people like Mr Janacek, according to Kinman et al. (2020), in order to maximise the advantages of prescribed medications and avoid any medication-related problems. Assistance with medication management ensures that medications are taken in the proper quantity and at the right time, lowering the possibility of medication errors. To reduce the likelihood of missed or double doses, caregivers can assist with medication organisation, verify proper dosages, and provide reminders. Kinman et al. (2020) state that strict adherence to the recommended drug schedules is essential for a full recovery. Support and reminders from caregivers can encourage adherence and lessen the chance of treatment interruptions or unfavourable results. Caregivers can carefully monitor any negative responses, side effects, or changes in Mr Janacek’s health by closely aiding with medication management. The fast intervention that results from timely reporting of such observations to medical professionals ensures that the pharmaceutical regimen is adjusted as necessary. According to Martnez et al. (2021), medication management support dramatically increased older persons’ medication adherence. The study stressed the value of open communication, caregiver education, and teamwork with healthcare experts to achieve the best drug management. The dosages, frequency, and potential interactions of Mr Janacek’s medications should all be carefully examined by caregivers. Medications should be sorted using pill organisers or other systems to maintain accuracy and prevent confusion. Martnez et al. (2021) advise caregivers to effectively communicate with Mr Janacek and make sure he is aware of the goals, directions for use, and any adverse effects of each drug. They ought to promote active involvement, respond to issues, and offer instructional materials or resources as required. In addition, caregivers should use reminder techniques acceptable to Mr Janacek (e.g., alarms, written schedules, verbal prompts) to deliver timely medication reminders. Regular interaction and cooperation with medical experts can assist in determining the best timing and guarantee adherence.

The physiology of blood pressure

An essential physiological function, blood pressure management enables the human body to adjust to various demands, including the “fight or flight” reaction to danger, relaxation, or anxiety. This regulation requires the combined efforts of neuronal, endocrine, and autoregulatory processes to ensure normal blood flow, distribution, and perfusion. Each heartbeat in a healthy person produces a pressure wave that moves through the circulatory system. The wave peaks during systole, when the heart beats, and the arterial walls widen. The artery walls then rebound during diastole, the heart’s rest phase, producing a pulse (NHS, 2020; Lowry & Ashelford, 2015). Systemic circulation gives all organs oxygenated blood, which is necessary for normal operation. After the blood has infused the organs, it travels through the systemic venous system back to the heart’s right atrium. Changing needs cause blood pressure (BP) to change. For instance, when faced with demands like fear or uneasiness, BP rises quickly until the demand is met or the need for higher pressure is satisfied. In contrast, when less pressure is needed to ensure proper blood flow, BP drops to its typical resting range during rest. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls these quick and fleeting changes in blood pressure via the baroreceptor reflex (Tortora & Derrickson, 2014). The ANS is essential in moderating these rapid blood pressure changes that maintain the body’s physiological balance. The ANS controls heart rate and blood vessel diameter, adjusting blood pressure in response to signals from baroreceptors and specialised pressure sensors found in some blood arteries. In response to shifting demands, this autonomic control system enables precise and instantaneous modifications to maintain ideal blood flow and perfusion.

Nurses must have a solid understanding of the anatomy and physiology of blood pressure (BP) to determine the risks associated with abnormal blood pressure and apply appropriate strategies to reduce potential injury (Tortora & Derrickson, 2014). In order to maintain homeostasis and guarantee sufficient blood supply to tissues, blood flow regulation is essential. Because blood flow is constrained, the circulatory system prioritises certain tissues based on their metabolic needs (Jansen et al., 1995). For instance, higher blood flow during exercise supports greater activity levels in the heart, lungs, and skeletal muscles, but increased blood flow after eating supports the digestive system. Notably, blood flow to the brain is constant and independent of mental activity, sleep, or awake. Person-centred care strongly emphasises ensuring that those receiving care or treatment have the accommodations, help, and knowledge they need to actively engage in decisions about their care (Department of Health, 2013). Healthcare practitioners frequently advise dietary changes and regular exercise for people with pre-hypertension who do not have any other medical illnesses that require medication (NICE, 2019). It is significant to remember that individualised evaluation and thought should go into the patient’s general health status while making treatment selections. Mr Janacek is at an elevated risk of heart attacks due to his blood pressure level of 125/85, which strongly signals pre-hypertension (Department of Health, 2013). Therefore, a thorough assessment is required to determine underlying risk factors (NHS, 2020). Additionally, his temperature of 37.1 degrees, the respiration rate of 19, and pulse rate of 79 indicate that his cardiovascular and respiratory systems are operating normally (British Heart Foundation, n.d.). These vital indicators help determine Mr Janacek’s general health and additional direct interventions if necessary. Because of this, nurses need to fully understand the anatomy and physiology of blood pressure to evaluate the risks connected to abnormal readings and apply the proper interventions. Healthcare providers can ensure that patients receive individualised care and have a say in the treatment options by adhering to the principles of person-centered care (Department of Health, 2013). Pre-hypertensive people are frequently advised to make lifestyle changes, focusing on food alterations and regular exercise. Pre-hypertension is indicated by Mr Janacek’s blood pressure level, prompting a thorough evaluation to assess any potential underlying problems. His regular vital signs also contribute to his general health.


Nurses are expected to demonstrate competence in seven key areas, according to the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), a regulatory body for nurses in the UK: responsibility and accountability, health promotion, illness prevention, needs assessment, care organisation, care provision, and patient care assessment. In the UK, nurses are expected to meet these fundamental professional criteria (NMC, 2018). Along with fulfilling these formal requirements, I understand how critical it is to keep improving my abilities, particularly in professional communication. Effective communication is essential in nursing in delivering excellent patient care and suitable treatment (Ebrahimi et al., 2021). In order to provide essential care, Faisal AL Nasir of Imperial College, London, emphasises the importance of having excellent communication skills in medical professionals (Alnasir, 2020). He also supports educating and training healthcare teams in these skills. I saw situations when problems resulted from healthcare personnel failing to communicate with one another while I was doing my work placement at a hospital. For instance, a nurse giving an injection was confused about the proper dosage because of unclearly written notes. This prompted an additional discussion with the person who wrote the note, delaying the patient’s access to timely care. Seeing the potential for clinical mistakes and harm brought on by misunderstandings has strengthened my dedication to writing clearly and understandably, guaranteeing efficient collaboration with all healthcare professionals I interact with for patient care.

My encounters with patients also depend on having good communication. Giving patients understandable information is just as vital as having great communication with coworkers. I will make sure that all written and verbal exchanges are made in a way that Mr Janacek, who is fluent in English but is of Polish descent, can comprehend. Additionally, I will aggressively ask Mr Janacek for confirmation to ensure he comprehends the facts I have given him. The graph illustrates the communication process by the Shannon and Weaver Communication Model, drawing attention to various problems that could hinder, delay, or lessen effective communication. The model predicts that there may be misunderstandings at crucial moments. First and foremost, the recipient must be able to understand the information source or the communicator. Second, the recipient must be able to quickly interpret the sending medium, whether it be an email, phone call, or letter. The recipient also needs to have the tools necessary to understand the communication. For instance, sending a letter to a person who no longer resides there would be pointless without a forwarding address.

The recipient’s capacity to comprehend or decode the message is crucial to effective communication. For example, sending a written message to an illiterate person would be useless. Also, effective communication skills are essential for medical personnel, particularly doctors, to give patients the required care (Park & Choi, 2020). Teaching and training healthcare personnel in efficient communication methods is crucial to improve patient care. In order to effectively communicate with patients during consultations, it is important to comprehend their body language, which is crucial for determining their needs (Park & Choi, 2020). Professionalism in nursing includes adhering to particular values and concepts required by healthcare regulatory organisations (Park & Choi, 2020). Health and social care workers should respond compassionately to their patients because it is a natural human instinct. Compassion is a crucial part of the way nurses should interact with their patients. The caring nature and connection nurses share with others exemplify their embrace of the five core values of professional nursing, including respect for patients’ human dignity, acting with integrity, fostering autonomy, altruism, and advocating for social justice. Professional nurses incorporate these ideals into their therapeutic techniques (Fahrenwald et al., 2005).

In the nursing profession, integrity is of the utmost significance. I sincerely think that trustworthiness is the cornerstone of trust and that patients cannot receive the quality of care they need without trust in healthcare professionals. Patients actively seek out healthcare providers they believe to be reliable and working for them. To protect the public’s welfare, the UK’s Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) was founded to ensure that only certified people serve as nurses, midwives, or nursing associates. Concerns about a nurse, a midwife, or a nursing assistant’s eligibility to practice are promptly addressed by the NMC (NMC, 2018). In their Code of Conduct, the NMC outlines important guidelines that nurses must follow. These values include treating patients with kindness, respect, and compassion, acknowledging diversity and the effects of personal choices, respecting and upholding their human rights, making sure that treatment, support, or care is provided promptly, paying close attention to patient’s preferences and concerns, getting informed consent before taking any actions, abiding by any laws that may be in place regarding patient mental capacity, and protecting patient confidentiality. In order to administer care effectively, nurses must work with patients and respect their right to accept or reject suggested therapies (Schwind et al., 2014). Another highly regarded quality in nurses is patient compassion, which means a lot to me. I know that patients will look to me for compassion as I start my nursing career. If healthcare workers lack empathy for their patients, they will not keep the high standards established in official guidelines and working procedures. In order to sustain professional standards, it is essential to incorporate these values and ideas into nursing practice. Furthermore, everyone involved in his care, including myself, must uphold professional norms of behaviour for Mr Janacek.


In conclusion, this care plan considers Mr Janacek’s current situation and his wish to keep his independence while successfully addressing his assistance needs. Mr Janacek is used to handling his daily demands and normally can do so because he was a former military officer. However, his most recent injuries from the fall in his apartment have momentarily prevented him from caring for himself as he should. The plan recognises that Mr Janacek has special preferences, objectives, and capabilities. It also understands that his present physical condition is transient, with the assumption that once he has physically healed, he will regain the ability to take care of himself. The plan also considers the potential difficulties faced by service users who live alone, such as possible negative psychological effects and unmet social care needs that may affect their quality of life. This care plan complies with SMART goal standards, making it possible to evaluate the efficacy of the care given to Mr Janacek. It will also be evaluated halfway through to ensure it remains relevant and effective.


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