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Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Among Black and Brown Populations

The study’s primary objective is to find ways to reduce the disproportionately high prevalence of ADHD in people of colour. The project will use a systems-based strategy to investigate the various contributors to ADHD rates in these areas. According to Lin et al. (2023), finding the right healthcare providers, educators, community leaders, and policymakers to work together on this transition will be a top priority; hoping that by taking this tack, we might help eliminate the structural prejudices and oppression that contribute to the persistence of ADHD diagnosis, treatment, and support gaps. Constantly addressing and confronting personal biases that may impact the study process, the assessment method will comprise tracking changes in ADHD prevalence, improved access to healthcare and educational resources, and enhanced community engagement. To better understand why some communities have a higher than average rate of ADHD, this study takes a community-based ADHD awareness and support program strategy. This action research seeks to provide an all-encompassing and culturally sensitive intervention by working with relevant institutions, stakeholders, and healthcare professionals.

Strategy of Choice

My proposal is a community-based ADHD awareness and support program to address the increasing numbers of ADHD in people of colour. Through action research and program assessment, this model intends to include the system at multiple levels.

First Level: Action Research

This imposes analyzing the socioeconomic, cultural, and systemic aspects that contribute to the discrepancies in ADHD diagnosis, treatment, and support in local communities with high ADHD incidence. According to Lin et al. (2023), this can be achieved through focus groups and interviews with community people, healthcare practitioners, educators, parents, and other stakeholders can yield important information about their lived experiences with ADHD.

Determine what cultural beliefs and attitudes exist about ADHD in these groups, and what might be getting in the way of accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Second Level: Program Implementation

This imposes developing a community-based ADHD awareness program that is respectful to cultural norms and focuses on early diagnosis and stigma reduction in Black and Brown communities. Collaborate with existing medical centres and mental health specialists to set up community-based ADHD support centres or clinics that offer cheap diagnosis and treatment.

Educators should be provided with opportunities to learn about ADHD and inclusive teaching practices through workshops and training. Lin et al. (2023) depict that one should foster a community of understanding and shared experiences among parents of children with ADHD by working with local organizations to offer them with information and support systems.

Third level: program evaluation

This imposes the use of program assessment to track how well the publicity push and the community service initiative are doing. Assess the effect of the support centres on both the availability and quality of care for people with ADHD in the communities where they are being implemented. Additionally, assess the extent to which educators’ knowledge of ADHD has evolved and whether or not they have adopted more inclusive pedagogical strategies as a result. Besides, get input from parents and community members regularly to make sure the program is meeting the requirements of a wide range of people. Lin et al. (2023) argue that action research and program evaluation should work together to effectively include the system and encourage cooperation among different groups. In addition, the program places a premium on cultural sensitivity, tolerance, and respect for diversity, making it more likely that it will address the unique difficulties experienced by people of colour who have ADHD. With this strategy, we may work toward a long-term reduction in the prevalence of ADHD and boost the general health of these areas.

How the Change-Based Strategy Will Look Like

Individuals, Organizations, Coalitions, and Stakeholders

Individuals: Individuals who will be involved in the program include people with ADHD in the Black and Brown communities in the area. In addition, Caregivers of hyperactive kids, doctors, nurses, psychologists, and psychiatrists are all examples of those who work in the medical field. Professions in education, including teaching and administration, supporters and counsellors in the field of mental health will all take part in the program.

Organizations and Coalitions: Local community-based groups representing Black and Brown communities, and groups of volunteers working to improve mental health and promote equality and inclusion (DEI) will all be welcome to join the programs. According to Arnold et al. (2021), hospitals and medical centres, especially those specializing in mental health care, boards of education and other educational establishments that support and have education networks for people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should be included in the program. Departments of the government concerned with medical, educational, and psychological welfare policy will be given a chance to govern the program.

Engaging the Community and Participants

Ways that will be used to engage the community and participants include community meetings and Forums: Host community meetings and forums where people may talk about their experiences with ADHD and hear from others. Make use of these opportunities to educate the public, dispel myths, and outline the program’s objectives about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Another strategy as supposed by Arnold et al. (2021) is culturally Sensitive Outreach: recruit Black and Brown community leaders and local influencers to connect with residents as culturally sensitive ambassadors. This also involves joining forces with local houses of worship, community hubs, and other social gatherings to get the word out about ADHD and the support group.

Surveys and Focus Groups: we will have surveys and focus groups conducted to learn more about the community’s diagnostic, treatment, and support needs for people with ADHD.

It’s important to get a cross-section of the community’s demographics represented in the survey’s participants. Through capacity building, we will provide community members with training sessions and workshops on how to identify ADHD symptoms and offer help when needed.

Collaboration with Relevant Organizations

Healthcare Facilities and Clinics: We will establish community-based ADHD support centres or clinics in collaboration with local healthcare practitioners to increase access to diagnosis and treatment. This involves workshops on improving healthcare providers’ cultural competence and sensitivity for patients from Black and Brown communities should be facilitated.

Educational Institutions: we will work together with schools and school districts to create inclusive policies and procedures that help students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Teachers will be given opportunities to learn about and practice identifying students with ADHD and implementing techniques to meet the unique requirements of their students.

Charities and advocacy groups: we will collaborate with established groups that focus on mental health and DEI to bolster outreach and increase participation from the local populace.

Leverage their knowledge to create instructional resources and advocacy efforts that are sensitive to their cultural context.

Government Agencies: Communicate with key government agencies responsible for healthcare and education policy to better advocate for improvements in ADHD support and mental health services. This will make sure that mental health initiatives that serve people of colour get the funds they need (Arnold et al., 2021).

The community-based ADHD awareness and support program can become all-encompassing by inviting a wide range of stakeholders and cooperating with relevant organizations. By keeping the community and the people who will be using the program in the loop, you can make sure that their opinions are taken into account and that the product continues to be suited to their needs.

Steps To Succeed In the Change Effort

Steps to Succeed in the Change Effort: First, an in-depth needs assessment should be carried out using action research to identify the unique difficulties experienced by people of colour who have been diagnosed with ADHD. The results of this evaluation will be used to inform the creation of specific treatment plans. Second, create interventions that are sensitive to cultural differences and take into account how people in the target communities think and act. Increasing participation and buy-in by making the programme relevant to the target audience’s culture. Third, work closely with those in your community who have a vested interest in the outcome, such as healthcare providers, educators, and advocacy groups. Working together improves the program’s efficiency and longevity.

The fourth step is a concerted effort to raise public understanding and acceptance of people with ADHD is essential. According to Wilkerson (2021), to spread awareness and promote early diagnosis, use a variety of channels of communication and local gatherings. Besides, establish community-based ADHD support centres or clinics to make diagnosis and treatment choices easily accessible and cheap. Make sure they are easy to access geographically and respectful of local cultures. Improve the awareness, recognition, and support of people with ADHD by holding workshops and training sessions for healthcare professionals, educators, and the community at large. Condignly, programme assessment should be used to track and measure the results of the programme regularly. Evaluate how rates of ADHD diagnosis, treatment availability, student achievement, and community involvement have changed over time.

Justification for Community-Based ADHD Awareness and Support Program

Several factors lend credence to the decision to implement an ADHD awareness and support programme at the community level. One, it takes a holistic approach by looking at the problem of ADHD from a variety of perspectives, involving a wide range of stakeholders, and encouraging the growth of a mutually supportive community network. To break down barriers and boost receptivity to ADHD-related information and assistance, it is essential to tailor interventions to the cultural context of Black and Brown people. Wilkerson (2021) argues that the intervention help in empowering and engaging community members and other stakeholders in the process helps them feel more invested in finding solutions to the problem. Besides, the programme prioritises accessibility by developing community-based support centres to make diagnosis and treatment services more easily accessible to individuals in need. This intervention’s all-encompassing nature including education campaigns, training, and support services lays the groundwork for long-term transformation and better ADHD outcomes.

Plan To Evaluate the Proposed Change Effort

Plan to Evaluate the Community-Based ADHD Awareness and Support Program:


Planning and Preparation (Months 1-3): Get a handle on the problems at hand by doing a needs assessment and following up with action research. Collaborate with related groups and individuals to create therapeutic and instructional approaches that account for cultural differences.

Implementation (Months 4-9): Get the word out through advertisements in the media and local gatherings. Open up clinics or centres for people with ADHD in their neighbourhoods, and host seminars and classes for local doctors, teachers, and community people (Wilkerson, 2021).

Evaluation (Second to Third Year): Get started on analyzing the results of the programme.

Detailed Target Results:

First, we will track the rate at which ADHD is being diagnosed in the targeted Black and Brown groups, and see how that rate varies over time in comparison to baseline data. This will assist establish whether or not the programme improves the rate of early ADHD diagnosis.

Access to Care: Measure how many people with ADHD use community resources to get the help they need. Keep an eye on how the availability of services for mental health is changing in different areas.

Evaluation of Educational Outcomes: Monitor Students with ADHD’s Academic Progress and Behavioural Changes. Check-in on the student’s attendance, performance, and disciplinary record. Nevertheless, we will participate in seminars, focus groups, and other programme activities to evaluate community engagement in the fourth step. Check in with the people that matter most in the community to see how they feel about things.

Specifics on Outcomes Evaluation:

First, gather data on ADHD’s prevalence, treatment, and academic outcomes by teaming up with medical and educational professionals. We will conduct surveys of community people, healthcare providers, and educators before and after the programme to gauge how their understanding of ADHD has changed. To collect qualitative data on programme participants’ experiences and the perceived impact on their lives, it is recommended to have focus groups and individual interviews with them.

According to Wilkerson (2021), the program’s metrics should include a count of the people who use the community resource centres for assessment, therapy, and aftercare.

Keep an eye on how many people show up to workshops and how active they get during the event. Condignly, we will assess the program’s success in producing the desired results by comparing data collected before and after the intervention. Ideally, the success and effectiveness of the Community-Based ADHD Awareness and Support Programme can be evaluated in detail. The schedule provides enough time to collect and analyses data to determine whether or not the programme was successful in reducing the worrisome prevalence of ADHD among people of color.

One’s Personal Biases Relative to a Social Problem

One’s own prejudices

It’s possible that anyone working to combat the disproportionately high rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among people of colour will bring their own preconceived notions and prejudices to the table. Possible sources of prejudice include: Racial bias: People’s perceptions and attitudes towards other people of different races and ethnicities may be skewed by their own unconscious biases. Second, unintentional stereotyping: People’s judgments and choices may be influenced by preconceived notions they hold about members of other racial or ethnic groups. According to Counselors et al. (2020), another biasness is ignorance about other cultures, which can lead to a failure to recognise the specific difficulties experienced by people of colour.

The Presuppositions

Assumptions concerning many facets of the social problem of ADHD prevalence may be made by individuals, such as: Homogeneity: Assuming that people of colour face identical experiences, needs, and obstacles in regards to ADHD may fail to account for important individual and cultural distinctions. Another is global Solutions: Assuming that one-size-fits-all interventions are appropriate for all communities might result in a failure to account for cultural differences and customise strategies for individual groups. Counselors et al. (2020) supposes tha5t assuming that professionals have all the required knowledge and competence might lead to ignoring the importance of community involvement and insights gleaned from real-world experience.

Impact on Change Efforts

Individuals’ efforts to effect change in the prevalence of ADHD among Black and Brown populations might be severely hampered by biases and assumptions. Programme design that is based on preconceived notions or ignores cultural norms risks creating ineffective interventions that fail to address the needs of the people for whom they are intended. Nevertheless, prejudices can get in the way of having genuine conversations with people in the community, which could lower trust and interest in the initiative to make changes. Individuals’ preconceived notions may cloud their judgement while analysing evaluation data, making it difficult to spot inconsistencies or weak spots.

Counselors et al. (2020) depict that in order to make changes that are both successful and equitable, it is essential to become aware of and work to overcome one’s own prejudices and assumptions. The effectiveness and longevity of efforts to reduce the disproportionate prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in people of colour can be improved by the cultivation of cultural humility, an openness to learning from the community, and the active challenge of biases.

How to Address Diversity and Oppression

According to Poulton et al. (2019), it is critical to take a multifaceted approach that prioritises equality, cultural sensitivity, and social justice in order to address diversity and injustice while striving to confront the social problem of increasing ADHD prevalence among Black and Brown people. Disparities in ADHD diagnosis, treatment, and support can be reduced by taking this strategy, which include identifying and addressing systemic barriers, biases, and inequalities. Here’s how to deal with pluralism and inequality: First, create treatments that are culturally competent and responsive to the unique needs and experiences of people of colour. The cultural ideas, attitudes, and practises around mental health and ADHD must be understood and incorporated into the design of the programme. Condignly, make sure the people leading and taking part in the endeavour to make changes reflect the variety of the communities that will be impacted. Value the input of people from many walks of life, including community members, healthcare practitioners, educators, and advocates.

Anti-Oppressive Practises: Advocate for non-discriminatory methods of providing aid. When it comes to healthcare, education, and mental health institutions, this means actively confronting discriminatory behaviours, language, and policies that may serve to perpetuate injustice. As supposed by Poulton et al. (2019), facilitate easy and fair access to ADHD assessment, treatment, and aftercare services. Think about the people who might not get medical help because of cost, distance, or stigma. Similarly, community members’ ability to advocate for their own ADHD-related and mental health-related needs and rights. Promote social justice by backing community-led initiatives and advocacy work to eliminate inequities in the system.

Typically, recognize that people’s oppression and discrimination can take many forms, depending on the ways in which their various identities (such as race, gender, class, and ability) connect. In order to create a truly inclusive change initiative, it is crucial to address the specific difficulties experienced by persons living at the intersections.

Issues of Diversity, Oppression, and Social Justice

Racial Disparities: Due to institutional racism and biases within healthcare and school institutions, Black and Brown communities may be subject to racial disparities in ADHD diagnosis, treatment access, and educational support. Another, cultural stigmas associated with mental health and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Black and Brown communities may inhibit help-seeking behaviours and add to diagnostic and treatment delays.

Poulton et al. (2019) argues that access to high-quality healthcare and education can have an effect on the resources available for ADHD support and intervention, can be impacted by socioeconomic circumstances. Besides, discrimination and bias in the classroom can lead to misdiagnosis of ADHD as behavioural problems and inadequate care for students with the disorder. Additionally, awareness and understanding of ADHD may be hampered in communities of colour due to a dearth of culturally relevant resources and educational materials on the topic.

To solve these problems, we need a concerted and strategic push that prioritises inclusion, fairness, and social justice. A more accepting and encouraging atmosphere can be created for people of colour who struggle with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder if we acknowledge and actively challenge discrimination and systemic hurdles.


Finally, action research on the disproportionately high rates of ADHD in Black and Brown communities has tremendous potential to advance social justice and inclusion. The community-based ADHD awareness and support programme can address the various issues faced by these communities because it takes a systems-based approach and conducts a thorough review of relevant organisations and stakeholders. The intervention seeks to remove barriers, stigma, and increase access to diagnosis, treatment, and support services by placing a premium on cultural sensitivity, inclusion, and social justice. By listening to and learning from a wide range of stakeholders, this group has created a plan to improve the lives of people with ADHD in marginalised communities and create a more equitable future for all.


Arnold, L. E., Arns, M., Barterian, J., Bergman, R., Black, S., Conners, C. K., … & Williams, C. E. (2021). Double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of neurofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with 13-month follow-up. Journal of the american academy of child & adolescent psychiatry, 60(7), 841-855.

Lin, H., Haider, S. P., Kaltenhauser, S., Mozayan, A., Malhotra, A., Constable, R. T., … & Payabvash, S. (2023). Population level multimodal neuroimaging correlates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder among children. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 17, 1138670.

Poulton, A., Yap, R. T. J., Sandhu, J. S., Ng, S. G. Y., Fernando, M. B., & Oakeshott, P. (2019). Involving medical students in a community-based project on ADHD: a novel learning experience. Future Healthc J, 6(2), 146-147.

Wilkerson, J. (2021). Understanding the Barriers to Academic Success for Black Children with ADHD: A Case Study from the Perspective of School Counselors, Community-Based Counselors, & Families (Doctoral dissertation, Lindsey Wilson College).

Zendarski, N., Haebich, K., Bhide, S., Quek, J., Nicholson, J. M., Jacobs, K. E., … & Sciberras, E. (2020). Student–teacher relationship quality in children with and without ADHD: A cross-sectional community based study. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 51, 275-284.


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