Almost every healthcare professional will examine or treat a patient who has been a victim of domestic violence at some point (Piquero et al, 2021). The victim, their family, the community, and coworkers are all affected by domestic abuse. It wreaks havoc on one’s mental and physical health, lowers one’s quality of life, and reduces productivity. Thus, the general healthcare professionals, comprising physicians, pharmacists, dentists, nurses, physician assistants, psychologists, and nurse practitioners, must evaluate and perhaps treat a perpetrator or victim of domestic violence because of the prevalence of the problem in society.
Domestic violence refers to any behaviour aimed at gaining authority and control over a girlfriend/boyfriend, partner, spouse, or close family member (Huecker et al, 2021). According to Huecker et al (2021), when people contemplate domestic violence, they typically think of physical assault that leaves the victim with visible injuries. However, physical violence is just one sort of domestic violence. Family and domestic violence is a major issue in American society, affecting almost 10 million individuals annually; domestic violence affects one out of every four women and one out of every nine males.
I. Present-day American society and domestic violence
- Child abuse
This involves the physical, emotional, sexual, and neglect of a child under the age of 18 years by caregivers, custodian, or parent, leading to potential harm, threat, or harm. Abused children may be untidy and/or underweight. They may exhibit improper conduct like aggression, or they may be shy, distant, and communicate poorly. Some may be hyperactive or obnoxious and school attendance is typically low.
- Intimate Partner Abuse
Sexual or physical violence, psychological aggressiveness, and stalking are all examples of intimate partner violence, which is also one of the major domestic violence in America. Former or current intimate partners may fall under this category too.
- Elder abuse
Elder abuse can be defined as a caregiver’s failure to act or willful act that causes or creates a risk of damage to an elder. Furthermore, shame, ignorance, guilt, or fear may prevent elderly patients from reporting abuse. Also, health professionals underreport elder abuse because of lack of awareness of the issue, lack of comprehension of reporting methods and necessities, and worries about patient-doctor confidentiality.
- Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender
Another major area of domestic violence in the USA is gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender. It is estimated that the rate of domestic violence in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender couples, is similar to heterosexual women each being at 25%.
In conclusion, domestic violence can be challenging to discover when the victim is terrified, particularly when she/he shows up at a healthcare practitioner’s office or an emergency department. The goal is to implement an assessment routine and to remain an awareness of the chance that the patient’s signs and symptoms are due to domestic violence.
Domestic violence is prevalent throughout China, although it is more prevalent in rural areas (Song et al, 2021). In spite of the government’s determinations to eradicate poverty, rural China continues to have the greatest poverty rates and, as a result, has the main risk of domestic violence.
- Child abuse
In China, childhood abuse in the family has been shown to have a negative psychological and behavioural influence on adults, including a higher likelihood of being either a victim of violence or an abuser in adulthood.
- Women violence
According to surveys, approximately 40% of Chinese women experience domestic violence, with the incidence rate being higher in rural areas (Song et al, 2021).
- Elder abuse
Elder abuse and its subcategories are frequent in the Chinese population, with higher rates ranging from 0.2 – 64 %. Self-reported elder abuse was consistently linked to younger age, poverty, cognitive impairment, depression, and absence of social support.
- Homo-prejudiced violence
Following Wu et al (2020) homo-prejudiced refers to physical, psychological, verbal, or cyber aggression directed at people based on their real or perceived sexual orientation, which is serious domestic violence as well as public health concern.
All in all, in China, intimate partner violence by the man is the major common kind of domestic violence.
III. South Africa
In South Africa, many girls and women, particularly in rural areas, are victims of bad practices like child marriage, kidnapping for marriage, and polygamy or polygamous relationships, which frequently result in domestic abuse. It is stated that 24.3% of black African women, and 24.6% of the general women, experienced physical violence in their life.
- Sexual abuse (here the victim can either be married to the other individual or not)
- Physical abuse such as kicking, biting, slapping, and intimidations of physical violence
- Emotional abuse, for instance, or that is to say, humiliating or degrading behaviour, like belittling, constant verbal abuse, cursing and intimidation.
- Stalking – here the victim or his/her children are repeatedly being followed or approached by the other person.
In summary, in South Africa, sexual violence is a serious issue. The nation has gained the illegal name of “rape capital of the world,” with a greater rate of rape per 100,000 people than any other Interpol member country. Rape is most commonly committed by men, and women are the most prevalent victims.
IV. Dubai/ UEA
Domestic abuse instances in Dubai are difficult to register and collect data due to cultural taboos and a lack of understanding about support groups (Guli & Geda, 2021). However, law enforcement authorities along with support societies are stepping up efforts to increase awareness, offer help, and urge victims to step forward.
- Financial Abuse
– Making an individual financially dependent and attempting to hold her/him from securing a job.
- Sexual Abuse
– Forcing somebody to watch pornography or engage in sexual acts against their will.
- Verbal and Emotional Abuse
– Criticizing, neglecting, name-calling, yelling, threatening through tone of voice facial expressions and, actions, directing where they go, and whom they communicate to.
- Physical abuse, which includes, pushing, beating, slapping, and, grabbing.
All in all, with the new laws being implemented on domestic violence in the United Arabs Emirates, these shall keep away abusive partners and relatives from their spouses and children.
Following Pacheco and Rudas (2021), in Colombia, the incidents of domestic violence have been increasing highly during the pandemic, most of the victims being women and girls. Several women could not report their abusers as lockdown made the process too difficult than usual. Most of the domestic violence was caught on cameras and abusers were hunted by law enforcement to be jailed.
- Pregnant women.
- Sexual violence
- Violence against children
To sum up, several countries throughout the world have employed preventive measures to attempt to stop the spread of the Coronavirus, for instance, wearing of masks, social distance and quarantine. Nevertheless, in the name of decreasing serious negative consequences on public health, these ill-advised efforts have resulted in increased rates of domestic violence around the world.
Finally, it is obvious family and domestic violence rips people’s lives apart. One in every three women is subjected to sexual or physical violence, or both, by someone they know. It harms women, children, families, and communities. It also has significant emotional, societal, and economic consequences.
Guli, V. M. E., & Geda, N. R. (2021). Intimate Partners Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa: Review of Risk Factors and Impacts. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 1-19.
Huecker, M. R., King, K. C., Jordan, G. A., & Smock, W. (2021). Domestic Violence.
Pacheco, Y. J. O., & Rudas, M. M. (2021). Domestic violence and COVID-19 in Colombia. Psychiatry research.
Piquero, A. R., Jennings, W. G., Jemison, E., Kaukinen, C., & Knaul, F. M. (2021). Domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic-Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of criminal justice, 74(C).
Song, Y., Zhang, J., & Zhang, X. (2021). Cultural or institutional? Contextual effects on domestic violence against women in rural China. Journal of Family Violence, 36(6), 643-655.
Wu, D., Yang, E., Huang, W., Tang, W., Xu, H., Liu, C., … & Tucker, J. D. (2020). Homoprejudiced violence among Chinese men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional analysis in Guangzhou, China. BMC public health, 20(1), 1-7.