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Distribution, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Colon Cancer

Anatomy of the System(S) Involved


CRC, like many cancers, tends to increase in danger with age. The overall incidence increases exponentially for each successive year’s age category till the age of 50years and then increases by around 30%. The exception would be maturity level 50-54 years vs. age 55-60 years of age. Still, there is only a 15% discrepancy (60 versus 68 per 100,000, respectively), partly because first-time CRC testing in the younger demographic disrupts the natural age-associated effect on the threat. The evaluation effect is amplified in the present rate by solitary year of age, higher in people aged 50-51 than in people aged 52-55. This occurrence was not present in the prevalence rate inside the 1970s.

The average age in the Circulatory system consists of 66 years in males as well as 69 years in ladies. Still, rectal cancer is diagnosed at a relatively young age (62 and 63, including both) than colon cancer (age 67 and 71, respectively). 24 Generally speaking, CRC patients are getting younger, with an average age of 72 years for symptoms in the 2000s dropping to 66 years presently. 25 This is due to an increase in younger individuals and a decrease in older ages.


Colorectal incidence of cancer and the mortality rates are declining ultimately, but males continue to be significantly higher. The absolute number of incidents for males and females is comparable. Rectal cancer was the most common subsite for men, while right colorectal cancer was the most common for women. Sex proportions for distal cancer mortality and treatments were most significant and are increasing over the years.


Colon cancer (CRC) has a massive disparity between many identified races and ethnicities in the United States, with African Americans having the highest mortality rates from any of these illnesses. Donators to the identified CRC discrepancy have seemed to be complex, multifaceted, and impactful. This may have been begun by organized societal problems that enhance unusual external factors (cigarettes and alcohol use, and wrong diet structure, which alters one’s metabolic activity, microbiome, and innate immunity microenvironment) and stimulate disease immune and genetic modifications.

Helping reduce disparities through CRC screening has indeed been evidenced; however, it’s not been sufficiently proved even before CRC has created. Obtaining more understanding about the scientific facts while behind identified discrepancy will help inform measures to decrease the mortality rates of CRC among U.S. races and ethnicities.

Distribution in Population of Colon Cancer

What are the chances of getting colorectal cancer? In their entire life, roughly 4.4 percent of the men (1 in 23) and 4.1 percent of all women (1 in 25) would be identified with CRC. Due to the higher prevalence rate in men, the overall risk is higher among men than women, even though ladies have a longer lifespan.

Description Of Disease

Colon cancer is cancer that starts in the large bowel (colon). The large intestines are the last section of the digestive system. Colon cancer most commonly occurs in adults, but it can strike anyone at any age. Polyps, which are small, non – malignant (benign) clusters of cells forming on the inside of the colon, are the most common starting point. Some of these polyps can develop into colon cancer over time.

Effects Of Colon Cancer On Other Body Systems

High increased calcium layers in the blood cause constipation, nausea, and Loss of appetite. Bone fractures Loss of feeling or lack of strength in the legs, potentially also in the hands. Cancer can wreak havoc on the immune response by infiltrating the bone marrow. The bone marrow produces blood cells that aid in the struggle against infection.

Cause Of Colon Cancer Disease

Cells typically go through a structured state of expansion, separation, and fatality. On the other hand, cancer begins to develop when cells grow and multiply uncontrollably and therefore do not end up dying at the particular standard stage of development. The majority of these cases of colon cancer are caused by non – malignant tumor cells known as premalignant lesions. These grow on the inside of the large intestines.

Cancer cells from human cancers can spread to other bloodstream areas via the blood or lymphatic system. Cancer cells develop and penetrate surrounding cells near the region and in the body in a procedure termed metastasis. As a result, the situation becomes more significant and less fixable. Although the precise causes are unidentified, colon cancer has many possible risk factors.

Signs And Symptoms Of Colon Cancer

The following are signs and symptoms of colon cancer: A consistent modify in your bowel movements, such as digestive issues, or an alteration in bowel movements consistent performance secondly, blood in someone stool or rectal bleeding Consistent with a lot of abdominal pain, cramps, or gas. A sensation that your bowel is not empty with a lot of Weakness in the body or exhaustion. Unknown cause of weight reduction. Several more individuals who have colon cancer have no symptoms at all in the early stages of infection. Symptoms will most likely vary with the amount and specific location of cancer in your large bowel.

Diagnosis Of The Colon Cancer

Colorectal cancer is diagnosed using a variety of tests. Not all of the tests mentioned here would be used on every individual.

Colonoscopy. As explained in Screening, a colonoscopy allows the colonoscopist to examine the whole rectum and colon, whereas the client is sedated.

Biopsy. A biopsy is a procedure of removing a small amount of tissue for microscopic examination. Other test results can indicate the presence of cancer, but only a biopsy can provide a definitive diagnosis of colon cancer. A medical examiner then examines the test results.

Tumor biomarker analysis. The doctor may advise the patients to access diagnostic procedures on a cancer cell test to detect individual genes, enzymes, and other tumor-specific factors.

Blood tests are performed. Due to colorectal cancer frequently bleeding further into the large bowel or rectum, patients might suffer from anemia due to blood shortage in the body. A complete blood count (CBC), which also includes an assessment to identify the number of red blood cells in the body, can imply that blood loss arises.

Ultrasound. An ultrasound creates the image of the inner organs using sound waves to determine if cancer has spread. Endorectal ultrasound is widely used to determine how far rectal disease progresses and to aid inpatient care.


The converted cells continue to grow abnormally. If they remain unattended, these colon cancers spread quickly into the colon wall, involving the surrounding lymphatic system and organ systems. The cancerous cells eventually spread quickly (metastasized) to distant organs such as the kidneys, the lungs, the brain, the liver, and the bones.

Treatment Options

Chemotherapy may be administered following surgery to remove any cancerous tissue altogether. Before the surgery, the doctor may administer chemotherapy treatment and radiation therapy to certain patients with rectal cancer disease to reduce the complexity of the tumor cells and the likelihood of cancer attempting to return.


Early detection is essential. Specialists are searching for new ways to detect colorectal cancer early by researching different forms of diagnostic tests (such as blood tests) and upgrading existing ones. Researchers are also attempting to determine whether there is an apparent favorite test or health checks plan.

Diagnosis. Researchers are defining colorectal cancer subgroups. This entails categorizing colon cancers based on genetic variations in the cancerous cells, how well the cells look and function, how quickly the cells divide, and cancer characteristics. Like other cancers, this could contribute to a greater understanding of the disease process and results, along with more strongly outlined potential treatments.


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